2021.07.26 國際新聞導讀-約旦國王盼以巴和平近程開重啟、以色列與俄羅斯關係因敘利亞面臨挑戰、以色列波蘭關係因猶太人財產問題陷入僵局、西班牙葡萄牙補償1492被驅逐猶太人後裔護照

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2021.07.26 國際新聞導讀-約旦國王盼以巴和平近程開重啟、以色列與俄羅斯關係因敘利亞面臨挑戰、以色列波蘭關係因猶太人財產問題陷入僵局、西班牙葡萄牙補償1492被驅逐猶太人後裔護照

約旦國王:在與本內特、甘茨會面後我“非常受鼓舞”

在接受 CNN 採訪時,阿卜杜拉表示,在最近與哈馬斯的衝突期間,以色列發生的猶太-阿拉伯暴力騷亂是一場“內戰”,應該作為“警鐘”

艾米斯皮羅 今天,晚上 9:55

約旦國王阿卜杜拉二世(右)於 2021 年 7 月 20 日在華盛頓國務院與國務卿安東尼·布林肯交談。(Nicholas Kamm /Pool via AP)

約旦國王阿卜杜拉表示,他最近與納夫塔利·貝內特總理的會晤令他感到“鼓舞”,但他預計以色列-巴勒斯坦和平不會立即取得任何進展。

“對我來說,不僅在戰後與巴勒斯坦領導人會面——我與阿布·馬贊 [巴勒斯坦權力機構主席馬哈茂德·阿巴斯]會面——我會見了總理,我會見了 [國防部長本尼]甘茨將軍,這對我來說很重要。我們真的必須回到談判桌前,”阿卜杜拉在接受 CNN 主播法里德·扎卡里亞 (Fareed Zakaria) 週五錄製並於週日早上播出的採訪時說。

阿卜杜拉上週在白宮會見了美國總統喬拜登,他說他在“我們如何讓以色列人和巴勒斯坦人交談的保護傘下”舉行了這樣的會議。

然而,他指出,“在我看來,這個政府可能不是最理想的政府,[推進]兩國解決方案,我認為這是唯一的解決方案。”

貝內特是反對兩國解決方案的右翼民族主義者。他脆弱的聯盟由八個不同的政黨組成,從左翼和平支持者到右翼兼併主義者。

儘管如此,這位長期的約旦君主說,他“在參加這些會議時感到非常鼓舞,我認為我們在過去幾週已經看到,不僅以色列和約旦之間有了更好的了解,而且以色列和約旦都發出了聲音和巴勒斯坦,我們需要向前邁進並重新建立這種關係。”

約旦國王還指出需要重建以色列與約旦的關係,“因為情況並不好。”

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阿卜杜拉會見了本月初在安曼與貝內特,在原來的秘密,後來在以色列新聞界洩露的會議。會後,以色列同意大幅增加向遭受極度乾旱的約旦供水。

甘茨從未公開證實與阿卜杜拉會面;據報導,兩人於 2 月在最近一次選舉之前和貝內特上任之前會面。阿卜杜拉提到的會議時間從他的言論中沒有立即明確。

喬拜登總統(右)於 2021 年 7 月 19 日在華盛頓白宮橢圓形辦公室會見約旦國王阿卜杜拉二世(左)。(美聯社照片/蘇珊沃爾什)

國王告訴美國有線電視新聞網,他認為以色列和哈馬斯在 5 月份最近在加沙進行的為期 11 天的衝突“有所不同”。

“自 1948 年以來,這是我第一次感覺到以色列發生了內戰,”他說,指的是衝突期間猶太人和穆斯林以色列人之間的激烈衝突。“而且我認為這對以色列人民和巴勒斯坦人民敲響了警鐘,除非我們繼續前進,除非我們給巴勒斯坦人帶來希望……下一場戰爭將更具破壞性。”

扎卡里亞問阿卜杜拉,他認為繼去年開創性的亞伯拉罕協議之後,哪個國家將與以色列實現關係正常化,該協議導致以色列與阿拉伯聯合酋長國、巴林、摩洛哥和蘇丹建立關係。

“我不知道下一個會是哪個國家,但我注意到阿拉伯國家正在關注其國家安全利益和擔憂——伊朗的陰影以及許多地區挑戰——他們認為與以色列建立關係符合他們的既得利益,”阿卜杜拉說。

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“但我認為這場戰爭是對我們所有人的現實檢驗,”他補充說,“即使亞伯拉罕協議可能會擴大,你也不能以犧牲以色列-巴勒斯坦關於未來的對話和討論為代價。除非我們重新讓以色列人和巴勒斯坦人團結起來,否則它將向前兩步,後退一步。”

美國眾議院議長南希佩洛西和約旦國王阿卜杜拉二世於 2021 年 7 月 22 日在華盛頓特區參加美國國會大廈議長陽台走廊的合影。(ALEX WONG / Getty Images來自法新社)

當被問及在維也納正在進行的旨在讓伊朗重新遵守 2015 年核協議的談判時,阿卜杜拉持謹慎態度。

阿卜杜拉說:“在我們這個地區,美國人希望能夠與伊朗人討論的許多投資組合存在合理的擔憂。”

“核計劃對以色列的影響就像對海灣地區一樣,”他補充說,並指出伊朗的彈道技術已經瞄準了中東的大部分地區,包括“在某種程度上來自敘利亞和黎巴嫩的以色列,而以色列有時會錯過的東西降落在約旦。”

他還透露了伊朗對約旦的無人機襲擊,以及“對我們許多國家的網絡攻擊增加”。

阿卜杜拉說:“我們確實知道,在伊朗新政府落戶之前,維也納的會談已略微推遲。” “我有一種感覺,美國的立場和伊朗的立場——有些相距甚遠。”

但是,他說,“讓我們希望這些會談能讓我們處於一個更好的位置,讓我們能夠讓該地區平靜下來,因為我們面臨著如此多的挑戰。”

Jordan’s king: I was ‘very encouraged’ after meeting with Bennett, Gantz

In CNN interview, Abdullah says violent Jewish-Arab unrest in Israel during its most recent conflict with Hamas was a ‘civil war,’ should serve as ‘a wake-up call’

By AMY SPIRO Today, 9:55 pm

Jordanian King Abdullah II, right speaks to Secretary of State Antony Blinken on July 20, 2021, at the State Department in Washington. (Nicholas Kamm /Pool via AP)

Jordanian King Abdullah said he was “encouraged” by his recent meeting with Prime Minister Naftali Bennett, though he does not anticipate any immediate progress toward Israeli-Palestinian peace.

“It was important for me not only to meet with the Palestinian leadership after a war — which I did with Abu Mazen [Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas] — I met the prime minister, I met General [Defense Minister Benny] Gantz. We really have to get back to the table,” said Abdullah during an interview with CNN anchor Fareed Zakaria recorded on Friday and aired Sunday morning.

Abdullah, who met with US President Joe Biden in the White House last week, said he held such meetings “under that umbrella of how do we get Israelis and Palestinians to talk.”

However, he noted, “this government may not be the most ideal government to, in my view [advance] a two-state solution, which I think is the only solution.”

Bennett is a right-wing nationalist who opposes the two-state solution. His fragile coalition is composed of eight diverse parties, ranging from left-wing peace supporters to right-wing annexationists.

Nevertheless, the longtime Jordanian monarch said he “came out of those meetings feeling very encouraged, and I think we’ve seen in the past couple of weeks, not only a better understanding between Israel and Jordan, but the voices coming out of both Israel and Palestine that we need to move forward and reset that relationship.”

The king of Jordan also noted the need to rebuild Israeli-Jordanian relations, “because it has not been good.”

Abdullah met earlier this month in Amman with Bennett, in a meeting that was originally secret and later leaked in the Israeli press. Following the meeting, Israel agreed to dramatically increase the water it supplies to Jordan, which is suffering an extreme drought.

Gantz has never publicly confirmed meeting with Abdullah; the pair reportedly met in February, before the latest election and before Bennett took office. The timing of the meeting referred to by Abdullah was not immediately clear from his remarks.

President Joe Biden, right, meets with Jordan’s King Abdullah II, left, in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, July 19, 2021. (AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

The king told CNN that he felt the recent 11-day conflict in May between Israel and Hamas in Gaza “was different.”

“Since 1948, this was the first time I feel that a civil war happened in Israel,” he said, pointing to the intense clashes between Jewish and Muslim Israelis during the conflict. “And I think that was a wake-up call for the people of Israel and the people of Palestine, that unless we move along, unless we give hope to the Palestinians… the next war will be even more damaging.”

Zakaria asked Abdullah which country he believes will be next to normalize relations with Israel, following the groundbreaking Abraham Accords last year, which led to ties between Israel and the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Morocco and Sudan.

“I don’t know which country is going to be next, but I’ve noticed that a trend from Arab countries that are looking at their national security interests, with their concerns — the shadow of Iran along with a lot of the regional challenges — that see the option of having a relationship with Israel in their vested interest,” said Abdullah.

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“But I think the war was a reality check to all of us,” he added, “that even though the Abraham Accords may expand, you can’t do it at the expense of the Israeli-Palestinian dialogue and discussions on that future. Unless we get back into getting Israelis and Palestinians together, then it’s going to be two steps forward, one step back.”

US Speaker of the House Rep. Nancy Pelosi and King Abdullah II of Jordan participate in a photo op in the Speaker’s Balcony Hallway of the US Capitol on July 22, 2021 in Washington, DC. (ALEX WONG/Getty Images via AFP)

Abdullah was circumspect when asked about the ongoing talks in Vienna aimed at getting Iran back in compliance with the 2015 nuclear deal.

“There are legitimate concerns in our part of the world on a lot of portfolios that the Americans are hopefully going to be able to discuss with the Iranians,” said Abdullah.

“The nuclear program affects Israel as it does the Gulf,” he added, noting that Iranian ballistic technology has targeted much of the Middle East, including “Israel from Syria and Lebanon to an extent, and what misses Israel sometimes lands in Jordan.”

He also revealed Iranian drone attacks on Jordan, as well as “increased cyber attacks on many of our countries.”

“We do know that the talks in Vienna have been slightly postponed until this new government in Iran settles in,” Abdullah said. “I have a feeling that where the American position is and the Iranian position is — is somewhat far apart.”

But, he said, “let’s hope those talks get us to a better position where we can calm the region because we have so many challenges.”

俄羅斯稱其在敘利亞的防空系統攔截了以色列導彈

真主黨,伊朗指揮官報告在以色列的襲擊中喪生;俄羅斯軍方官員稱,本週以色列8枚導彈中有7枚被擊落

通過TOI人員今天,上午 12:16

2020 年 1 月,來自 IAF 的第二個 F-35 中隊“南方雄獅”的戰鬥機飛越以色列南部。(以色列國防軍發言人)

據一名俄羅斯軍方官員稱,俄羅斯在敘利亞的高射砲系統攔截了以色列本週在阿勒頗東南地區發動的空襲中發射的多枚導彈。

據報導,空襲炸死了真主黨和伊朗高級戰士。

俄羅斯敘利亞反對黨和解中心副主任瓦迪姆庫利特週二告訴俄羅斯通訊社塔斯社,以色列戰鬥機週一發射了八枚導彈,其中七枚被俄羅斯的 Pantsyr-S 和 Buk-攔截。 M2 系統,包括自行式、中程地對空導彈和防空系統。

“7月19日23時39分至23時51分,以色列空軍的4架F-16戰鬥機通過美國控制的al-Tanf區進入敘利亞領空,並向該市東南部的設施發射了8枚導彈。阿勒頗,”庫利特說,根據塔斯社的報告。

“一枚導彈損壞了阿勒頗省薩菲拉定居點研究中心的建築,”他說。

據總部位於倫敦的阿拉伯報紙 Asharq Al-Awsat報導,週六新報導稱,俄羅斯對以色列在敘利亞“已經失去耐心”,併計劃將其政策轉向以色列在該國的出擊。引用了一位不願透露姓名的“消息靈通”的俄羅斯消息來源。

敘利亞媒體報導了上週以色列在周一晚上和周四早些時候發動的兩次襲擊。它聲稱在這兩種情況下,大多數導彈都被擊落了——儘管敘利亞過去經常提出這樣的要求,敘利亞戰爭分析人士普遍認為這是空洞的吹噓。

敘利亞總統巴沙爾·阿薩德於 2020 年 11 月 9 日在敘利亞大馬士革通過視頻會議聽取俄羅斯總統弗拉基米爾·普京的講話。(SANA via AP)

但周六,總部位於沙特的阿拉伯新聞網報導稱,黎巴嫩恐怖組織真主黨的軍事指揮官伊馬德·阿明 (Imad al-Amin) 是一名伊朗代理人,其成員曾代表巴沙爾·阿薩德 (Bashar Assad) 的部隊在敘利亞作戰。以色列本週的空襲。

廣告

真主黨在 Telegram 上證實,阿明在“履行職責時”被殺,但沒有具體說明何時或如何,以色列的 Kan 公共廣播公司週六晚報導。

Al-Arabiya 還報導稱,伊朗伊斯蘭革命衛隊 (IRGC) 的一名高級官員賽義德·艾哈邁德·庫賴希 (Sayed Ahmed Qurayshi) 本週在敘利亞在不明情況下被殺。伊朗方面尚未得到官方證實。

總部位於倫敦的敘利亞人權觀察組織報導說,庫賴希自 2013 年以來一直在敘利亞工作,並“與卡西姆·蘇萊曼尼(Qassem Soleimani)一起參與了許多軍事行動”,卡西姆·蘇萊曼尼(Qassem Soleimani)曾於 1 月被美國殺害2020。

週六早些時候,Asharq Al-Awsat 援引一位不願透露姓名的俄羅斯消息人士的話說,在與華盛頓會談後,莫斯科給人的印像是“華盛頓不歡迎以色列的持續襲擊”,因此認為它有自由採取更積極的行動來阻撓他們。

報告稱,有鑑於此,俄羅斯人現在正在向敘利亞軍隊提供更先進的反導彈系統和技術,使他們更有能力擊落以色列的武器。

它聲稱已經看到了這種影響,在 7 月 19 日以色列的一次襲擊中,敘利亞防空系統擊落了八枚以色列導彈中的七枚。

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以色列軍方不會對有關敘利亞發生具體襲擊的報導發表評論,除非是為了報復該國的襲擊。

多年來,以色列對敘利亞境內與伊朗有關的軍事目標發動了數百次打擊,但很少承認或討論此類行動。耶路撒冷擔心伊朗在其北部邊境設防,並多次襲擊與伊朗有關的設施和運往真主黨的武器車隊。

多年來,俄羅斯一再批評以色列的攻擊。

今年 1 月,俄羅斯外交部長謝爾蓋·拉夫羅夫 (Sergey Lavrov) 表示,耶路撒冷應該向莫斯科提供有關可疑威脅的情報,以便它能夠“中和”它們,而不是自己攻擊它們。

拉夫羅夫當時說:“如果以色列真的被迫對來自敘利亞領土的以色列安全威脅做出反應,我們已經多次告訴我們的以色列同事:如果你看到這樣的威脅,請給我們提供信息。”

俄羅斯在敘利亞部署了大量軍事存在,以支持阿薩德度過其國家殘酷的內戰。為防止不必要的衝突,耶路撒冷和莫斯科一直保持著所謂的化解機制,使兩國能夠有效溝通,避免發生爭執。

這一機制總體上是成功的,但 2018 年 9 月發生的一起事件顯著例外,當時一架俄羅斯間諜飛機被一枚敘利亞防空導彈擊落,該導彈是為回應以色列的襲擊而發射的。

廣告

莫斯科將飛機上士兵的死亡歸咎於以色列,稱以色列飛機隱藏在俄羅斯飛機後面,以色列國防軍強烈否認這一指控。

Russia says its air defense systems in Syria intercepted Israeli missiles

Hezbollah, Iranian commanders reported killed in Israeli strikes; Russian military official says 7 of 8 Israeli missiles struck down this week

By TOI STAFFToday, 12:16 am

Fighter jets from the IAF's second F-35 squadron, the Lions of the South, fly over southern Israel, January 2020. (IDF spokesperson)

Russian anti-aircraft artillery systems in Syria intercepted a number of missiles launched by Israel in airstrikes this week in an area southeast of Aleppo, according to a Russian military official.

The strikes were reported to have killed senior Hezbollah and Iranian fighters.

Vadim Kulit, deputy chief of the Russian Center for Reconciliation of the Opposing Parties in Syria, told the Russian news agency TASS on Tuesday that Israeli fighter jets fired eight guided missiles on Monday, seven of which were intercepted by Russia’s Pantsyr-S and Buk-M2 systems, both self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft systems.

“In a span from 23:39 to 23:51 on July 19, four F-16 fighter jets of the Israeli Air Force entered Syria’s airspace via the US-controlled al-Tanf zone and fired eight guided missiles at facilities southeast of the city of Aleppo,” said Kulit, according to the TASS report.

“One missile damaged the building of a research center in the settlement of Safira in the Aleppo governorate,” he said.

The comments came amid a new report on Saturday that Russia has “run out of patience” with Israel in Syria and is planning a shift in its policies toward Israeli sorties over the country, according to the London-based Arabic newspaper Asharq Al-Awsat which cited an unnamed “well-informed” Russian source.

Syrian media reported two Israeli attacks this past week, on Monday night and early Thursday. It claimed that in both cases most missiles were shot down — though Syria has regularly made such claims in the past, in what Syrian war analysts have generally believed to be empty boasts.

Syrian President Bashar Assad listens to Russian President Vladimir Putin during their talks via video conference, in Damascus, Syria, November 9, 2020. (SANA via AP)

But on Saturday, the Saudi-based Al-Arabiya news network reported that Imad al-Amin, a military commander for Lebanese terror group Hezbollah, an Iranian proxy whose members have fought in Syria on behalf of Bashar Assad’s forces, was killed in one of the Israeli airstrikes this week.

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Hezbollah confirmed on Telegram that al-Amin was killed “while fulfilling his duties” but did not specify when or how, Israel’s Kan public broadcaster reported on Saturday night.

Al-Arabiya also reported that a senior official in Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), Sayed Ahmed Qurayshi, was killed under unknown circumstances in Syria this week. There has been no official confirmation from Iran.

The London-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that Qurayshi has been based in Syria since 2013 and had “participated in many military operations alongside Qassem Soleimani,” the former commander of the IRGC’s al-Quds Brigade who was killed by the US in January 2020.

Earlier Saturday, Asharq Al-Awsat cited an unnamed Russian source as saying that following talks with Washington, Moscow had got the impression that “Washington does not welcome the continuous Israeli raids,” and thus believes it has the freedom to act more aggressively to thwart them.

In light of this, the Russians were now supplying Syrian forces with more advanced anti-missile systems and know-how, making them more capable of shooting down Israeli armaments, the report said.

It claimed the effect of this was already being seen, with Syrian air defenses shooting down seven of eight Israeli missiles during a July 19 Israeli raid.

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Israel’s military does not comment on reports of specific strikes in Syria save for those that are in retaliation for attacks from the country.

Israel has launched hundreds of strikes against Iran-linked military targets in Syria over the years but rarely acknowledges or discusses such operations. Jerusalem fears Iranian entrenchment on its northern frontier, and it has repeatedly struck Iran-linked facilities and weapons convoys destined for Hezbollah.

Russia has repeatedly criticized Israeli strikes over the years.

In January, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said Jerusalem should provide Moscow with intelligence about suspected threats so that it can “neutralize” them, rather than attack them itself.

“If Israel is really forced to respond to threats to the Israeli security coming from the Syrian territory, we have told our Israeli colleagues many times: if you see such threats, please give us the information,” Lavrov said at the time.

Russia has deployed a large military presence in Syria to support Assad through his country’s brutal civil war. In order to prevent unwanted clashes, Jerusalem and Moscow have maintained a so-called deconfliction mechanism, which has allowed the two countries to effectively communicate with one another and avoid altercations.

This mechanism has been generally successful, with the notable exception of an incident in September 2018, in which a Russian spy plane was shot down by a Syrian anti-aircraft missile that had been fired in response to an Israeli attack.

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Moscow blamed Israel for the deaths of the troops on board the aircraft, saying Israeli planes had hidden behind the Russian aircraft, a charge that the Israel Defense Forces fiercely denied.

Judah Ari Gross contributed to this report.

以色列政府面臨來自俄羅斯的重大外交考驗-分析

莫斯科在中東擁有巨大的影響力,在敘利亞的以色列家門口就停了下來。這是對以色列外交的考驗。

作者:HERB KEINON

2021 年 7 月 25 日 20:16

俄羅斯總統弗拉基米爾普京在紀念納粹滅絕營奧斯威辛集中營解放 75 週年的世界大屠殺論壇上發表講話,該論壇於 2020 年 1 月 23 日在耶路撒冷 Yad Vashem 大屠殺紀念中心舉行

(圖片來源:REUTERS/Ronen Zvulun)

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自 六週前總理納夫塔利·貝內特和外交部長亞伊爾·拉皮德上台以來,已經有很多 關於新政府如何提供一個黃金機會來重新設置以色列與世界上一些主要合作夥伴的關係的文章。

首先是與美國民主黨的關係,這種關係在前總理本雅明·內塔尼亞胡( Benjamin Netanyahu ) 執政12 年期間遭受了損失 。然後是與美國進步人士和自由美國猶太人的聯繫。

來自耶路撒冷的信號是,這個政府與前一屆政府不同,它不會正面對抗拜登政府在伊朗問題上,它願意嘗試與拉馬拉的巴勒斯坦權力機構建立更富有成效的關係,並且——對於美國猶太人——它熱衷於讓他們對以色列感到更積極和更受歡迎。

貝內特和拉皮德也迅速採取行動,翻開了以色列與約旦關係的新篇章,貝內特已經會見了阿卜杜拉國王,拉皮德已經拜訪了他的約旦同行艾曼·薩法迪。

此外,拉皮德已經前往布魯塞爾嘗試重啟與歐盟的關係。他試圖傳達的感覺是巴黎、柏林和哥本哈根——不僅是布加勒斯特、布達佩斯和維也納——都能感到舒服的以色列。

在與前任政府存在摩擦和緊張關係的國家的關係方面,重啟是件好事。但是那些與內塔尼亞胡似乎建立了良好關係的國家和領導人呢?在新政府領導下,與這些國家的關係會發生什麼變化?

此類別中的測試用例是俄羅斯。

愛俄羅斯總統弗拉基米爾普京或恨他,莫斯科在該地區擁有巨大影響力,並在敘利亞直接停在以色列的家門口,在過去的六年裡,它一直支持敘利亞總統巴沙爾阿薩德的邪惡政權。

在莫斯科於 2015 年 9 月直接參與敘利亞的戰鬥以防止失去其盟友阿薩德後不久,內塔尼亞胡開始建立衝突機制,以防止俄羅斯和以色列軍隊在敘利亞發生任何直接對抗。

而且,在大多數情況下,這是有效的。兩國不僅建立了防範危機的機制,而且達成了默契,承認對方在敘利亞的利益,並儘量不損害對方的利益。

那是什麼意思?這意味著莫斯科的主要利益是阿薩德的生存,而以色列在敘利亞的軍事行動中將避免打擊會導致阿薩德垮台的地點或資產。

另一方面,這意味著俄羅斯明白,以色列的切身利益是防止伊朗及其真主黨代理人在以色列邊境站穩腳跟,或通過敘利亞將改變遊戲規則的武器轉移到黎巴嫩,當以色列擊中與這些目標相關的目標時,俄羅斯不會干涉。

這就是為什麼以色列能夠在過去六年沒有俄羅斯人阻止的情況下在敘利亞領空相對不受懲罰地採取行動。

這種安排的部分原因是內塔尼亞胡與普京發展的密切關係,普京在任期間會見並通過電話交談的次數比任何其他領導人都要多。這種密切的工作關係也導致普京在過去四次選舉中的每一次選舉之前都明確表示內塔尼亞胡是他的首選候選人。

反駁內塔尼亞胡經常吹噓他與普京的良好關係以及這對以色列的戰略意義是,關係是國家之間的關係,而不是領導人之間的關係,儘管內塔尼亞胡和普京之間的關係可能​​很好,但它確實關乎利益. 按照這個思路,無論誰領導以色列,在敘利亞問題上進行合作都符合兩國的利益。

如果最近的報導可信的話,這個前提現在將受到考驗,因為總部位於倫敦的日報 Asharq al-Awsat 援引一名俄羅斯官員的話說,莫斯科對以色列在敘利亞的行動“已經失去耐心”,並將提供阿薩德擁有更好的防空系統。上週,一名俄羅斯高級安全官員被引述說,敘利亞防空系統擊落了以色列向敘利亞目標發射的八枚導彈中的七枚。

如果這一切或什至部分屬實,這將是一項重大發展,可能會迫使耶路撒冷重新考慮其敘利亞政策以及如何阻止伊朗人在那里扎根。這將檢驗 Bennett 和 Lapid 的論點,即內塔尼亞胡可以做的任何事情,他們都可以做得更好,而且關係是國家之間的,而不是領導人之間的。

恢復過去六年與俄羅斯在敘利亞的作案手法現在需要成為本屆政府的主要外交政策目標——不亞於改善與民主黨或歐盟的關係——並且是本屆政府的重大外交考驗現在面臨。

另一個危機正在形成,來自以色列公司 NSO 的 Pegasus 軟件正處於風暴的中心:據稱一些政府使用恐怖分子跟踪軟件來入侵人權活動家、記者和政治家的電話。

其中一位政客是法國總統埃馬紐埃爾·馬克龍,他在周末致電貝內特與他討論此事,並根據各種報導確保以色列正在調查並認真對待此事。

關於提供給該公司的出口許可證,使其能夠出口功能強大的間諜軟件,人們提出了許多問題。根據第 12 頻道的報導,貝內特表示正在調查這個問題,將得出必要的結論,並且所討論的事件發生在他的政府上台之前。

與俄羅斯的情況不同,沒有哪個以色列政客與普京的關係比內塔尼亞胡更好,與馬克龍的關係更好的是拉皮德。

這一點在 2019 年 4 月就很明顯了,在以色列最近四次選舉週期中的第一次之前,當時馬克龍在選舉前四天邀請拉皮德到法國,此舉被廣泛認為是抵消普京和美國在選舉前的姿態的一種方式。唐納德特朗普總統向內塔尼亞胡洗澡。

在法國,正是拉皮德與該國領導人建立了私人關係,這有助於緩和可能引發全面危機的事情。

與俄羅斯在敘利亞可能改變遊戲規則的局勢,以及政府如何處理 NSO 醜聞,將是很好的早期指標,表明貝內特和拉皮德(僅執政六週)如何與內塔尼亞胡抗衡波濤洶湧的國際水域。

Israeli government faces major diplomatic tests from Russia - analysis

Moscow wields enormous influence in the middle east and is parked squarely on Israel's doorstep in Syria. This presents a test for Israeli diplomacy.

By HERB KEINON

JULY 25, 2021 20:16

Russian President Vladimir Putin speaks at the World Holocaust Forum marking 75 years since the liberation of the Nazi extermination camp Auschwitz, at Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial centre in Jerusalem January 23, 2020

(photo credit: REUTERS/Ronen Zvulun)

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Much has been written since Prime Minister Naftali Bennett and Foreign Minister Yair Lapid came to power six weeks ago about how a new government presents a golden opportunity to reset Israel’s relations with some key partners around the world.

First and foremost is the relationship with the US Democratic Party, a relationship that suffered during the 12 years of former prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s rule. Then there were the ties with the American progressives and with liberal American Jews.

The signal coming from Jerusalem was that this government was different than the previous one, that it would not confront the Biden administration frontally on Iran, that it was open to trying to build a more productive relationship with the Palestinian Authority in Ramallah, and – for American Jewry – that it was keen on trying to make them feel more positive about and more welcome in Israel.

Bennett and Lapid also moved swiftly to turn a new page in Israel’s relationship with Jordan, with Bennett having already met King Abdullah and Lapid having already visited his Jordanian counterpart, Ayman Safadi.

Furthermore, Lapid already went to Brussels to try and reboot ties with the European Union. The perception he tried to convey was that of an Israel that Paris, Berlin and Copenhagen – not only Bucharest, Budapest and Vienna – could feel comfortable with.

A reboot is good when it comes to relations with countries with whom there were points of friction and tension under the previous government. But what about those countries and leaders with whom Netanyahu seemed to have cultivated excellent relations? What happens to ties with those countries under the new government?

The test case in this category is Russia.

Love Russian President Vladimir Putin or hate him, Moscow wields enormous influence in the region and is parked squarely on Israel’s doorstep in Syria, where for the last six years it has propped up Syrian President Bashar Assad’s vicious regime.

Soon after Moscow became directly involved in the fighting in Syria in September 2015 to prevent the loss of its ally Assad, Netanyahu moved to create deconfliction mechanisms that would prevent any direct confrontation between Russian and Israeli forces over Syria.

And, for the most part, this worked. Not only did the two countries create mechanisms to prevent crisis, but they also came to a tacit agreement whereby they both recognized the interests of the other in Syria, and they tried not to harm those interests.

WHAT DID that mean? It meant that Moscow’s main interest was in the survival of Assad, and that Israel – in its military actions in Syria – would refrain from hitting sites or assets that would lead to the toppling of Assad.

And on the flip side it meant that Russia understood that Israel’s vital interest was in preventing Iran and its Hezbollah proxy from entrenching itself on Israel’s border or transferring game-changing weapons through Syria to Lebanon, and that when Israel hit targets related to those aims, Russia would not interfere.

This is why Israel has been able to act with relative impunity in Syrian airspace without the Russians stopping them over the last six years.

Part of this arrangement is attributable to the close relationship that Netanyahu developed with Putin, the leader he met with and spoke with on the phone more often than any other leader during his time in office. This close working relationship also resulted in Putin making clear before each of the last four elections – both in word and in action – that Netanyahu was his preferred candidate.

The counterargument to Netanyahu’s frequent boast about his good ties with Putin and how strategically significant this was for Israel was that relations are between states, not leaders, and that as good as the relationship between Netanyahu and Putin might have been, it was really about interests. According to this line of reasoning, no matter who leads Israel, it is in the interest of both countries to cooperate regarding Syria.

If recent reports are to be believed, this premise will now be put to the test, as the London-based daily Asharq al-Awsat cited a Russian official saying that Moscow has “run out of patience” with Israeli action in Syria and would supply Assad with better air-defense systems. Last week, a senior Russian security official was quoted as saying that Syrian air defense had shot down seven of eight missiles launched by Israel toward targets in Syria.

If all or even some of that is true, it is a significant development that may force Jerusalem to rethink its Syria policy and how to keep the Iranians from entrenching there. This will test Bennett and Lapid’s argument that anything Netanyahu can do, they can do better, and that relationships are between countries, not leaders.

Reinstating the modus operandi that existed over the last six years with Russia in Syria needs now to be a major foreign-policy aim of this government – no less than improving ties with the Democratic Party or the EU – and is a major diplomatic test this government is now facing.

ANOTHER CRISIS is shaping up over the Pegasus software from Israeli firm NSO that is at the center of a storm: The terrorist-tracking software was allegedly used by some governments to hack into the phones of human-rights activists, journalists and politicians.

One of those politicians was French President Emmanuel Macron, who called Bennett about the matter over the weekend to discuss it with him and make sure, according to various reports, that Israel was looking into it and taking it seriously.

Numerous questions are being asked regarding the export licenses provided to the firm, enabling it to export the powerful spyware. Bennett, according to Channel 12, said the issue was being investigated, the necessary conclusions would be drawn and that the events under question took place before his government took power.

Unlike the situation with Russia, where no Israeli politician had a better relationship with Putin than Netanyahu, with Macron, it is Lapid who has developed a good personal relationship.

This was evident in April 2019, before the first of Israel’s recent four-election cycles, when Macron invited Lapid to France just four days before the election in a move widely viewed as a way to counterbalance the pre-election gestures that both Putin and US president Donald Trump showered on Netanyahu.

With France, it is Lapid who has a personal relationship with the country’s leader that could help soften something that has the potential of ballooning into a full-blown crisis.

A potentially game-changing situation with Russia in Syria, as well as how the government deals with the NSO scandal, will be good early indicators of how Bennett and Lapid – just six weeks in power – stack up against Netanyahu in being able to navigate through choppy international waters.

波蘭法律禁止在參議院歸還猶太財產通行證

“該法律將嚴重損害[以色列]與波蘭的關係,”外交部長亞伊爾拉皮德說。

作者:托比亞斯·西格爾

2021 年 7 月 24 日 22:20

第 1 屆擔任波蘭參議院第 9 屆。

(圖片來源:KATARZYNA CZERWIŃSKA/WIKIMEDIA COMMONS)

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波蘭法律,其本質上防止猶太人從得到一個從他們的家庭在大屠殺和共產主義政權在波蘭戰後回被盜財物,波蘭參議院通過了上週五。

該法律將使對 30 多年前被盜財產的決定提出上訴幾乎不可能。

然而,週五通過的法律包括兩項修正案,這些修正案不屬於原始法案草案的一部分。

首先,在法律生效之前,批准了三個月的延期提交請求。其次,新法不適用於現有索賠和正在進行的案件。

儘管如此,“該法律將嚴重損害[以色列]與波蘭的關係,”外交部長亞伊爾拉皮德在宣布後表示。“波蘭非常清楚什麼是正確和體面的事情。”

“以色列對波蘭關於大屠殺受害者恢復權利問題的立法深表關切。立法過程中的每一步都是令人擔憂的發展,”拉皮德週五下午在推特上寫道。

他補充說:“我們不會放棄對大屠殺受害者尊嚴、維護他們的權利和保存他們的記憶的承諾。”

拉皮德的評論得到了社會平等部長梅拉夫·科恩的重申,他在周五晚間表示,“波蘭議會堅持推進該法案……可能對兩國關係造成真正的傷害”,並補充說“歷史無法改變”。

修正案似乎也沒有讓

世界猶太人賠償組織 (WJRO)滿意,該組織發表聲明譴責有爭議的法律。

“今天波蘭參議院投票通過修正案並沒有為索賠人伸張正義。雖然懸而未決的案件將不再被撤銷,但成功的索賠人只能獲得被共產黨政權錯誤沒收的財產的賠償,”WJRO 運營主席吉迪恩·泰勒在一份聲明中說。

泰勒補充說:“參議院完全排除了合法所有者——其中許多人已經有多年未決案件——收回財產的可能性。”

泰勒還辯稱,即使在今天,二戰期間和之後從猶太人那裡竊取的財產仍然有益於波蘭。

“確實,波蘭在納粹佔領下遭受了嚴重的苦難,並且是可怕暴行的受害者。但我們在這裡談論的是戰後波蘭奪走的財產,這些財產至今仍在波蘭並有益於波蘭,”他寫道。

該法案現在將交回波蘭議會下議院——下議院——進行最後投票,批准參議院增加的修正案,然後由總統安傑伊·杜達簽署 。

WJRO 已敦促下議院“重新考慮其之前的投票,這一次完全拒絕該法案”,呼籲波蘭“通過通過全面的歸還立法,一勞永逸地解決私有財產問題”。

歐洲猶太人大會主席 Moshe Kantor 博士也抨擊了該法案的通過。

“這不僅僅是另一項法律,它是合法化的盜竊,而且這種語言的書寫方式是暗中試圖挑出猶太人不值得從他們那裡取回被盜的東西,”坎託在一份聲明中說。“這並不像波蘭某些人聲稱的那樣給予猶太人特權,而是剝奪了他們的權利,創造了比其他所有人更高的標準。

“這項法律還將進一步突出波蘭作為該地區唯一一個使大屠殺無法恢復原狀並違背其國際承諾的國家的獨特地位,”他說。“在大屠殺中倖存下來的人到了晚年,仍然會被這項殘酷、非法和歧視性的法律剝奪正義,這是令人髮指的。”

Polish Law preventing restitution of Jewish property passes in Senate

"The law will strongly harm [Israel's] relations with Poland," Foreign Minister Yair Lapid said.

By TOBIAS SIEGAL

JULY 24, 2021 22:20

1st sitting the Polish Senate of the 9th term.

(photo credit: KATARZYNA CZERWIŃSKA/WIKIMEDIA COMMONS)

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The Polish Law, which essentially prevents Jews from getting back property that was stolen from their families during the Holocaust and after the war by the Communist regime in Poland, was passed in the Polish Senate on Friday.

The law will make it nearly impossible to appeal decisions made on property that was stolen more than 30 years ago.

However, the law passed on Friday includes two amendments that were not part of the original draft bill.

First, an extension of three months was approved for submitting requests before the law comes into effect. Second, the new law will not apply to existing claims and ongoing cases.

Nonetheless, "the law will strongly harm [Israel's] relations with Poland," said Foreign Minister Yair Lapid following the announcement. "Poland knows very well what is the right and decent thing to do."

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"Israel is deeply concerned about the Polish legislation on the issue of restitution rights for the victims of the Holocaust. Every step in the legislative process is a worrying development," Lapid tweeted Friday afternoon.

"We will not backtrack on our commitment to the dignity of Holocaust victims, on maintaining their rights and preserving their memory," he added.

Lapid's comments were reiterated by Social Equality Minister Meirav Cohen, who said on Friday evening that "the Polish parliament's insistence on advancing the bill…may cause real harm to relations between the countries," adding that "history cannot be changed."

The amendments did not seem to satisfy the World Jewish Restitution Organization (WJRO) either, which released a statement condemning the controversial law.

“Today’s vote in the Polish Senate to adopt the bill with amendments does not bring justice for claimants. While pending cases will no longer be extinguished, successful claimants will only be able to obtain compensation for property that was wrongfully confiscated by the Communist regime," WJRO operations chair Gideon Taylor said in a statement.

"The Senate has completely foreclosed the possibility for rightful owners – many of whom have had cases pending for years – to recover their property," Taylor added.

Taylor also argued that the property stolen from Jews during and after World War II still benefits Poland even today.

"It is true that Poland suffered greatly under Nazi occupation and was a victim of terrible atrocities. But we are speaking here about property that was taken by Poland after the war, and which remains in and benefits Poland to this day," he wrote.

The bill will now be returned to the Polish parliament's lower house - the Sejm - for a final vote approving the amendments added by the Senate before being signed by President Andrzej Duda.

WJRO has urged the Sejm "to reconsider its previous vote and this time to reject the bill in its entirety" calling on Poland "to once and for all settle the issue of private property by adopting comprehensive restitution legislation."

European Jewish Congress President Dr. Moshe Kantor also slammed the passing of the bill.

“This is not just another law, it is legalized theft, and the language is written in such a way that it implicitly seeks to single out Jews as undeserving of retrieving what was stolen from them,” Kantor said in a statement. “It is not privileging Jews as some claim in Poland, it is disenfranchising them, creating a higher bar than for all others.

“This law will also further highlight Poland’s unique position as the only country in the region which makes Holocaust restitution impossible, and runs counter to its international commitments,” he said. “It is outrageous that someone who survived the Holocaust, who will be in their later years, will still be deprived justice by this cruel, illegitimate and discriminatory law.”

Jerusalem Post Staff contributed to this report.

卡塔爾燃料進入加沙受阻;以色列,巴勒斯坦權力機構貿易指責

25輛用於Strip發電廠的卡車被困在Kerem Shalom過境點;以色列官員稱這是巴勒斯坦人的錯,巴勒斯坦權力機構否認

亞倫BOXERMAN今天下午 5:30

2021 年 6 月 21 日,在加沙地帶南部拉法,一名哈馬斯安全官員在與以色列的 Kerem Shalom 貨運過境點門口檢查一輛進入加沙的卡車。(Adel Hana/美聯社)

哈馬斯官員周日上午告訴該恐怖組織的阿克薩之聲廣播電台,以色列當局阻止了用於加沙唯一發電廠的 25 卡車卡塔爾資助的燃料進入加沙地帶。

負責協調貨物進入加沙的以色列軍事機構領土政府活動協調員拒絕置評。

一位不願透露姓名的國防部官員將延誤歸咎於巴勒斯坦人,稱負責與以色列協調的巴勒斯坦權力機構機構未能通知以色列當局燃料計劃進入飛地。

“只要巴勒斯坦人與我們適當協調,燃料就會進入,”這位官員說。

加沙的兩名巴勒斯坦官員駁回了這一解釋,並告訴《以色列時報》,他們沒有被告知任何協調問題。

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官員們進一步堅稱,他們根本不負責協調卡塔爾燃料的進入,這屬於一個單獨的機制。巴勒斯坦官員爭辯說,卡塔爾通過其加沙特使 Mohammad al-Emadi 和聯合國直接與以色列協調,允許燃料進入加沙。

2021 年 5 月 18 日,一輛卡車通過 Kerem Shalom 過境點進入加沙,該過境點是從以色列進入加沙地帶的貨物的主要通道。 (Said Khatib/AFP)

聯合國和卡塔爾官員拒絕置評。

卡塔爾自 2018 年以來一直為加沙唯一的發電廠提供補貼燃料,作為向哈馬斯經營的沿海飛地提供的一攬子援助計劃的一部分。

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直到 5 月以色列和哈馬斯之間的戰鬥,耶路撒冷才允許補貼進入,以緩解其南部邊境的緊張局勢。但自 5 月衝突以來,耶路撒冷一直試圖對加沙實施更嚴格的限制,大大限制了進出口。

以色列也基本上停止了卡塔爾補貼的進入——過去包括數百萬現金——儘管它最近允許卡塔爾資助的燃料開始重新進入加沙。以色列官員發誓他們不會允許恢復現狀,他們認為這對哈馬斯恐怖組織過於有利。

國際評估人員在 7 月初報告說,在戰爭期間,以色列的空襲和巴勒斯坦火箭對加沙地帶造成了至少 2.9 億美元的損失。

2019 年 6 月 24 日拍攝的一張照片顯示,在加沙地帶主要發電廠附近流動的未經處理的污水為加沙城以南的哈馬斯經營的巴勒斯坦領土提供服務。(穆罕默德·阿比德/法新社攝)

以色列和埃及封鎖加沙地帶近 15 年,試圖削弱該飛地的哈馬斯統治者,後者在 2007 年發動政變。兩國都表示,這項措施對於防止恐怖組織獲取武器和材料來建造防禦工事和隧道是必要的。

以色列和哈馬斯一直在開羅進行間接談判,試圖加強雙方之間脆弱的停火。以色列官員表示,他們將有條件允許重建加沙,並放寬對與哈馬斯進行囚犯交換的嚴格限制,以確保 Avera Mengistu 和 Hisham al-Sayed 以及已死亡的以色列國防軍士兵 Hadar Goldin 和 Oron Shaul 的歸還在 2014 年的戰鬥中。

Entry of Qatari fuel into Gaza held up; Israel, PA trade blame

25 trucks intended for power plant in Strip are stuck at Kerem Shalom crossing; Israeli official says it’s Palestinians’ fault, PA denies it

By AARON BOXERMANToday, 5:30 pm

A Hamas security officer checks a truck entering Gaza at the gate of the Kerem Shalom cargo crossing with Israel, in Rafah, southern Gaza Strip, June 21, 2021. (Adel Hana/AP)

Israeli authorities prevented 25 truckloads of Qatari-funded fuel intended for Gaza’s only power plant from entering the Strip, Hamas officials told the terror group’s Voice of Al-Aqsa radio station on Sunday morning.

The Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories, the Israeli military body responsible for coordinating the entry of goods into Gaza, declined to comment.

A Defense Ministry official, speaking on condition of anonymity, blamed the Palestinians for the delay, saying the Palestinian Authority body responsible for coordinating with Israel had failed to inform Israeli authorities that the fuel was scheduled to enter the enclave.

“As soon as the Palestinians properly coordinate with us, the fuel will enter,” the official said.

Two Palestinian officials in Gaza dismissed that explanation, telling The Times of Israel they had not been informed of any coordination issues.

The officials further maintained they were not responsible at all for coordinating the entry of Qatari fuel, which falls under a separate mechanism. Qatar, through its Gaza envoy Mohammad al-Emadi, and the United Nations coordinate directly with Israel to allow fuel to enter Gaza, the Palestinian officials contended.

A truck passes into Gaza through the Kerem Shalom crossing, the main passage point for goods entering the Strip from Israel, on May 18, 2021. (Said Khatib/AFP)

United Nations and Qatari officials declined to comment.

Qatar has provided subsidized fuel for Gaza’s only power plant since 2018 as part of an aid package it provides to the Hamas-run coastal enclave.

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Until the May fighting between Israel and Hamas, Jerusalem permitted the subsidies to enter, in a bid to soothe tensions on its southern border. But since the May conflict, Jerusalem has sought to impose heightened restrictions on Gaza, significantly limiting imports and exports.

Israel has also largely halted the entrance of Qatari subsidies — which in the past included millions in cash — although it recently permitted Qatari-funded fuel to begin re-entering Gaza. Israeli officials have vowed that they will not allow a return to the status quo, which they view as too favorable to the Hamas terror group.

During the war, Israeli airstrikes and Palestinian rockets caused at least $290 million worth of damage to the Gaza Strip, international assessors reported in early July.

A photo taken on June 24, 2019, shows raw sewage flowing near the main Gaza Strip power plant, serving the Hamas-run Palestinian territory, south of Gaza City. (Photo by MOHAMMED ABED / AFP)

Israel and Egypt have blockaded the Gaza Strip for nearly 15 years in an attempt to weaken the enclave’s Hamas rulers, who took charge in a 2007 coup. Both countries say the measure is necessary to prevent the terror group from obtaining weapons and materials to build fortifications and tunnels.

Israel and Hamas have been conducting indirect negotiations in Cairo in an attempt to strengthen the fragile ceasefire between the two sides. Israeli officials have said they will condition allowing the reconstruction of Gaza and easing the heightened restrictions on reaching a prisoner exchange with Hamas that secures the return of Avera Mengistu and Hisham al-Sayed and the bodies of IDF soldiers Hadar Goldin and Oron Shaul, who died in 2014 fighting.

外交部學生僱員涉嫌非法訪問伊朗被調查

嫌疑人是一名 20 多歲的猶太人,據報導他為了“冒險目的”訪問了伊斯蘭共和國,並與伊朗特工接觸

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人們聚集在耶路撒冷外交部大樓外,2018 年 11 月 15 日。 (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90)

以色列警方和 Shin Bet 安全部門正在調查一名受僱於外交部的學生,指控他非法訪問伊朗。據信,嫌疑人在旅途中還與伊朗情報人員有過接觸。

據以色列時報獲悉,這名嫌疑人上個月被釋放,他訪問了伊朗,之後他在外交部擔任學生職位。

“這個問題由以色列有關當局處理,”外交部周日表示。

嫌疑人的律師說,他的旅行是出於旅遊原因,他沒有對他的朋友和家人保密。目前,以色列公民以任何目的訪問伊朗都是非法的。

“這件事被誇大了。嫌疑人是一個普通的年輕人,”第 12 頻道新聞援引他的律師的話說。“正如法院裁定的那樣,與外國代理人接觸的罪行沒有真正的證據基礎。安全部門沒有理由阻止嫌疑人在 10 天內會見他的律師。”

調查的更多細節,包括嫌疑人的身份,正在接受禁言令。

2021 年 7 月 3 日,因冠狀病毒大流行而戴著面具的伊朗人穿過首都德黑蘭的一條街道。(ATTA KENARE / 法新社)

據陸軍電台報導,涉事學生是一名20多歲的猶太男子,沒有嚴重安全犯罪嫌疑。陸軍電台稱,該男子在最近幾個月被披露為“出於尋求冒險的目的”訪問伊朗後接受了調查。

嫌疑人的律師表示,他們相信針對他的案件將被擱置,“針對為旅遊目的和新聞報導目的訪問敵國的其他以色列公民”的類似案件也將被擱置。

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對訪問敘利亞和黎巴嫩的 16 名德魯茲酋長的定罪於 2014 年被取消。 然而,一年後,最高法院維持對一名訪問敘利亞並會見人民陣線副主任塔拉勒納吉的以色列議會前德魯茲成員的定罪。巴勒斯坦解放。

Student employee of Foreign Ministry probed for suspected illegal visit to Iran

Suspect is a Jewish man in his 20s who reportedly visited the Islamic Republic for ‘adventure-seeking purposes,’ came into contact with Iranian agents

By TOI STAFF and LAZAR BERMANToday, 9:59 pm

People gather outside the Foreign Ministry building in Jerusalem, November 15, 2018. (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90)

The Israel Police and Shin Bet security service are investigating a student employed by the Foreign Ministry over allegations that he illegally visited Iran. The suspect is also believed to have come into contact with Iranian intelligence agents during his trip.

The suspect — who was released from custody last month — visited Iran before he later filled a student position at the Foreign Ministry, The Times of Israel has learned.

“The issue was dealt with by the relevant Israeli authorities,” the Foreign Ministry said on Sunday.

The suspect’s lawyers said his trip was for tourism reasons and that he did not keep it a secret from his friends and family. It is currently illegal for Israeli citizens to visit Iran for any purposes.

“This affair has been blown out of proportion. The suspect is a normal young man,” his attorneys were quoted as saying by Channel 12 News. “As the court ruled, there is no real evidentiary basis for an offense of contact with a foreign agent. There is no reason for the security services to prevent the suspect from meeting his lawyers for 10 days.”

Further details of the investigation, including the suspect’s identity, are under a gag order.

Iranians, mask-clad due to the coronavirus pandemic, cross a street in the capital Tehran, on July 3, 2021. (ATTA KENARE / AFP)

According to Army Radio, the student in question is a Jewish man in his 20s, and he is not suspected of serious security crimes. The man was investigated in recent months after it was revealed that he visited Iran “for adventure-seeking purposes,” said Army Radio.

The suspect’s attorneys said they were confident that the case against him would be shelved, as have similar cases “against other Israeli citizens who visited enemy countries for tourism purposes and journalistic coverage.”

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Convictions for 16 Druze sheikhs who visited Syria and Lebanon were canceled in 2014. However, a year later the Supreme Court upheld the conviction of a former Druze member of Knesset who visited Syria and met with Talal Naji, the deputy director of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.

在歡迎塞法迪猶太人後,西班牙拒絕了數以千計的公民申請

據報導,馬德里最近幾個月拒絕了 3,000 項請求,並且沒有回應根據 2015 年法律尋求西班牙國籍的其他 17,000 人

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2020 年 4 月 12 日,馬德里,窗台上掛著一面黑絲帶的西班牙國旗。(美聯社照片/Bernat Armangue)

《紐約時報》報導,西班牙一直廣泛拒絕 500 多年前被驅逐出該國的塞法迪猶太人後裔的公民身份申請

西班牙政府自推進 2015 年法律以糾正西班牙在 1492 年強迫其猶太人口皈依或流亡時所犯的“歷史錯誤”以來,已將公民身份擴大到 34,000 人。

但根據《紐約時報》援引西班牙政府數據的說法,雖然今年之前只有一名申請人被拒絕入籍,但過去幾個月突然拒絕了 3,000 份申請,另有 17,000 份申請沒有得到回應。

西班牙司法部為拒絕辯護,告訴該報,那些符合標準的人“再次受到歡迎來到他們的國家,但同樣,那些不符合要求的人將看到他們的申請被拒絕,就像他們在任何情況下一樣。其他過程。”

“這感覺就像是一記重拳,”來自新墨西哥州的 60 歲的瑪麗亞·桑切斯 (Maria Sánchez) 告訴該報,她的申請被拒絕了。“你把我的祖先踢出去了,現在你又要這麼做了。”

葡萄牙和西班牙都於 2015 年通過了法律,授予西班牙裔猶太人後裔公民身份,兩國政府表示,這些措施旨在彌補宗教裁判所期間將數十萬猶太人從伊比利亞半島驅逐出境的行為。

西班牙宗教裁判所,西班牙藝術家弗朗西斯科·戈雅 19 世紀的作品。(維基共享資源/CC BY)

西班牙法律的窗口本應在 2019 年關閉,但對於那些開始法律程序的人來說,已延長至 2021 年 9 月。葡萄牙法律是開放式的。

在這兩個國家,政府都將這項法律描述為對 15 世紀開始的宗教裁判所期間迫害和大規模驅逐猶太人的贖罪行為。許多猶太人被迫皈依基督教。

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“Sephardic”一詞在希伯來語中的字面意思是“西班牙語”。據估計,世界上大約 1300 萬猶太人中,西班牙裔猶太人佔五分之一到三分之一。幾個世紀以來,西班牙裔猶太人社區一直保持著他們的習俗和拉地諾語。

After welcoming Sephardic Jews, Spain rejects thousands of citizenship requests

Madrid reportedly has turned down 3,000 requests in recent months and hasn’t responded to 17,000 others who are seeking Spanish nationality under 2015 law

By TOI STAFF and AGENCIESToday, 3:08 am

A Spanish flag on a window ledge with a black ribbon in Madrid, April 12, 2020. (AP Photo/Bernat Armangue)

Spain has been widely rejecting applications for citizenship by the descendants of Sephardic Jews expelled from the country more than 500 years ago, according to The New York Times.

The Spanish government has extended citizenship to 34,000 people since advancing the 2015 law to redress the “historical mistake” Spain committed when it forced its Jewish population to convert or go into exile in 1492.

But according to The New York Times, which cited Spanish government data, while just a single applicant was denied citizenship before this year, 3,000 applications have been suddenly rejected in the past few months and 17,000 others have received no response.

The Spanish Justice Ministry defended the rejections, telling the paper that those who met the criteria “are welcome again to their country, but similarly, those who don’t meet the requirements will see that their application is rejected just like they would be in any other process.”

“It felt like a punch in the gut,” Maria Sánchez, 60, of New Mexico, whose application was rejected, told the paper. “You kicked my ancestors out, now you’re doing this again.”

Both Portugal and Spain passed laws in 2015 granting citizenship to the descendants of Sephardic Jews, measures both governments said were intended to atone for the expulsion of hundreds of thousands of Jews from the Iberian Peninsula during the Inquisition.

The Spanish Inquisition Tribunal, a 19th century work by Spanish artist Francisco Goya. (Wikimedia Commons/CC BY)

The window for the Spanish law was supposed to close in 2019, but has been extended until September 2021 for those who began the legal process. The Portuguese law is open-ended.

In both countries, the government described the law as an act of atonement for the persecution and mass expulsion of Jews during the Inquisition that began in the 15th century. Many Jews were forcibly converted to Christianity.

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The term “Sephardic” literally means “Spanish” in Hebrew. It is estimated that Sephardic Jews range between a fifth and a third of the world’s roughly 13 million Jews. For centuries Sephardic Jewish communities have maintained their customs and the Ladino language.

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