155. ACHD: Ebstein Anomaly with Dr. Jeannette Lin

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CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Josh Saef) join ACHD fellow Dr. Prashanth Venkatesh and ACHD program director Dr. Jeannette Lin, both from the University of California, Los Angeles, for a deep dive into the complex disease entity that is Ebstein anomaly. They discuss the anatomic features of the dysplastic tricuspid valve as well as the right ventricle in patients with Ebstein anomaly, and how these structural features affect cardiovascular physiology and clinical presentation. This is followed by an in-depth discussion into associated entities including arrhythmias and atrial-level shunts as well as the appropriate multimodality evaluation. Finally, they tackle the difficult question of when and how to intervene, delving into the various interventional treatments and exploring their outcomes using illustrative case-based examples. Audio editing CardioNerds Academy Intern, Pace Wetstein. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) series provides a comprehensive curriculum to dive deep into the labyrinthine world of congenital heart disease with the aim of empowering every CardioNerd to help improve the lives of people living with congenital heart disease. This series is multi-institutional collaborative project made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Josh Saef, Dr. Agnes Koczo, and Dr. Dan Clark. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease Series is developed in collaboration with the Adult Congenital Heart Association, The CHiP Network, and Heart University. See more Claim free CME for enjoying this episode! Disclosures: None Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls Ebstein anomaly is characterized by an inherent myopathy which is often more clinically consequential than the more obvious tricuspid valvulopathy. This can affect not only the right ventricle due to ‘atrialization’ and severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) but also the left ventricle that is often small due to chronic preload deprivation from reduced RV outflow (no flow, no grow)!Diagnosing severe TR on echocardiography in patients with Ebstein anomaly is challenging, due to the frequent absence of a clearly defined vena contracta and lack of hepatic vein systolic flow reversal. Be on the lookout for severe low gradient TR, which may manifest as a triangular doppler signal rather than the normal parabolic profile.If an electrocardiogram of a patient with Ebstein anomaly suggests prior inferior myocardial infarction, be very suspicious for a right-sided accessory pathway! These are seen in nearly a third of patients with Ebstein anomaly, and manifest as negative delta waves in the inferior leads, leading to a pseudo-infarct pattern. NOTE: infarction, aberrancy, and ventricular hypertrophy should not be coded in the presence of an accessory pathway (i.e., WPW pattern).Patients with Ebstein anomaly who are planned for tricuspid valve replacement should undergo an electrophysiology study preoperatively, since the cavo-tricuspid isthmus responsible for atrial flutter that plagues a large number (>20%) of these patients will be covered by a tricuspid prosthetic valve ring and be inaccessible for future catheter ablation.Certain patients with Ebstein anomaly with significant baseline RV dysfunction who require tricuspid valve surgery may benefit from a concomitant Glenn shunt, which is a surgical anastomosis of the superior vena cava to the right pulmonary artery. This relieves the dysfunctional RV of a third of its baseline preload, potentially enabling it to recover effectively from the stress of cardiopulmonary bypass. Show notes 1.

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