169. Case Report: Chest pain in a Young Man – “A Gray (Gy) Area” – UC San Diego


Manage episode 315787284 series 2585945
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CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder) join Dr. Patrick Azcarate and Dr. Antoinette Birs from the University of California San Diego along with a guest host Dr. Christine Shen from Scripps Health for a hike along Torrey Pines. They discuss a case of a 30-year-old man with a history of malignant thymoma status post two partial lung resections and radiation for pleural/pulmonary metastasis, as well as a history of myasthenia gravis on rituximab, and Ig deficiency on IVIG presents with progressive exertional chest pain. We focus on the differential diagnosis of patients with a history of chest radiation exposure and dive into the complex management and surveillance for patients with radiation associated cardiac disease (RACD). The E-CPR is provided by Dr. Milind Desai (multimodality cardiovascular imaging expert, Director of Clinical Operations, Director of Center for HCM, Medical Director for Center for Aortic Diseases, and Medical Director for Center for Radiation Heart Disease at the Cleveland Clinic). Claim free CME just for enjoying this episode! Disclosures: NoneJump to: Pearls - Notes - References CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media TTE TTE TTE TTE AP Cranial Pre PCI LAO Caudal Pre PCI RAO Caudal Pre PCI RAO Cranial Pre PCI AP cranial Post PCI Episode Teaching Pearls - radiation associated cardiac disease Radiation-associated cardiac disease (RACD) is a heterogeneous disease that can manifest several years, or decades following radiation exposure to the chest and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Given the non-specific or vague symptoms, one of the greatest challenges for this patient population may be diagnosing RACD which requires high clinical suspicion. In patients with a history of chest radiation, we should remember to ask three important questions: 1. What was the total dose of radiation given? 2. How long ago was radiation therapy administered? 3. Was the heart exposed?A cumulative dose of >30 Gray (Gy) chest radiation significantly increases the risk of RACD long-term, but cardiac damage can occur at even lower doses. Effects from chest radiation can take years to become clinically detectable. Screening for radiation induced coronary artery disease with stress testing should start 5 years following XRT and in low-risk patients (without risk factors for typical coronary artery disease) and continue at 5-year intervals, and 2-year intervals in high-risk patients. Valvular heart disease surveillance should begin 10 years post XRT and can be accomplished with echocardiogram. Regarding revascularization planning, a Heart Team approach is recommended. However, percutaneous intervention is preferred over bypass surgery in most cases. Notes - radiation associated cardiac disease 1. What is Radiation-Associated Cardiac disease (RACD)? A spectrum of disease that can affect any part of the heart and typically develops anywhere from 5 to 20 years after radiation. It may present with non-specific or vague symptoms. Manifestations include myocarditis, pericarditis (typically early in the course) and well as long term sequela such as myocardial fibrosis, valvular heart disease (regurgitation or stenosis), pericardial disease, vasculopathy (CAD), conduction system disease. Radiation may impact any tissue of the heart: Vascular: microvascular, coronary artery disease, macrovascular (ascending aorta) Valvular: has a longer latency ~10-20 years with the left sided valves being more commonly affected; Aorto-mitral curtain thickening/calcification is a hallmark of previous heart radiation and associated with higher mortality Conduction: Sick sinus syndrome, AV nodal block,