回顧星期天LBS - 非洲相關時事趣聞 All about 2021 Africa

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Manage episode 342125518 series 2484421
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Topic: Coronavirus Is Battering Africa’s Growing Middle Class
新冠重創非洲新興中產階級
As the coronavirus surges in many countries in Africa, it is threatening to push as many as 58 million people in the region into extreme poverty, experts at the World Bank say. But beyond the devastating consequences for the continent’s most vulnerable people, the pandemic is also whittling away at one of Africa’s signature achievements: the growth of its middle class.
世界銀行專家指出,新冠肺炎疫情在非洲多國急遽加重,恐將使多達5800萬人陷入極端貧窮(赤貧)。而且疫情除了給非洲大陸最弱勢者帶來毀滅性後果之外,還逐步削弱非洲一項指標性成就,也就是中產階級的成長。
For the last decade, Africa’s middle class has been pivotal to the educational, political and economic development across the continent. New business owners and entrepreneurs have created jobs that, in turn, gave others a leg up as well.
過去這十年,非洲中產階級在非洲大陸全境教育、政治和經濟的發展上,扮演著關鍵性的角色。新的企業主和創業者創造出就業機會,也從而幫了別人一把。
Educated, tech-savvy families and young people with money to spare have fed the demand for consumer goods, called for democratic reforms, expanded the talent pool at all levels of society, and pushed for high-quality schools and health care.
受過教育、熟諳現代科技且有閒錢的家庭和年輕人支撐了消費品的市場,提出了對民主改革的要求,擴大了社會各層次的人才庫,並鼓吹高品質的學校和醫療照護服務。
About 170 million out of Africa’s 1.3 billion people are now classified as middle class. But about 8 million of them could be thrust into poverty because of the coronavirus and its economic fallout, according to World Data Lab, a research organization.
非洲13億人口中,約有1.7億人現在被歸類為中產階級,不過,根據研究機構「世界資料實驗室」的說法,其中約800萬人可能因新冠肺炎疫情及其經濟衝擊而淪為窮人。
It’s a setback that may be felt for years to come.
這個挫敗可在未來幾年內感受到。
“The tragedy is that because Africa is not growing fast, this collapse of the middle class could take several years to recover,” said Homi Kharas, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution and the co-founder of the World Data Lab.
華府智庫布魯金斯研究所高級研究員兼世界資料實驗室共同創辦人卡拉斯說:「不幸的是,非洲成長速度並不快,中產階級的潰縮可能得花上幾年才能恢復。」
Africa’s middle class tripled over the past 30 years, by some estimates, spurred by job opportunities in sectors like technology, tourism and manufacturing.
一些估計顯示,在科技、觀光和製造業等領域的就業機會帶動下,非洲中產階級人數過去30年間增為三倍。
But now that the region is facing its first recession in 25 years, millions of educated people living in urban centers could fall victim to the extreme income inequality that has defined Africa for decades.
不過,由於非洲遭逢25年來首次經濟衰退,數以百萬計住在都會區的受過教育者可能淪為極端收入不平等的受害者。極端收入不平等數十年來一直是非洲的特徵。
Kharas defined the middle class in Africa as households that spend anywhere between $11 and $110 per capita per day.
卡拉斯把非洲中產階級定義為,平均每人每天花費11美元到110美元(約台幣330元到3300元)的家庭。
The rising middle class has been “critical for the future prospects of African economies as they stimulate long-term growth, social progress, an inclusive and prosperous society and effective and accountable governance,” said Landry Signé, author of “Unlocking Africa’s Business Potential.” The coronavirus “will drastically delay wages and hold back the dreams of Africa’s middle class,” he said.
著有「解放非洲商業潛力」一書的賽恩說,中產階級崛起「對非洲的經濟前景至關重要,因為中產階級能促進長期成長、社會進步,造就具包容性且繁榮的社會,以及有效率且可問責的治理」。他說,新冠肺炎「將大幅延後薪水發放,並讓非洲中產階級難以圓夢」。
What distinguishes the middle class from the poor, said Razia Khan, chief economist for Africa and the Middle East at Standard Chartered bank, is the ability to earn a steady income. But because of the pandemic, many more people across Africa are at risk of being “knocked back into poverty” because of lack of jobs, unemployment benefits or any social safety net, she said.
渣打銀行非洲中東首席經濟學家拉奇雅.卡恩說,中產階級與窮人不同之處在於,他們有賺取穩定收入的能力。不過她說,由於疫情大流行,非洲各地有更多人可能因為缺乏就業機會、失業救濟金或任何社會安全網而被「打回貧窮」。
The pandemic is also posing a threat to nascent industries supported by governments in Africa in recent years to boost the number of middle-income earners.
疫情大流行還威脅到剛起步的一些產業。非洲各國政府近年來支持這些產業,冀以促進中所得人數的成長。
Source article: https://udn.com/news/story/6904/4712407
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Topic: South Africa is considering letting women have multiple husbands
South Africa’s government is considering allowing women to have multiple husbands, a possibility that has thrown the country’s conservatives into uproar.
南非政府正在考慮允許女性擁有多名丈夫,這種可能性使該國保守派一片譁然。
The proposal to allow polyandry was included in a green paper from South Africa’s Department of Home Affairs, which hopes to make marriage more inclusive.
這項允許一妻多夫的提議已經被納入南非內政部的綠皮書中,希望使婚姻更具包容性。
South Africa has one of the world’s most liberal constitutions, embracing same-sex marriages for all and polygamy for men.
南非有世界上最自由的憲法之一,接受所有性別的同性婚姻與男性的一夫多妻。
Businessman and TV personality Musa Mseleku - who has four wives - is among those opposed to polyandry.
有四名妻子的企業家兼電視名人穆薩.姆斯萊庫是反對一妻多夫制的其中一人。
’’This will destroy African culture.’’ Mseleku said. ’’The woman cannot now take the role of the man. It’s unheard of.’’
「這會摧毀非洲文化。」姆斯萊庫說。「女性不能扮演男性的角色。這是前所未聞的。」
The idea that polyandry is not African was also prevalent among religious leaders, the Department of Home Affairs found.
內政部發現,一妻多夫「不非洲」的想法也流傳於宗教領袖中。
Next
Topic: S.African miners rescued, none still trapped 11 名南非礦工獲救,已無人受困
Eleven men who became trapped in an illegal gold mine in South Africa were rescued on Sunday, but an unknown number remained underground fearing arrest.
受困於南非非法金礦的11名男子在週日獲救,但仍有數目不詳的礦工因害怕被捕而待在地底。
The men, who were all uninjured, were immediately handed over to police. Rescue officials said many others were now able to leave the mine but had refused to come out while officials were present.
這些男子都未受傷,隨即轉交警方處理。救難人員說,其他許多人現在有能力自己離開礦井,但拒絕在警方在場的時候出來。
"We managed to retrieve 11 young men. We believe they are South Africans, they have been treated and handed over to the police," municipal emergency and rescue services official Rogger Mamaila told AFP.
「我們設法營救出11名年輕男子,我們認為他們是南非人,他們已經接受治療並轉交給警方。」緊急搜救官員馬梅拉告訴法新社。
Police spokesman Mack Mngomezulu told AFP a number of men remained in the abandoned mine east of Johannesburg and were refusing to come out.
警局發言人門戈彌祖魯告訴法新社,有一些男子還待在約翰尼斯堡東邊的廢棄礦井,而且拒絕出來。
The number of people still down there remains unclear -- around 30 miners who were trapped at a shallow level had earlier told rescuers from a private operator ER24 that there were 200 others stuck at a level underneath them.
仍待在地下的人數依舊不清楚--約30名受困在淺層地底的礦工早先告訴民營緊急救難隊ER24的救難人員,還有兩百人困在更下層。
That was never confirmed, however, with local municipal officials insisting there were only around 30 people trapped.
這項消息一直未獲證實,當地官員堅持只有大約30人受困。
Mamaila declared the rescue operation closed around two hours after the 11 were brought to the surface.
馬梅拉宣稱搜救行動在11名礦工被帶上地面後2小時結束。
Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1458633; http://iservice.ltn.com.tw/Service/english/english.php?engno=781592&day=2014-05-24
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Topic: South Africa launches the world’s biggest hydrogen-fueled truck
Mining giant Anglo American on Friday unveiled the world’s largest hydrogen-powered truck, a monster weighing in at 220 tonnes, at a platinum mine in northern South Africa.
礦業巨擘英美資源集團週五在南非北部一座白金礦場展示了全球最大的氫動力卡車,此一龐然巨獸重達220公噸。
Billed as the first of a fleet that will replace the firm’s diesel-powered trucks, the vehicle uses two-megawatt hydrogen fuel cells to haul up to 290 tonnes of ore.
它被宣傳為將取代該公司柴油動力卡車的車隊先鋒,該車使用2百萬瓦的氫燃料電池,來拖動多達290公噸的礦石。
"What we are launching is not merely an impressive piece of machinery, it is the genesis of an entire ecosystem powered by hydrogen," President Cyril Ramaphosa said.
南非總統西里爾.拉瑪佛沙說,「我們推出的不僅僅是一部令人印象深刻的機器,它是一個由氫氣驅動的完整生態系的起源。」
Comparable in size to a small house, the behemoth was shown off at Mogalakwena mine, about 250 kilometres from Johannesburg.
這部龐然大物的大小可匹敵一間小屋,在距離約翰尼斯堡約250公里處的莫加拉奎納礦場展示。
"This is a gigantic leap for South Africa’s hydrogen future economy," Ramaphosa declared.
拉瑪佛沙說,「對南非的氫能源未來經濟來說,這是一個巨大的跨越」。
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Topic: 潛逃中的獅子被關進南非大牢 Lion on the lam locked-up in South African jail
A young lion captured after being on the run for almost a month spent the night in a South African police cell before being moved back to its national park home.
一頭在逃將近一個月後被捕的幼獅,被運回位在國家公園的故鄉以前,先在南非一處警察局的拘留室度過長夜。
The juvenile male apparently escaped from the Karoo National Park through a hole in a perimeter fence. He was eventually tracked and darted on Wednesday before being moved by helicopter to the Sutherland police station where he ended up alone in a holding cell.
這個小男生明顯是從「乾旱台地高原國家公園」周邊圍欄一處洞口逃跑。牠最終還是在週三被發現蹤跡並遭標槍射中,後來被直升機運到薩瑟蘭警察局,獨自待在拘留室裡。
"I am sure this is the first time in the world that a lion is put in jail," said police station commander Marius Malan.
警局大隊長馬略斯‧馬蘭說:「我確定這是全球第一次獅子入獄。」
Curious residents of the village of Sutherland thronged outside the police station to catch a glimpse of the locked-up lion.
薩瑟蘭村好奇的居民們,在警局外爭相一窺這頭被囚禁的獅子。
"He is safe and healthy. We didn’t give him breakfast because he had enough to eat along the road," Malan told Reuters.
馬蘭告訴路透:「牠安全又健康。我們沒給牠早餐,因為牠一路上已經有足夠的東西可吃。」Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1518702 ; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1274469?fbclid=IwAR0GOlDHNx4EL-iF8U3qURZl9hlX0ub6M5HGc7BDwb3IJcdbf0xDlnPNDeI
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