每日英語跟讀 Ep.K256: 聯合國峰會通過格拉斯哥氣候協定

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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K256: What’s in the Glasgow Climate Pact?

Nearly 200 nations agreed to adopt the Glasgow Climate Pact on Saturday after more than two weeks of intense negotiations at COP26 in Glasgow, UK.

經過逾兩週的激烈談判,在英國格拉斯哥參與第二十六屆聯合國氣候變化大會的近兩百個國家,上週六通過了《格拉斯哥氣候協定》。

The agreement acknowledges that commitments made by countries so far to cut emissions of planet-heating greenhouse gases are nowhere near enough to prevent global warming from exceeding 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial temperatures.

該協議承認,為減少排放造成地球暖化的溫室氣體,各國所做出的承諾,目前仍遠不足以防止全球較前工業化時代暖化超過攝氏一點五度。

To attempt to solve this, it asks governments to strengthen those targets by the end of next year, rather than every five years, as previously required.Failure to set, and meet, tougher emissions-cutting goals would have huge consequences. Scientists say that to go beyond a rise of 1.5C would unleash extreme sea level rise and catastrophes including crippling droughts, monstrous storms and wildfires far worse than those the world is already suffering.

為解決此問題,該協議要求各國政府在明年年底前強化這些目標,而不是像過去所要求的每五年一次。若未能設定並達成更嚴格的減排目標,將造成嚴重的後果。科學家表示,溫度上升超過攝氏一點五度,將引發海平面極端上升與災難,包括嚴重的乾旱、巨大的風暴及野火,會比已肆虐全球的災難要嚴重得多。

TARGETING FOSSIL FUELS

The pact for the first time includes language that asks countries to reduce their reliance on coal and roll back fossil fuel subsidies, moves that would target the energy sources that scientists say are the primary drivers of anthropogenic climate change. The wording was contentious, though. Just before the Glasgow deal was adopted, India requested that the deal call on countries to “phase down,” instead of “phase out,” unabated coal. That minor word change triggered a lot of angst in the plenary hall, but delegations agreed to the request to save the deal.

劍指化石燃料

該協議要求各國減少對煤炭的依賴,並取消化石燃料補貼;這措辭是首度加入,它所針對的能源,是科學家所說的導致人為氣候變化的主要原因。 不過,其措辭是有爭議的。就在格拉斯哥協定通過的前一刻,印度要求將協議內容中要求各國「逐步淘汰」未使用碳捕捉技術的燃煤,改為「逐步減少」。這一微小措辭改變,在議事會場引發諸多焦慮,但各國代表團最後仍同意保住協議,讓它過關。

PAYMENTS TO POOR AND VULNERABLE NATIONS

The deal made some headway on the demands from poor and vulnerable countries that wealthy countries responsible for most emissions pay up. It also, for the first time, made mention of so-called “loss and damage” in the cover section of the agreement. Loss and damage refers to the costs that some countries are already facing from climate change, and these countries have for years wanted payment to help deal with it. Under the deal, though, developed countries have essentially just agreed to continue discussions on the topic. We will see where that leads.

支付貧窮及脆弱國家

為回應窮國及易受氣候變化影響國家之要求,該協議在這方面取得了一些進展,規定富國對排放量應負有最大責任。該協議也首次在封面提到所謂的「損失與損害」。損失與損害是指一些國家因氣候變化已經面臨的成本,這些國家多年來一直希望得到款項以助其因應氣候變化。 不過根據協議,已開發國家基本上只是同意繼續討論此議題,其未來走向仍待觀察。

RULES FOR GLOBAL CARBON MARKETS

Negotiators also closed a deal setting rules for carbon markets, potentially unlocking trillions of dollars for protecting forests, building renewable energy facilities and other projects to combat climate change.

全球碳交易市場規則

談判代表還達成了一項協議,為碳交易市場制定規則,可能促成數兆美元資金流入,用於保護森林、建設再生能源設施,以及其他因應氣候變化之計畫。 Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2021/11/15/2003767870

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