外交官的國際新聞導覽及中東中亞的歷史故事 Diplomat's daily news review and history research on Middle East and Central Asia
Manage episode 296979286 series 2948782
2021 年 6 月 27 日 17:28
埃及總統阿卜杜勒·法塔赫·塞西於 2019 年出席在埃及伊斯梅利亞舉行的儀式
（照片來源：AMR ABDALLAH DALSH / 路透社）
埃及總統阿卜杜勒·法塔赫·塞西周日抵達巴格達，這是自 1990 年薩達姆·侯賽因入侵科威特以來埃及國家元首首次訪問伊拉克。
卡迪米、塞西和阿卜杜拉去年在安曼舉行了一次峰會，原定於 4 月在巴格達舉行另一次峰會，但在埃及發生火車相撞事故導致數十人死傷後推遲了這次峰會。
在伊拉克內閣於 12 月批准續簽向埃及通用石油公司 (EGPC) 供應 1200 萬桶巴士拉輕質原油的合同後，埃及於 2 月在石油、道路、住房、建築和貿易等領域簽署了 15 項交易和諒解備忘錄。 2021。
伊拉克還計劃建造一條管道，旨在每天將 100 萬桶伊拉克原油從南部城市巴士拉出口到約旦的紅海港口亞喀巴。
Sisi makes first Iraq visit by Egyptian leader in decades
This is their fourth round of talks aimed at strengthening security, economic, trade and investment cooperation.
JUNE 27, 2021 17:28
EGYPTIAN PRESIDENT Abdel Fattah al-Sisi attends a ceremony in Ismailia, Egypt, in 2019
(photo credit: AMR ABDALLAH DALSH / REUTERS)
Egypt's President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi arrived in Baghdad on Sunday, marking the first visit by an Egyptian head of state to Iraq since Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990.
The conflict ruptured diplomatic relations between Iraq and Egypt but these have improved in recent years with many senior officials from both countries exchanging visits.
The United States has been urging Iraq to boost ties with Arab nations to counter Iran's influence in the country and Sisi's visit is part of a summit between Egypt, Jordan and Iraq.
This is their fourth round of talks aimed at strengthening security, economic, trade and investment cooperation. In recent years, Iraq had signed cooperation deals in the energy, health and education sectors with Jordan and Egypt.
Jordan's King Abdullah arrived in Baghdad shortly after Sisi and was also received by Iraqi Prime Minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi and Iraqi President Barham Salih.
Kadhimi, Sisi and Abdullah held a summit in Amman last year and were due to hold another in Baghdad in April, but this was delayed after a train crash in Egypt that left dozens dead and wounded.
Egypt signed 15 deals and memoranda of understanding in sectors including oil, roads, housing, construction and trade in February after Iraq's cabinet in December approved renewing its contract to supply the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation (EGPC) with 12 million barrels of Basra light crude for 2021.
"The president affirmed Egypt's aspiration in developing bilateral cooperation with Iraq into a sustainable framework of economic integration and strategic cooperation, especially in light of the great challenges facing the region," an Egypt presidency statement said.
Iraq is also planning to build a pipeline that is meant to export 1 million barrels per day of Iraqi crude from the southern city of Basra to Jordan's Red Sea port of Aqaba.
2021 年 6 月 28 日 00:18
Yamina 主席 Naftali Bennett 於 2021 年 5 月 5 日抵達總統官邸。
（圖片來源：MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/耶路撒冷郵報）
納夫塔利·貝內特總理的一群鄰居致信要求他搬到總理官邸，因為他在拉阿納納的私人住宅周圍不斷發生抗議和新的安全安排。這封信寄給了公安部長 Omer Bar Lev、Shin Bet（以色列安全局）負責人、警察局長 Nadav Argaman。Kobi Shabtai 等。
據該組織的律師庫爾·烏里爾·尼茲裡 (Chur Uriel Nizri) 稱，“抗議者正在憤世嫉俗地利用抗議權，以傷害總理私人住宅附近社區的居民。
由於他的四個孩子在 Ra'anana 學校學習，預計 Bennett 將留在他的私人住宅，而不是搬到耶路撒冷的總理官邸。不過，他曾表示他將在貝爾福官邸舉辦官方活動。
目前，以色列反對派領導人和前總理本雅明·內塔尼亞胡仍住在貝爾福的住所，但他表示，在過去 12 年裡，他將在 7 月 10 日前搬離。
Bennett's neighbors demand he move to PM's residence
The letter from Bennett's neighbors also demanded that every protest near the family residence is stopped immediately and moved to a suitable area.
JUNE 28, 2021 00:18
Yamina chairman Naftali Bennett arrives at the President's Residence, May 5, 2021.
(photo credit: MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/THE JERUSALEM POST)
A group of Prime Minister Naftali Bennett's neighbors sent a letter demanding that he moves to the Prime Minister's Residence following continued protests and new security arrangements around his private residence in Ra'anana. The letter was sent to Public Security Minister Omer Bar Lev, head of the Shin Bet (Israel Security Agency) Nadav Argaman, Police Chief Insp.-Gen. Kobi Shabtai and others.
In addition to the group's demand for Bennett to move into the Prime Minister's Residence on Jerusalem's Balfour Street, the letter also demanded that every protest near the Bennett family residence be stopped immediately and moved to a suitable area.
According to the group's lawyer Chur Uriel Nizri, "the protestors are making cynical use of the right to protest, in order to hurt the residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to the prime minister's private residence.
"The conduct around the prime minister's private residence has created an impossible situation for my clients, whose homes have become a war zone," Nizri also noted.
Bennett is expected to stay in his private residence, rather than move to the Prime Minister's Residence in Jerusalem, due to his four children studying in Ra'anana schools. However, he has said he will use the Balfour residence for official events.
Currently, Israel's opposition leader and former prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu is still residing in the Balfour residence, but has said he would vacate by July 10 after living there for the past 12 years.
由艾米斯皮羅今天下午 5:41更新於晚上 7:21
上週，外交部長亞伊爾·拉皮德 (Yair Lapid)抨擊波蘭新立法，該立法於週四晚上由議會下院通過，預計將限制大屠殺賠償要求，稱其為“不道德和恥辱”。
據波蘭國家通訊社人民行動黨報導，這項以 309 票贊成、0 票反對和 120 票棄權通過的立法規定了對過去的賠償行政決定提出異議的 10 至 30 年截止日期。該法律的批評者認為，它將有效地切斷猶太人收回在大屠殺之前和期間被沒收的財產的能力。
波蘭總理馬特烏斯·莫拉維茨基（左）和以色列總理本雅明·內塔尼亞胡於 2019 年 2 月 14 日在波蘭華沙舉行的中東和平與安全會議上。 （美聯社 / Michael Sohn）
外交部政治部負責人阿隆·巴爾（Alon Bar）“表達了以色列國對該立法的嚴重失望”，“據專家稱，預計這將對大屠殺倖存者及其後裔提出的 90% 的財產歸還請求產生不利影響，”根據外交部的說法。
2019 年 5 月 11 日，數以千計的波蘭民族主義者遊行到美國駐波蘭華沙大使館，抗議華盛頓施加壓力，要求賠償在大屠殺期間家人失去財產的猶太人。（美聯社照片/ Czarek Sokolowski）
去年 1 月，杜達拒絕參加在耶路撒冷舉行的世界大屠殺論壇，因為他沒有被邀請在活動中發言。一周後，在克拉科夫的一次會議上，以色列總統里夫林斷言，在大屠殺期間，“許多波蘭人袖手旁觀，甚至協助謀殺猶太人”，儘管有歷史證據，但波蘭一直在努力否認這一點。
Israel, Poland summon each other’s envoys over Holocaust restitution law spat
Foreign Ministry official tells Polish envoy not too late to walk back legislation; Lapid: ‘We’re not interested in Polish money. We are fighting for the pride of our people’
By AMY SPIROToday, 5:41 pmUpdated at 7:21 pm
Poland and Israel each summoned the other’s ambassador for meetings on Sunday as a rift deepens between the countries after a bill on Holocaust restitution advanced in the Polish parliament.
Last week, Foreign Minister Yair Lapid slammed new Polish legislation, which was passed on Thursday night by the lower house of parliament and is expected to limit Holocaust restitution claims, as “immoral and a disgrace.”
In response, Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki hit back at Lapid’s claim.
“I can only say that as long as I am the prime minister, Poland will not pay for German crimes: Neither zloty, nor euro, nor dollar,” Morawiecki said in response to a question at a press conference on Friday about Lapid’s comments.
On Sunday, Lapid harshly criticized Morawiecki’s words.
“The prime minister of Poland should check the facts again,” he said in a statement. “Millions of Jews were killed on Polish soil and no legislation will erase their memory. We’re not interested in Polish money and hinting at such is antisemitic.
“We are fighting for the memory of the Holocaust victims, for the pride of our people, and we won’t allow any parliament to pass laws whose goal is to deny the Holocaust.”
The legislation, which passed with 309 votes in favor, zero votes opposed and 120 abstentions, according to Polish state news agency PAP, places a 10-to-30-year cutoff date on contesting past administrative decisions on restitution. Critics of the law argue that it will effectively cut off the ability of Jews to reclaim property that was seized before and during the Holocaust.
“It is a horrific injustice and disgrace that harms the rights of Holocaust survivors, their heirs, and members of the Jewish communities that existed in Poland for hundreds of years,” said Lapid last week. “This is an incomprehensible action. This immoral law will seriously harm relations between the countries.”
Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki, left, and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu at a conference on Peace and Security in the Middle East in Warsaw, Poland, February 14, 2019. (AP/Michael Sohn)
The Foreign Ministry summoned Polish Ambassador to Israel Marek Magierowski on Sunday to express its disapproval over the law.
Alon Bar, head of the Foreign Ministry’s political department, “expressed the State of Israel’s severe disappointment” at the legislation, “which is expected to adversely affect, according to experts, 90 percent of property restitution requests from Holocaust survivors and their descendants,” according to the Foreign Ministry.
Bar also reiterated Lapid’s comments from last week noting that the law is expected to adversely affect Israeli-Polish relations, “and emphasized that it is not too late for Poland to halt these measures… and return to discourse on property restitution.”
Poland on Sunday also summoned Israel’s envoy to the European nation amid the dispute.
Polish Deputy Foreign Minister Pawel Jablonski said Warsaw summoned Tal Ben-Ari Yaalon, Israel’s charge d’affaires, in order to “explain to her in a decisive and factual way what it’s about,” Jablonski told state television TVP.
The meeting in Warsaw is slated to be held on Monday. Jablonski told the state TV network that he believes “that unfortunately what we’re dealing with here is a situation that certain Israeli politicians are exploiting for internal political purposes.”
Thousands of Polish nationalists march to the US Embassy, in Warsaw, Poland, May 11, 2019, to protest against pressure from Washington to compensate Jews whose families lost property during the Holocaust. (AP Photo/Czarek Sokolowski)
Poland’s foreign ministry said Friday the introduction of time limits would “lead to the elimination of fraud and irregularities, which occurred on a large scale.”
“The new regulations do not in any way restrict the possibility of bringing civil suits to seek damages, irrespective of the plaintiff’s nationality or origin,” it added.
Holocaust restitution in Poland is unpopular among many citizens, and Polish President Andrzej Duda campaigned against it ahead of his reelection last year. Many Polish citizens believe that claims should only be addressed to Nazi Germany and that it is unfair for Poland to pay out any damages from the Holocaust era.
“There won’t be any damages paid for heirless property,” Duda said last year. “I will never sign a law that will privilege any ethnic group vis-à-vis others. Damages should be paid by the one that started the war.”
Poland is the only country in the European Union that has not passed comprehensive national legislation to return, or provide compensation for, private property confiscated by the Nazis or nationalized by the communist regime.
Issues of Holocaust restitution and revisionism have repeatedly plagued Israeli-Polish ties. In 2018, Warsaw passed a law that made it illegal to accuse the Polish nation or state of complicity in Nazi German war crimes. The move sparked an outcry from Israel, but the standoff largely ended when Poland agreed to amend the law to remove any criminal penalties.
Last January, Duda refused to attend the World Holocaust Forum in Jerusalem after he was not invited to speak at the event. A week later, during a meeting in Krakow, Israeli President Rivlin asserted that “many Poles stood by and even assisted in the murder of Jews” during the Holocaust, something Poland has worked to deny, despite historical evidence.
2021 年 6 月 27 日 17:38
2021 年 5 月 12 日，以色列的阿什凱倫，以色列的鐵穹反導系統開火以攔截從加沙地帶向以色列發射的火箭
在沙特阿拉伯，根據一份報告，分配給特殊用途海軍陸戰隊空地特遣部隊 - 危機響應 - 中央司令部 (SPMAGTF-CR-CC) 的美國海軍陸戰隊最近參加了反無人機系統 (C-UAS) 培訓。培訓包括熟悉旨在檢測和威懾敵方無人機的手持式 C-UAS 設備。
隨著 Arrow 4 與導彈防禦組織和美國導彈防禦局的合作，Arrow 進入了一個新階段。它建立在海灣戰爭以來 30 年的發展基礎上。簡而言之，以色列已經做好了與美國一起開發的準備，並且已經為美國陸軍提供了兩個鐵穹電池。
“以色列應該向海灣國家出售鐵穹頂，”準將。(ret.) Ephraim Sneh 在 Ynet 的一篇文章中寫道。他是前國防部副部長和內坦亞學院戰略對話中心的首席執行官。
Rafael 製造 Spyder，Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) 製造 Barak 系統。2016 年 12 月的外國報導稱，以色列已向阿塞拜疆出售了 Barak-8 系統。捷克共和國是購買 Rafael 的 Spyder 防空系統的國家之一。捷克共和國還獲得了由 IAI 的 Elta 製造的用於鐵穹頂的雷達。
這意味著與海灣達成更合理的協議可能涉及以色列開發的其他防空技術，這些技術是以色列擅長的並且已經銷往國外。由於美國對這些計劃的支持，Iron Dome、David's Sling 和 Arrow 可能會遇到障礙。其他系統可能更容易以更及時的方式交付。
How can Israel and the Gulf increase air defense cooperation?
Offering Iron Dome may not be possible due to sensitive issues involved with the system, but Israeli defense companies make other systems that have those capabilities.
JUNE 27, 2021 17:38
Israel's Iron Dome anti-missile system fires to intercept a rocket launched from the Gaza Strip towards Israel, as seen from Ashkelon, Israel, May 12, 2021
(photo credit: REUTERS/AMIR COHEN)
Countries need better air-defense systems against drone and cruise-missile threats. This is particularly true in the Middle East, where new weapons are proliferating, especially among Iranian-backed groups, such as the Houthis in Yemen and Hamas in Gaza, as well as militias in Iraq and Hezbollah in Lebanon.
To defend against these threats requires more investment in air-defense capabilities. The United States knows this, and US Central Command’s Gen. Kenneth McKenzie has been a leader in warning about these threats.
In Saudi Arabia, the US Marines assigned to Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force – Crisis Response – Central Command (SPMAGTF-CR-CC) recently participated in Counter-Unmanned Aircraft System (C-UAS) training, according to a report. The training involved familiarization with the handheld C-UAS devices that are designed to detect and deter enemy drones.
The SPMAGTF-CR-CC is a crisis response force that is prepared to deploy a variety of capabilities, according to a US government website. A photo of the drill shows men with futuristic “drone defender” gadgets that look like giant ray guns.
Meanwhile, the US Department of Defense is “implementing a variety of means to counter the UAS,” US-led coalition spokesman Col. Wayne Marotto tweeted on Friday. “The Dronebuster is a handheld jammer that can force a UAS to descend or to return to its operator. Also, the CLaWS, Compact Laser Weapon System, gives the coalition a dynamic defense against attack drones.”
That is the US answer to increased threats. Reports say the US is drawing down Patriot batteries in the region. There are other systems to stop threats, such as C-RAM. But it is unclear, if there are fewer Patriot batteries, what will secure a wide swath of countries that are US partners, including Jordan, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states.
Israel has new peace partners in the Gulf, and it has developed its own multilayered integrated air-defense systems, such as Iron Dome, David’s Sling and the Arrow missile.
The Arrow has entered a new phase with Arrow 4 development, a collaboration with the Missile Defense Organization and the US Missile Defense Agency. It builds on 30 years of development since the Gulf war. In short, Israel is well plugged in to join development with the US, and it has provided the US Army with two Iron Dome batteries.
“Israel should sell Iron Dome to the Gulf states,” Brig.-Gen. (ret.) Ephraim Sneh wrote in an article for Ynet. He is a former deputy defense minister and the CEO of the Center for Strategic Dialogue at Netanya Academic College.
The US is withdrawing air defenses, reportedly from Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait and Jordan, “effectively removing US regional allies’ layer of protection against missiles and UAVs,” Sneh wrote. This means that while these countries may have their own defenses, “the main challenge for Riyadh still remains the protection of crucial sites.”
A new regional threat has emerged from Iran and its development of drones and missiles, as well as its exportation of this technology. Iran’s incoming president is considered to be even more extreme than the last one.
“Given this new regional reality, Israel must act,” Sneh wrote. This could involve “bolstering its cooperation with US allies in the region. Some already have open diplomatic relations with Israel, while others maintain unofficial contacts.”
There is a long road ahead. Sneh suggests Israel could offer Iron Dome and David’s Sling as a defense system to Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Bahrain.
“It is no secret that Netanyahu and Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman held talks on strategic issues, which have yet to lead to tangible results… It is also no secret that Israel has offered its air-defense systems to other countries,” he wrote. “The establishment of an aerial defense alliance between Israel and its neighbors is an act of diplomatic courage, and all those involved stand only to gain from it.”
Rumors about Iron Dome being offered to the Gulf or even the US sending its Iron Dome batteries there have been mentioned before. In fact, Yoel Guzansky in March argued that Israel must consider assisting Saudi Arabia, which is under constant missile attack.
Guzansky is a senior research fellow specializing in Gulf politics and security at Tel Aviv University’s Institute for National Security Studies. He is one of Israel’s leading experts on the Gulf, which makes him well placed to understand not only the Abraham Accords but also the new complex issues involving Saudi Arabia.
“Israel would do the right thing by offering the [Saudi] kingdom assistance in defending its strategic facilities against the growing threat from Iran,” Guzansky wrote.
There are many issues at play here. Offering the Iron Dome may not be possible due to some sensitive issues involved with the system. However, Israeli defense companies also make other systems that have air-defense capabilities.
Rafael makes Spyder, and Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) makes the Barak system. Foreign reports in December 2016 said Israel had sold a Barak-8 system to Azerbaijan. The Czech Republic is among the countries that are buying Rafael’s Spyder air-defense system. The Czech Republic has also acquired the radar used in the Iron Dome, which is made by IAI’s Elta.
This means a more reasonable agreement with the Gulf might involve other air-defense technology that Israel has developed, which Israel excels at and has already sold abroad. Iron Dome, David’s Sling and Arrow, because of US support for the programs, may have hurdles. Other systems may be easier to deliver in a more timely manner.
There are other issues involved as well, such as creating a basic air-defense cooperation language to warn about threats across the region. In addition, joint naval exercises or joint air-force drills in which Israeli pilots might participate alongside their Gulf peers would help create this common language.
These tentative steps have been taken in previous drills, such as a recent event in Greece where Israeli and UAE officers were both present. Much more work remains to be done.
奇怪的石雕中的畫作可能是在大約 3200 年前製作的，其中包括坐在地下的“黑社會”的細節。
2021 年 6 月 21 日 09:20
在 Yazılıkaya Rock Temple 與冥界的十二位神靈合影
（圖片來源：KLAUS-PETER SIMON/WIKIMEDIA COMMONS）
土耳其 Yazılıkaya 岩石神廟的考古發掘始於近 200 年前，揭示了一個古老的日曆和宇宙地圖，這些地圖提供了有趣的證據。
奇怪的石雕中的畫作可能是在大約 3200 年前製作的，其中包括坐在地下的“黑社會”的細節。觀看 Luwian Studies University 研究該主題的解釋：
早在 1834 年，法國考古學家和歷史學家 Charles Texier 就在這座寺廟中發現了石灰石雕刻，描繪了 90 多個不同的人物，包括動物、怪物和眾神。
破譯這些畫花了將近 200 年的時間，但研究人員已經確定這些描繪是一個宇宙，包括地球、天空和“冥界”，展示了創世神話的生命力。
“我們相信這座寺廟完全代表了宇宙的象徵形象，包括它的靜態層次——地球、天空和冥界，以及更新的循環過程——白天和黑夜或夏天和冬天，”一位研究人員在接受采訪時解釋說。發表在Skyscape Archaeology 雜誌上的一篇文章。
Stunning archaeological find: Is there an 'underworld' under the earth?
The paintings in the strange stone carvings, which were probably made about 3,200 years ago, include details of an "underworld" sitting beneath the earth.
By MAARIV ONLINE
JUNE 21, 2021 09:20
Relief with the twelve gods of the underworld at Yazılıkaya Rock Temple
(photo credit: KLAUS-PETER SIMON/WIKIMEDIA COMMONS)
Archaeological excavations at the Yazılıkaya Rock Temple in Turkey, which began almost 200 years ago, revealed an ancient calendar and a map of the cosmos that present interesting evidence.
The paintings in the strange stone carvings, which were probably made about 3,200 years ago, include details of an "underworld" sitting beneath the earth. Watch an explanation from Luwian Studies University that researched the subject:
In the temple, discovered by French archaeologist and historian Charles Texier as early as 1834, limestone carvings depicting more than 90 different figures, including animals, monsters and gods, have been found.
It took almost 200 years to decipher the paintings, but researchers have determined that the representations are of a cosmos that includes the Earth, the sky and the "underworld" that show the vitality of the creation myth.
On one wall there are drawings of the goddess of the sun and the goddess of the storm, where one can see that gods were placed in the painting higher than the other figures. In contrast, on the eastern and western walls of the temple one can see the lesser people, the phases of the moon and the seasons, signifying "cycles and rebirth," according to the researchers.
According to estimates, scholars estimate that in those days there were about 17 deities, each with a line marking between the gods. Also, in one of the rooms of the temple was a painting dedicated to the "underworld," with testimonies of the god of the sword.
"We believe the temple fully represents a symbolic image of the universe, including its static levels - earth, sky and underworld, as well as the cyclical processes of renewal - day and night or summer and winter," one researcher explained in an interview in an article published in the Journal of Skyscape Archaeology.
希伯來大學和特拉維夫大學的研究人員發現了大約 13 萬年前生活在該地區的一種新型“人類”的遺骸。
2021 年 6 月 24 日 21:56
在 Nesher Ramla 的其他物品中發現的頭骨。
（照片來源：YOSSI ZAIDNER 博士）
Nesher Ramla 的遺址距離現代城市幾公里，可能靠近早期人類可以捕獵動物的水庫。TAU人類學家Israel Hershkovitz教授說，今天，挖掘現場充滿了許多動物骨頭、用於生火和屠宰的石器以及包括頭骨在內的人骨。
“我們知道現代人——或智人——在大約 20 萬年前抵達這個地區，”他說。“當我們開始挖掘和檢查不同的考古層時，我們發現它們的歷史可以追溯到 140,000 到 120,000 年前，因此我們希望能找到智人的遺骸。我們沒有意識到另一種形式的人類正與他們生活在一起。”
該遺址是在希伯來大學考古學家 Yossi Zaidner 博士領導的 Nesher 水泥廠進行的打撈挖掘中發現的。以色列法律要求在任何新建築項目的同時進行打撈挖掘。
在 Nesher Ramla 的挖掘過程中發現了厚厚的考古層。（照片來源：Yossi Zaidner 博士）
研究人員認為，他們以該遺址命名的新發現的人類類型，在數十萬年前，至少直到 13 萬年前生活在該地區。
Nesher Ramla 研究團隊（從左到右）：Israel Hershkovitz、Marion Prevost、Hila May、Rachel Sarig 和 Yossi Zaidner。（照片來源：特拉維夫大學）
研究人員認為，Nesher Ramla 是尼安德特人和其他古代亞洲人的祖先。
“以前，人們認為尼安德特人大約在 70,000 到 50,000 年前從歐洲到達[現在的]以色列，”Hershkovitz 說。“然而，現在我們談論的是大約 13 萬年前生活在這裡的人口。”
在 Nesher Ramla 發現的頭骨和頜骨化石。（照片來源：特拉維夫大學）
“我們開始尋找這個種群的其他成員，我們發現之前在以色列其他史前遺址出土的一些化石，包括 Qesem 洞穴，屬於同一群體，”赫什科維茨說。
根據赫什科維茨的說法，Nesher Ramla Homo 和Homo sapiens 不僅和平共處、交流技術，而且還繁衍後代。
“他們在文化和生物學上都參與其中，”他說。“在歐洲，情況非常不同，因為當現代人類在大約 45,000 年前到達那裡時，他們完全消滅了當地的尼安德特人。這沒有發生在這裡。”
“我們認為，我們在幾個可追溯到 100,000 年前的洞穴中發現的一些後來的化石可能屬於智人和內舍爾拉姆拉的後代，”他補充道。
例如，在下加利利 (Lower Galilee) 的 Qafzeh 洞穴中，考古學家發現了幾具具有這兩個物種特徵的人類遺骸，有些更接近於智人，有些更接近於 Nesher Ramla。
“溫暖的天氣會破壞 DNA，”赫什科維茨說。“在以色列，我們無法找到任何早於 15,000 年前保存下來的 DNA。”
“人們以範式思考，”TAU 博士 Rachel Sarig 說。“這就是為什麼人們努力將這些化石歸於已知的人類群體，如智人、直立人、海德堡人或尼安德特人。但現在我們說：不。這本身就是一個群體，具有鮮明的特徵和特徵。”
過去，正如另一位研究人員希拉·梅博士指出的那樣，遺傳學家已經提出，一個未知的種群代表了智人和尼安德特人之間缺失的聯繫。Nesher Ramla 人口可以代表答案。
“作為非洲、歐洲和亞洲之間的十字路口，以色列土地是一個大熔爐，不同的人口在這里相互混合，後來傳播到整個舊世界，”她補充道。“Nesher Ramla 遺址的發現為人類歷史書寫了新的、引人入勝的篇章。”
New prehistoric human unknown to science discovered in Israel
Hebrew U and Tel Aviv University researchers found remains of a new type of ‘Homo’ who lived in the region some 130,000 years ago.
JUNE 24, 2021 21:56
Skull found at the site among other items at Nesher Ramla.
(photo credit: DR. YOSSI ZAIDNER)
A new type of early human previously not known to scientists has been discovered in Israel, Tel Aviv University and Hebrew University researchers announced Thursday as their extraordinary findings appeared in the prestigious academic journal Science.
Researchers believe the new “Homo” species intermarried with Homo sapiens and was an ancestor of the Neanderthals.
Tens of thousands of years ago, the busy central region of what is now a densely populated and traffic-jammed part of Israel, was a landscape that very much resembled the African savanna. It featured rhinos, wild horses and cattle and other large animals that were perfect game for ancient hunter-gatherers.
The site of Nesher Ramla, a few kilometers from the modern-day city, was probably close to a water reservoir where early humans could hunt animals. Today, the dig site is filled with many animal bones, stone tools for making fire and butchering, and human bones, including skulls, TAU anthropologist Prof. Israel Hershkovitz said.
“We know that modern humans – or Homo sapiens – arrived in this area some 200,000 years ago,” he said. “When we started excavating and examining the different archaeological layers, we found that they dated back between 140,000 and 120,000 years ago, so we expected to find remains of Homo sapiens. We did not realize that another form of human was living alongside them.”
The site was discovered during a salvage excavation led by Hebrew University archaeologist Dr. Yossi Zaidner at the Nesher cement plant. Israeli law demands that a salvage excavation be carried out alongside any new construction project.
Thick archaeological layers uncovered during the dig at Nesher Ramla. (Photo credit: Dr. Yossi Zaidner)
“This is an extraordinary discovery,” said Zaidner. “We never imagined that alongside Homo sapiens, archaic Homo roamed the area so late in human history.”
The researchers believe that the newly discovered human type, which they named after the site, lived in the region hundreds of thousands of years ago and at least until 130,000 years ago.
The Nesher Ramla research team (Left to Right): Israel Hershkovitz, Marion Prevost, Hila May, Rachel Sarig and Yossi Zaidner. (Photo credit: Tel Aviv University)
Hershkovitz said it took a long time to determine that the bones they found indeed belonged to a hitherto unknown species.
“There was no ‘eureka’ moment,” he noted.
But the findings may radically change what researchers have so far believed about how ancient populations evolved and interacted, including how sapiens and Neanderthal, other ancient human types, related to each other.
“We have shown that contrary to what was previously believed, the Neanderthals are not a European story, but very much a story of the Levant,” he said.
Researchers believe the Nesher Ramla was an ancestor of the Neanderthals and other archaic Asian populations.
“Previously, it was thought that Neanderthals arrived in [what is now] Israel around 70,000 to 50,000 years ago from Europe,” Hershkovitz remarked. “However, now we are talking about a population living here some 130,000 years ago.”
Some features of the remains, like the teeth and the jaws, were more similar to Neanderthal species, while the skulls resembled the Homo type. But something did not make sense.
Fossil remains of skull and jaw found at Nesher Ramla. (Photo credit: Tel Aviv University)
When the researchers understood that the bones they had retrieved did not belong to either a Neanderthal or a Homo sapiens, they started to examine the possibility that they belonged to the last survivors of a more archaic population that they thought had become extinct hundreds of thousands of years earlier.
“We started to look for other members of this population, and we discovered that some fossils previously unearthed at other prehistoric sites in Israel, including the Qesem cave, belonged to the same group,” Hershkovitz said.
“We therefore realized that we were dealing with a huge population that lived in the region, and probably also migrated in different directions, including in Asia and in Europe and later became the humans we know as Neanderthal.”
According to Hershkovitz, Nesher Ramla Homo and Homo sapiens not only coexisted peacefully and exchanged technology, but also produced offspring.
“They engaged culturally and biologically,” he said. “In Europe, the story was very different because when modern humans arrived there around 45,000 years ago, they completely eliminated the local Neanderthals. This did not happen here.”
“We think that some later fossils we found in several caves dating back to 100,000 years ago probably belonged to offspring of sapiens and Nesher Ramla,” he added.
For example, in the Qafzeh cave in the Lower Galilee, archaeologists found the remains of several humans presenting the features of both species, some closer to the sapiens, some to the Nesher Ramla.
“It is similar to what happens when we see that certain children look more like their mother and some look more like their father,” Hershkovitz noted.
The scientists were not able to extract any DNA from the fossils.
“Warm weather destroys DNA,” Hershkovitz said. “In Israel, we have not been able to find any preserved DNA from earlier than 15,000 years ago.”
For this reason, the researchers’ conclusions are based on the morphology of the bones found.
“People think in paradigms,” said TAU Dr. Rachel Sarig. “That’s why efforts have been made to ascribe these fossils to known human groups like Homo sapiens, Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis or the Neanderthals. But now we say: No. This is a group in itself, with distinct features and characteristics.”
In the past, geneticists had already suggested that an unknown population represented the missing link between sapiens and Neanderthal, as pointed out by another researcher, Dr. Hila May. The Nesher Ramla population could represent the answer.
“As a crossroads between Africa, Europe and Asia, the Land of Israel served as a melting pot where different human populations mixed with one another, to later spread throughout the Old World,” she added. “The discovery from the Nesher Ramla site writes a new and fascinating chapter in the story of humankind.”