2021.06.28 國際新聞導讀-埃及總統塞西訪問伊拉克、以色列思考協助波灣國家改善防空系統、以色列考古發現新人類化石

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2021.06.28 國際新聞導讀-埃及總統塞西訪問伊拉克、以色列思考協助波灣國家改善防空系統、以色列考古發現新人類化石

塞西埃及領導人數十年來首次訪問伊拉克

這是雙方旨在加強安全、經貿和投資合作的第四輪會談。

通過路透

2021 年 6 月 27 日 17:28

埃及總統阿卜杜勒·法塔赫·塞西於 2019 年出席在埃及伊斯梅利亞舉行的儀式

(照片來源:AMR ABDALLAH DALSH / 路透社)

埃及總統阿卜杜勒·法塔赫·塞西周日抵達巴格達,這是自 1990 年薩達姆·侯賽因入侵科威特以來埃及國家元首首次訪問伊拉克。

衝突使伊拉克和埃及之間的外交關係破裂,但近年來兩國許多高級官員互訪,外交關係有所改善。

美國一直在敦促伊拉克加強與阿拉伯國家的關係,以對抗伊朗在該國的影響,塞西的訪問是埃及、約旦和伊拉克峰會的一部分。

這是雙方旨在加強安全、經貿和投資合作的第四輪會談。近年來,伊拉克與約旦和埃及簽署了能源、衛生和教育領域的合作協議。

約旦國王阿卜杜拉在塞西之後不久抵達巴格達,並受到伊拉克總理穆斯塔法·卡迪米和伊拉克總統巴勒姆·薩利赫的接見。

卡迪米、塞西和阿卜杜拉去年在安曼舉行了一次峰會,原定於 4 月在巴格達舉行另一次峰會,但在埃及發生火車相撞事故導致數十人死傷後推遲了這次峰會。

在伊拉克內閣於 12 月批准續簽向埃及通用石油公司 (EGPC) 供應 1200 萬桶巴士拉輕質原油的合同後,埃及於 2 月在石油、道路、住房、建築和貿易等領域簽署了 15 項交易和諒解備忘錄。 2021。

埃及總統聲明說:“總統肯定了埃及希望將與伊拉克的雙邊合作發展成為經濟一體化和戰略合作的可持續框架,特別是考慮到該地區面臨的巨大挑戰。”

伊拉克還計劃建造一條管道,旨在每天將 100 萬桶伊拉克原油從南部城市巴士拉出口到約旦的紅海港口亞喀巴。

Sisi makes first Iraq visit by Egyptian leader in decades

This is their fourth round of talks aimed at strengthening security, economic, trade and investment cooperation.

By REUTERS

JUNE 27, 2021 17:28

EGYPTIAN PRESIDENT Abdel Fattah al-Sisi attends a ceremony in Ismailia, Egypt, in 2019

(photo credit: AMR ABDALLAH DALSH / REUTERS)

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Egypt's President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi arrived in Baghdad on Sunday, marking the first visit by an Egyptian head of state to Iraq since Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990.

The conflict ruptured diplomatic relations between Iraq and Egypt but these have improved in recent years with many senior officials from both countries exchanging visits.

The United States has been urging Iraq to boost ties with Arab nations to counter Iran's influence in the country and Sisi's visit is part of a summit between Egypt, Jordan and Iraq.

This is their fourth round of talks aimed at strengthening security, economic, trade and investment cooperation. In recent years, Iraq had signed cooperation deals in the energy, health and education sectors with Jordan and Egypt.

Jordan's King Abdullah arrived in Baghdad shortly after Sisi and was also received by Iraqi Prime Minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi and Iraqi President Barham Salih.

Kadhimi, Sisi and Abdullah held a summit in Amman last year and were due to hold another in Baghdad in April, but this was delayed after a train crash in Egypt that left dozens dead and wounded.

Egypt signed 15 deals and memoranda of understanding in sectors including oil, roads, housing, construction and trade in February after Iraq's cabinet in December approved renewing its contract to supply the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation (EGPC) with 12 million barrels of Basra light crude for 2021.

"The president affirmed Egypt's aspiration in developing bilateral cooperation with Iraq into a sustainable framework of economic integration and strategic cooperation, especially in light of the great challenges facing the region," an Egypt presidency statement said.

Iraq is also planning to build a pipeline that is meant to export 1 million barrels per day of Iraqi crude from the southern city of Basra to Jordan's Red Sea port of Aqaba.

貝內特的鄰居要求他搬到總理的住所

貝內特鄰居的來信還要求立即停止家庭住宅附近的所有抗議活動,並將其轉移到合適的區域。

通過耶路撒冷郵報STAFF

2021 年 6 月 28 日 00:18

Yamina 主席 Naftali Bennett 於 2021 年 5 月 5 日抵達總統官邸。

(圖片來源:MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/耶路撒冷郵報)

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納夫塔利·貝內特總理的一群鄰居致信要求他搬到總理官邸,因為他在拉阿納納的私人住宅周圍不斷發生抗議和新的安全安排。這封信寄給了公安部長 Omer Bar Lev、Shin Bet(以色列安全局)負責人、警察局長 Nadav Argaman。Kobi Shabtai 等。

該組織除了要求貝內特搬進位於耶路撒冷貝爾福街的總理官邸外,還要求立即停止貝內特家族住宅附近的所有抗議活動,並轉移到合適的區域。

據該組織的律師庫爾·烏里爾·尼茲裡 (Chur Uriel Nizri) 稱,“抗議者正在憤世嫉俗地利用抗議權,以傷害總理私人住宅附近社區的居民。

尼茲裡還指出:“圍繞總理私人住宅的行為為我的客戶創造了一個不可能的境地,他們的房屋已成為戰區。”

由於他的四個孩子在 Ra'anana 學校學習,預計 Bennett 將留在他的私人住宅,而不是搬到耶路撒冷的總理官邸。不過,他曾表示他將在貝爾福官邸舉辦官方活動。

目前,以色列反對派領導人和前總理本雅明·內塔尼亞胡仍住在貝爾福的住所,但他表示,在過去 12 年裡,他將在 7 月 10 日前搬離。

Bennett's neighbors demand he move to PM's residence

The letter from Bennett's neighbors also demanded that every protest near the family residence is stopped immediately and moved to a suitable area.

By JERUSALEM POST STAFF

JUNE 28, 2021 00:18

Yamina chairman Naftali Bennett arrives at the President's Residence, May 5, 2021.

(photo credit: MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/THE JERUSALEM POST)

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A group of Prime Minister Naftali Bennett's neighbors sent a letter demanding that he moves to the Prime Minister's Residence following continued protests and new security arrangements around his private residence in Ra'anana. The letter was sent to Public Security Minister Omer Bar Lev, head of the Shin Bet (Israel Security Agency) Nadav Argaman, Police Chief Insp.-Gen. Kobi Shabtai and others.

In addition to the group's demand for Bennett to move into the Prime Minister's Residence on Jerusalem's Balfour Street, the letter also demanded that every protest near the Bennett family residence be stopped immediately and moved to a suitable area.

According to the group's lawyer Chur Uriel Nizri, "the protestors are making cynical use of the right to protest, in order to hurt the residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to the prime minister's private residence.

"The conduct around the prime minister's private residence has created an impossible situation for my clients, whose homes have become a war zone," Nizri also noted.

Bennett is expected to stay in his private residence, rather than move to the Prime Minister's Residence in Jerusalem, due to his four children studying in Ra'anana schools. However, he has said he will use the Balfour residence for official events.

Currently, Israel's opposition leader and former prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu is still residing in the Balfour residence, but has said he would vacate by July 10 after living there for the past 12 years.

以色列,波蘭召集彼此的特使討論大屠殺歸還法的爭吵

外交部官員告訴波蘭特使不遲於立法;拉皮德:“我們對波蘭的錢不感興趣。我們正在為我們人民的驕傲而戰

艾米斯皮羅今天下午 5:41更新於晚上 7:21

波蘭和以色列分別召集對方大使參加週日的會議,因為在波蘭議會提出了一項關於大屠殺歸還的法案後,兩國之間的裂痕加深。

上週,外交部長亞伊爾·拉皮德 (Yair Lapid)抨擊波蘭新立法,該立法於週四晚上由議會下院通過,預計將限制大屠殺賠償要求,稱其為“不道德和恥辱”。

作為回應,波蘭總理馬特烏斯·莫拉維茨基反擊了拉皮德的說法。

“我只能說,只要我還是總理,波蘭就不會為德國的罪行付出代價:茲羅提、歐元或美元都不會,”莫拉維茨基在周五的新聞發布會上回答有關拉皮德評論的問題時說。

週日,拉皮德嚴厲批評了莫拉維茨基的話。

“波蘭總理應該再次核實事實,”他在一份聲明中說。“數以百萬計的猶太人在波蘭的土地上被殺,沒有任何法律可以抹去他們的記憶。我們對波蘭的錢不感興趣,暗示這是反猶太主義的。

“我們正在為大屠殺受害者的記憶和我們人民的驕傲而戰,我們不會允許任何議會通過旨在否認大屠殺的法律。”

據波蘭國家通訊社人民行動黨報導,這項以 309 票贊成、0 票反對和 120 票棄權通過的立法規定了對過去的賠償行政決定提出異議的 10 至 30 年截止日期。該法律的批評者認為,它將有效地切斷猶太人收回在大屠殺之前和期間被沒收的財產的能力。

“這是一種可怕的不公正和恥辱,損害了大屠殺倖存者、他們的繼承人和在波蘭存在了數百年的猶太社區成員的權利,”拉皮德上週表示。“這是一個難以理解的行動。這種不道德的法律將嚴重損害兩國關係。”

波蘭總理馬特烏斯·莫拉維茨基(左)和以色列總理本雅明·內塔尼亞胡於 2019 年 2 月 14 日在波蘭華沙舉行的中東和平與安全會議上。 (美聯社 / Michael Sohn)

外交部周日召見了波蘭駐以色列大使馬雷克·馬杰羅夫斯基,表示對該法律的反對。

外交部政治部負責人阿隆·巴爾(Alon Bar)“表達了以色列國對該立法的嚴重失望”,“據專家稱,預計這將對大屠殺倖存者及其後裔提出的 90% 的財產歸還請求產生不利影響,”根據外交部的說法。

巴爾還重申了拉皮德上週的評論,指出該法律預計將對以波關係產生不利影響,“並強調波蘭現在停止這些措施……並重新討論財產歸還為時不晚。”

在爭端中,波蘭週日還召集了以色列駐歐洲國家的特使。

波蘭副外長帕維爾·賈布隆斯基說,華沙召見了以色列的代辦塔爾·本-阿里·亞倫,以“果斷和事實地向她解釋事情的經過,”賈布隆斯基告訴國家電視台 TVP。

華沙會議定於週一舉行。Jablonski 告訴國家電視台,他認為“不幸的是,我們在這里處理的是某些以色列政客為了內部政治目的而利用的情況。”

2019 年 5 月 11 日,數以千計的波蘭民族主義者遊行到美國駐波蘭華沙大使館,抗議華盛頓施加壓力,要求賠償在大屠殺期間家人失去財產的猶太人。(美聯社照片/ Czarek Sokolowski)

波蘭外交部周五表示,引入時間限制將“消除大規模發生的欺詐和違規行為”。

它補充說:“無論原告的國籍或出身如何,新規定都不會以任何方式限制提起民事訴訟尋求損害賠償的可能性。”

波蘭的大屠殺歸還在許多公民中不受歡迎,波蘭總統安傑伊·杜達在去年連任前發起了反對。許多波蘭公民認為,索賠只能向納粹德國提出,波蘭支付大屠殺時代的任何損失是不公平的。

“不會為無繼承人的財產支付任何損失,”杜達去年表示。“我永遠不會簽署一項法律,讓任何族群相對於其他族群享有特權。損害應由發動戰爭的人支付。”

波蘭是歐盟中唯一沒有通過全面的國家立法來歸還或賠償被納粹沒收或被共產主義政權國有化的私有財產的國家。

大屠殺歸還和修正主義問題一再困擾著以波關係。2018 年,華沙通過了一項法律,將指控波蘭民族或國家參與納粹德國戰爭罪行列為非法行為。此舉引發了以色列的強烈抗議,但當波蘭同意修改法律以取消任何刑事處罰時,僵局基本結束。

去年 1 月,杜達拒絕參加在耶路撒冷舉行的世界大屠殺論壇,因為他沒有被邀請在活動中發言。一周後,在克拉科夫的一次會議上,以色列總統里夫林斷言,在大屠殺期間,“許多波蘭人袖手旁觀,甚至協助謀殺猶太人”,儘管有歷史證據,但波蘭一直在努力否認這一點。

Israel, Poland summon each other’s envoys over Holocaust restitution law spat

Foreign Ministry official tells Polish envoy not too late to walk back legislation; Lapid: ‘We’re not interested in Polish money. We are fighting for the pride of our people’

By AMY SPIROToday, 5:41 pmUpdated at 7:21 pm

Poland and Israel each summoned the other’s ambassador for meetings on Sunday as a rift deepens between the countries after a bill on Holocaust restitution advanced in the Polish parliament.

Last week, Foreign Minister Yair Lapid slammed new Polish legislation, which was passed on Thursday night by the lower house of parliament and is expected to limit Holocaust restitution claims, as “immoral and a disgrace.”

In response, Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki hit back at Lapid’s claim.

“I can only say that as long as I am the prime minister, Poland will not pay for German crimes: Neither zloty, nor euro, nor dollar,” Morawiecki said in response to a question at a press conference on Friday about Lapid’s comments.

On Sunday, Lapid harshly criticized Morawiecki’s words.

“The prime minister of Poland should check the facts again,” he said in a statement. “Millions of Jews were killed on Polish soil and no legislation will erase their memory. We’re not interested in Polish money and hinting at such is antisemitic.

“We are fighting for the memory of the Holocaust victims, for the pride of our people, and we won’t allow any parliament to pass laws whose goal is to deny the Holocaust.”

The legislation, which passed with 309 votes in favor, zero votes opposed and 120 abstentions, according to Polish state news agency PAP, places a 10-to-30-year cutoff date on contesting past administrative decisions on restitution. Critics of the law argue that it will effectively cut off the ability of Jews to reclaim property that was seized before and during the Holocaust.

“It is a horrific injustice and disgrace that harms the rights of Holocaust survivors, their heirs, and members of the Jewish communities that existed in Poland for hundreds of years,” said Lapid last week. “This is an incomprehensible action. This immoral law will seriously harm relations between the countries.”

Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki, left, and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu at a conference on Peace and Security in the Middle East in Warsaw, Poland, February 14, 2019. (AP/Michael Sohn)

The Foreign Ministry summoned Polish Ambassador to Israel Marek Magierowski on Sunday to express its disapproval over the law.

Alon Bar, head of the Foreign Ministry’s political department, “expressed the State of Israel’s severe disappointment” at the legislation, “which is expected to adversely affect, according to experts, 90 percent of property restitution requests from Holocaust survivors and their descendants,” according to the Foreign Ministry.

Bar also reiterated Lapid’s comments from last week noting that the law is expected to adversely affect Israeli-Polish relations, “and emphasized that it is not too late for Poland to halt these measures… and return to discourse on property restitution.”

Poland on Sunday also summoned Israel’s envoy to the European nation amid the dispute.

Polish Deputy Foreign Minister Pawel Jablonski said Warsaw summoned Tal Ben-Ari Yaalon, Israel’s charge d’affaires, in order to “explain to her in a decisive and factual way what it’s about,” Jablonski told state television TVP.

The meeting in Warsaw is slated to be held on Monday. Jablonski told the state TV network that he believes “that unfortunately what we’re dealing with here is a situation that certain Israeli politicians are exploiting for internal political purposes.”

Thousands of Polish nationalists march to the US Embassy, in Warsaw, Poland, May 11, 2019, to protest against pressure from Washington to compensate Jews whose families lost property during the Holocaust. (AP Photo/Czarek Sokolowski)

Poland’s foreign ministry said Friday the introduction of time limits would “lead to the elimination of fraud and irregularities, which occurred on a large scale.”

“The new regulations do not in any way restrict the possibility of bringing civil suits to seek damages, irrespective of the plaintiff’s nationality or origin,” it added.

Holocaust restitution in Poland is unpopular among many citizens, and Polish President Andrzej Duda campaigned against it ahead of his reelection last year. Many Polish citizens believe that claims should only be addressed to Nazi Germany and that it is unfair for Poland to pay out any damages from the Holocaust era.

“There won’t be any damages paid for heirless property,” Duda said last year. “I will never sign a law that will privilege any ethnic group vis-à-vis others. Damages should be paid by the one that started the war.”

Poland is the only country in the European Union that has not passed comprehensive national legislation to return, or provide compensation for, private property confiscated by the Nazis or nationalized by the communist regime.

Issues of Holocaust restitution and revisionism have repeatedly plagued Israeli-Polish ties. In 2018, Warsaw passed a law that made it illegal to accuse the Polish nation or state of complicity in Nazi German war crimes. The move sparked an outcry from Israel, but the standoff largely ended when Poland agreed to amend the law to remove any criminal penalties.

Last January, Duda refused to attend the World Holocaust Forum in Jerusalem after he was not invited to speak at the event. A week later, during a meeting in Krakow, Israeli President Rivlin asserted that “many Poles stood by and even assisted in the murder of Jews” during the Holocaust, something Poland has worked to deny, despite historical evidence.

以色列與海灣國家如何加強防空合作?

由於該系統涉及敏感問題,可能無法提供鐵穹頂,但以色列國防公司製造了具有這些功能的其他系統。

作者:SETH J. FRANZMAN

2021 年 6 月 27 日 17:38

2021 年 5 月 12 日,以色列的阿什凱倫,以色列的鐵穹反導系統開火以攔截從加沙地帶向以色列發射的火箭

(圖片來源:路透社/AMIR COHEN)

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各國需要更好的防空系統來抵禦無人機和巡航導彈威脅。在中東尤其如此,新武器正在擴散,尤其是在伊朗支持的團體中,例如也門的胡塞武裝和加沙的哈馬斯,以及伊拉克的民兵和黎巴嫩的真主黨。

為了抵​​禦這些威脅,需要對防空能力進行更多投資。美國知道這一點,美國中央司令部的肯尼思·麥肯齊將軍一直是對這些威脅發出警告的領導者。

在沙特阿拉伯,根據一份報告,分配給特殊用途海軍陸戰隊空地特遣部隊 - 危機響應 - 中央司令部 (SPMAGTF-CR-CC) 的美國海軍陸戰隊最近參加了反無人機系統 (C-UAS) 培訓。培訓包括熟悉旨在檢測和威懾敵方無人機的手持式 C-UAS 設備。

據美國政府網站稱,SPMAGTF-CR-CC 是一支準備部署各種能力的危機響應部隊。演習的照片顯示,男子手持看起來像巨型射線槍的未來派“無人機防御者”小工具。

與此同時,以美國為首的聯軍發言人韋恩馬洛托上校週五在推特上說,美國國防部正在“實施各種手段來對抗無人機系統”。“Dronebuster 是一種手持式乾擾器,可以迫使無人機下降或返回其操作員。此外,CLaWS,即緊湊型激光武器系統,為聯盟提供了針對攻擊無人機的動態防禦。”

這是美國應對日益增加的威脅的對策。報導稱,美國正在該地區撤出愛國者電池。還有其他系統可以阻止威脅,例如 C-RAM。但目前尚不清楚,如果愛國者電池數量減少,將如何保障包括約旦、沙特阿拉伯和海灣國家在內的眾多美國合作夥伴國家的安全。

以色列在海灣地區有了新的和平夥伴,並開發了自己的多層綜合防空系統,如鐵穹、大衛彈弓和箭導彈。

隨著 Arrow 4 與導彈防禦組織和美國導彈防禦局的合作,Arrow 進入了一個新階段。它建立在海灣戰爭以來 30 年的發展基礎上。簡而言之,以色列已經做好了與美國一起開發的準備,並且已經為美國陸軍提供了兩個鐵穹電池。

“以色列應該向海灣國家出售鐵穹頂,”準將。(ret.) Ephraim Sneh 在 Ynet 的一篇文章中寫道。他是前國防部副部長和內坦亞學院戰略對話中心的首席執行官。

據報導,美國正在從沙特阿拉伯、伊拉克、科威特和約旦撤出防空系統,“有效地消除了美國地區盟友對導彈和無人機的保護層,”Sneh 寫道。這意味著雖然這些國家可能有自己的防禦措施,但“利雅得面臨的主要挑戰仍然是保護關鍵地點。”

伊朗及其無人機和導彈的發展以及該技術的出口已經出現了新的區域威脅。伊朗即將上任的總統被認為比上任總統更加極端。

“鑑於這種新的地區現實,以色列必須採取行動,”斯內寫道。這可能涉及“加強與該地區美國盟友的合作。一些已經與以色列建立了開放的外交關係,而另一些則保持著非官方的接觸。”

前面還有很長的路要走。Sneh 建議以色列可以向沙特阿拉伯、阿聯酋和巴林提供鐵穹和大衛彈弓作為防禦系統。

“內塔尼亞胡和沙特王儲穆罕默德·本·薩勒曼就戰略問題進行了會談,這已經不是什麼秘密了,但尚未取得切實成果……以色列向其他國家提供防空系統也不是什麼秘密,”他寫了。“以色列與其鄰國建立防空聯盟是一種外交勇氣,所有相關方都只會從中受益。”

之前已經提到過有關向海灣提供鐵穹甚至美國向那裡發送鐵穹電池的謠言。事實上,Yoel Guzansky 在 3 月份認為,以色列必須考慮協助沙特阿拉伯,因為沙特阿拉伯經常受到導彈襲擊。

Guzansky 是特拉維夫大學國家安全研究所專門研究海灣政治和安全的高級研究員。他是以色列在海灣問題上的領先專家之一,這使他不僅能夠理解亞伯拉罕協議,而且能夠很好地理解涉及沙特阿拉伯的新的複雜問題。

古贊斯基寫道:“以色列將通過向[沙特]王國提供援助來保護其戰略設施免受伊朗日益增長的威脅,這是正確的事情。”

這裡有很多問題在起作用。由於系統涉及一些敏感問題,可能無法提供鐵穹頂。然而,以色列國防公司也製造其他具有防空能力的系統。

Rafael 製造 Spyder,Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) 製造 Barak 系統。2016 年 12 月的外國報導稱,以色列已向阿塞拜疆出售了 Barak-8 系統。捷克共和國是購買 Rafael 的 Spyder 防空系統的國家之一。捷克共和國還獲得了由 IAI 的 Elta 製造的用於鐵穹頂的雷達。

這意味著與海灣達成更合理的協議可能涉及以色列開發的其他防空技術,這些技術是以色列擅長的並且已經銷往國外。由於美國對這些計劃的支持,Iron Dome、David's Sling 和 Arrow 可能會遇到障礙。其他系統可能更容易以更及時的方式交付。

還涉及其他問題,例如創建基本的防空合作語言以警告該地區的威脅。此外,以色列飛行員可能與海灣同行一起參加的聯合海軍演習或聯合空軍演習將有助於創造這種共同語言。

在之前的演習中已經採取了這些試探性步驟,例如最近在希臘舉行的一次活動中,以色列和阿聯酋的官員都在場。還有很多工作要做。

How can Israel and the Gulf increase air defense cooperation?

Offering Iron Dome may not be possible due to sensitive issues involved with the system, but Israeli defense companies make other systems that have those capabilities.

By SETH J. FRANTZMAN

JUNE 27, 2021 17:38

Israel's Iron Dome anti-missile system fires to intercept a rocket launched from the Gaza Strip towards Israel, as seen from Ashkelon, Israel, May 12, 2021

(photo credit: REUTERS/AMIR COHEN)

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Countries need better air-defense systems against drone and cruise-missile threats. This is particularly true in the Middle East, where new weapons are proliferating, especially among Iranian-backed groups, such as the Houthis in Yemen and Hamas in Gaza, as well as militias in Iraq and Hezbollah in Lebanon.

To defend against these threats requires more investment in air-defense capabilities. The United States knows this, and US Central Command’s Gen. Kenneth McKenzie has been a leader in warning about these threats.

In Saudi Arabia, the US Marines assigned to Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force – Crisis Response – Central Command (SPMAGTF-CR-CC) recently participated in Counter-Unmanned Aircraft System (C-UAS) training, according to a report. The training involved familiarization with the handheld C-UAS devices that are designed to detect and deter enemy drones.

The SPMAGTF-CR-CC is a crisis response force that is prepared to deploy a variety of capabilities, according to a US government website. A photo of the drill shows men with futuristic “drone defender” gadgets that look like giant ray guns.

Meanwhile, the US Department of Defense is “implementing a variety of means to counter the UAS,” US-led coalition spokesman Col. Wayne Marotto tweeted on Friday. “The Dronebuster is a handheld jammer that can force a UAS to descend or to return to its operator. Also, the CLaWS, Compact Laser Weapon System, gives the coalition a dynamic defense against attack drones.”

That is the US answer to increased threats. Reports say the US is drawing down Patriot batteries in the region. There are other systems to stop threats, such as C-RAM. But it is unclear, if there are fewer Patriot batteries, what will secure a wide swath of countries that are US partners, including Jordan, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states.

Israel has new peace partners in the Gulf, and it has developed its own multilayered integrated air-defense systems, such as Iron Dome, David’s Sling and the Arrow missile.

The Arrow has entered a new phase with Arrow 4 development, a collaboration with the Missile Defense Organization and the US Missile Defense Agency. It builds on 30 years of development since the Gulf war. In short, Israel is well plugged in to join development with the US, and it has provided the US Army with two Iron Dome batteries.

“Israel should sell Iron Dome to the Gulf states,” Brig.-Gen. (ret.) Ephraim Sneh wrote in an article for Ynet. He is a former deputy defense minister and the CEO of the Center for Strategic Dialogue at Netanya Academic College.

The US is withdrawing air defenses, reportedly from Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait and Jordan, “effectively removing US regional allies’ layer of protection against missiles and UAVs,” Sneh wrote. This means that while these countries may have their own defenses, “the main challenge for Riyadh still remains the protection of crucial sites.”

A new regional threat has emerged from Iran and its development of drones and missiles, as well as its exportation of this technology. Iran’s incoming president is considered to be even more extreme than the last one.

“Given this new regional reality, Israel must act,” Sneh wrote. This could involve “bolstering its cooperation with US allies in the region. Some already have open diplomatic relations with Israel, while others maintain unofficial contacts.”

There is a long road ahead. Sneh suggests Israel could offer Iron Dome and David’s Sling as a defense system to Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Bahrain.

“It is no secret that Netanyahu and Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman held talks on strategic issues, which have yet to lead to tangible results… It is also no secret that Israel has offered its air-defense systems to other countries,” he wrote. “The establishment of an aerial defense alliance between Israel and its neighbors is an act of diplomatic courage, and all those involved stand only to gain from it.”

Rumors about Iron Dome being offered to the Gulf or even the US sending its Iron Dome batteries there have been mentioned before. In fact, Yoel Guzansky in March argued that Israel must consider assisting Saudi Arabia, which is under constant missile attack.

Guzansky is a senior research fellow specializing in Gulf politics and security at Tel Aviv University’s Institute for National Security Studies. He is one of Israel’s leading experts on the Gulf, which makes him well placed to understand not only the Abraham Accords but also the new complex issues involving Saudi Arabia.

“Israel would do the right thing by offering the [Saudi] kingdom assistance in defending its strategic facilities against the growing threat from Iran,” Guzansky wrote.

There are many issues at play here. Offering the Iron Dome may not be possible due to some sensitive issues involved with the system. However, Israeli defense companies also make other systems that have air-defense capabilities.

Rafael makes Spyder, and Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) makes the Barak system. Foreign reports in December 2016 said Israel had sold a Barak-8 system to Azerbaijan. The Czech Republic is among the countries that are buying Rafael’s Spyder air-defense system. The Czech Republic has also acquired the radar used in the Iron Dome, which is made by IAI’s Elta.

This means a more reasonable agreement with the Gulf might involve other air-defense technology that Israel has developed, which Israel excels at and has already sold abroad. Iron Dome, David’s Sling and Arrow, because of US support for the programs, may have hurdles. Other systems may be easier to deliver in a more timely manner.

There are other issues involved as well, such as creating a basic air-defense cooperation language to warn about threats across the region. In addition, joint naval exercises or joint air-force drills in which Israeli pilots might participate alongside their Gulf peers would help create this common language.

These tentative steps have been taken in previous drills, such as a recent event in Greece where Israeli and UAE officers were both present. Much more work remains to be done.

驚人的考古發現:地底下是否存在“冥界”?

奇怪的石雕中的畫作可能是在大約 3200 年前製作的,其中包括坐在地下的“黑社會”的細節。

通過MAARIV 在線

2021 年 6 月 21 日 09:20

在 Yazılıkaya Rock Temple 與冥界的十二位神靈合影

(圖片來源:KLAUS-PETER SIMON/WIKIMEDIA COMMONS)

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土耳其 Yazılıkaya 岩石神廟的考古發掘始於近 200 年前,揭示了一個古老的日曆和宇宙地圖,這些地圖提供了有趣的證據。

奇怪的石雕中的畫作可能是在大約 3200 年前製作的,其中包括坐在地下的“黑社會”的細節。觀看 Luwian Studies University 研究該主題的解釋:

早在 1834 年,法國考古學家和歷史學家 Charles Texier 就在這座寺廟中發現了石灰石雕刻,描繪了 90 多個不同的人物,包括動物、怪物和眾神。

破譯這些畫花了將近 200 年的時間,但研究人員已經確定這些描繪是一個宇宙,包括地球、天空和“冥界”,展示了創世神話的生命力。

一面牆上有太陽女神和風暴女神的圖畫,可以看到神靈被放置在比其他人物更高的畫中。研究人員稱,相比之下,在寺廟的東牆和西牆,人們可以看到較小的人、月相和季節,象徵著“輪迴和重生”。

據估計,當時有學者估計大約有17位神靈,每個神靈之間都有一條線。此外,在寺廟的一個房間裡還有一幅獻給“冥界”的畫,上面有劍神的證詞。

“我們相信這座寺廟完全代表了宇宙的象徵形象,包括它的靜態層次——地球、天空和冥界,以及更新的循環過程——白天和黑夜或夏天和冬天,”一位研究人員在接受采訪時解釋說。發表在Skyscape Archaeology 雜誌上的一篇文章。

Stunning archaeological find: Is there an 'underworld' under the earth?

The paintings in the strange stone carvings, which were probably made about 3,200 years ago, include details of an "underworld" sitting beneath the earth.

By MAARIV ONLINE

JUNE 21, 2021 09:20

Relief with the twelve gods of the underworld at Yazılıkaya Rock Temple

(photo credit: KLAUS-PETER SIMON/WIKIMEDIA COMMONS)

Archaeological excavations at the Yazılıkaya Rock Temple in Turkey, which began almost 200 years ago, revealed an ancient calendar and a map of the cosmos that present interesting evidence.

The paintings in the strange stone carvings, which were probably made about 3,200 years ago, include details of an "underworld" sitting beneath the earth. Watch an explanation from Luwian Studies University that researched the subject:

In the temple, discovered by French archaeologist and historian Charles Texier as early as 1834, limestone carvings depicting more than 90 different figures, including animals, monsters and gods, have been found.

It took almost 200 years to decipher the paintings, but researchers have determined that the representations are of a cosmos that includes the Earth, the sky and the "underworld" that show the vitality of the creation myth.

On one wall there are drawings of the goddess of the sun and the goddess of the storm, where one can see that gods were placed in the painting higher than the other figures. In contrast, on the eastern and western walls of the temple one can see the lesser people, the phases of the moon and the seasons, signifying "cycles and rebirth," according to the researchers.

According to estimates, scholars estimate that in those days there were about 17 deities, each with a line marking between the gods. Also, in one of the rooms of the temple was a painting dedicated to the "underworld," with testimonies of the god of the sword.

"We believe the temple fully represents a symbolic image of the universe, including its static levels - earth, sky and underworld, as well as the cyclical processes of renewal - day and night or summer and winter," one researcher explained in an interview in an article published in the Journal of Skyscape Archaeology.

在以色列發現科學未知的新史前人類

希伯來大學和特拉維夫大學的研究人員發現了大約 13 萬年前生活在該地區的一種新型“人類”的遺骸。

作者:羅塞拉·特卡特

2021 年 6 月 24 日 21:56

在 Nesher Ramla 的其他物品中發現的頭骨。

(照片來源:YOSSI ZAIDNER 博士)

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特拉維夫大學和希伯來大學的研究人員周四宣布,以色列發現了一種科學家以前不知道的新型早期人類,他們的非凡發現發表在著名的學術期刊《科學》上。

研究人員認為,新的“人類”物種與智人通婚,是尼安德特人的祖先。

數万年前,現在以色列人口稠密和交通擁堵的地區,繁忙的中部地區是一片非常類似於非洲大草原的景觀。它以犀牛、野馬、牛和其他大型動物為特色,是古代狩獵採集者的完美獵物。

Nesher Ramla 的遺址距離現代城市幾公里,可能靠近早期人類可以捕獵動物的水庫。TAU人類學家Israel Hershkovitz教授說,今天,挖掘現場充滿了許多動物骨頭、用於生火和屠宰的石器以及包括頭骨在內的人骨。

“我們知道現代人——或智人——在大約 20 萬年前抵達這個地區,”他說。“當我們開始挖掘和檢查不同的考古層時,我們發現它們的歷史可以追溯到 140,000 到 120,000 年前,因此我們希望能找到智人的遺骸。我們沒有意識到另一種形式的人類正與他們生活在一起。”

該遺址是在希伯來大學考古學家 Yossi Zaidner 博士領導的 Nesher 水泥廠進行的打撈挖掘中發現的。以色列法律要求在任何新建築項目的同時進行打撈挖掘。

在 Nesher Ramla 的挖掘過程中發現了厚厚的考古層。(照片來源:Yossi Zaidner 博士)

“這是一個非凡的發現,”扎伊德納說。“我們從未想過,在人類歷史的這麼晚,古老的智人與智人一起在該地區漫遊。”

研究人員認為,他們以該遺址命名的新發現的人類類型,在數十萬年前,至少直到 13 萬年前生活在該地區。

Nesher Ramla 研究團隊(從左到右):Israel Hershkovitz、Marion Prevost、Hila May、Rachel Sarig 和 Yossi Zaidner。(照片來源:特拉維夫大學)

赫什科維茨說,他們花了很長時間才確定他們發現的骨頭確實屬於一種迄今未知的物種。

“沒有'尤里卡'時刻,”他指出。

但這些發現可能會徹底改變迄今為止研究人員對古代人口如何進化和相互作用的看法,包括智人和尼安德特人,其他古代人類類型如何相互關聯。

“我們已經證明,與之前的看法相反,尼安德特人不是歐洲的故事,而是黎凡特的故事,”他說。

研究人員認為,Nesher Ramla 是尼安德特人和其他古代亞洲人的祖先。

“以前,人們認為尼安德特人大約在 70,000 到 50,000 年前從歐洲到達[現在的]以色列,”Hershkovitz 說。“然而,現在我們談論的是大約 13 萬年前生活在這裡的人口。”

遺骸的一些特徵,如牙齒和頜骨,更類似於尼安德特人物種,而頭骨則類似於人類類型。但有些事情沒有意義。

在 Nesher Ramla 發現的頭骨和頜骨化石。(照片來源:特拉維夫大學)

當研究人員了解到他們取回的骨頭不屬於尼安德特人或智人時,他們開始研究它們是否屬於他們認為已經滅絕了數十萬的更古老人群的最後倖存者的可能性。幾年前。

“我們開始尋找這個種群的其他成員,我們發現之前在以色列其他史前遺址出土的一些化石,包括 Qesem 洞穴,屬於同一群體,”赫什科維茨說。

“因此,我們意識到我們正在與居住在該地區的大量人口打交道,並且可能還向不同的方向遷移,包括在亞洲和歐洲,後來成為我們所知的尼安德特人。”

根據赫什科維茨的說法,Nesher Ramla Homo 和Homo sapiens 不僅和平共處、交流技術,而且還繁衍後代。

“他們在文化和生物學上都參與其中,”他說。“在歐洲,情況非常不同,因為當現代人類在大約 45,000 年前到達那裡時,他們完全消滅了當地的尼安德特人。這沒有發生在這裡。”

“我們認為,我們在幾個可追溯到 100,000 年前的洞穴中發現的一些後來的化石可能屬於智人和內舍爾拉姆拉的後代,”他補充道。

例如,在下加利利 (Lower Galilee) 的 Qafzeh 洞穴中,考古學家發現了幾具具有這兩個物種特徵的人類遺骸,有些更接近於智人,有些更接近於 Nesher Ramla。

赫什科維茨指出:“這類似於我們看到某些孩子看起來更像他們的母親,而有些孩子看起來更像他們的父親時所發生的情況。”

科學家們無法從化石中提取任何 DNA。

“溫暖的天氣會破壞 DNA,”赫什科維茨說。“在以色列,我們無法找到任何早於 15,000 年前保存下來的 DNA。”

出於這個原因,研究人員的結論是基於所發現骨骼的形態。

“人們以範式思考,”TAU 博士 Rachel Sarig 說。“這就是為什麼人們努力將這些化石歸於已知的人類群體,如智人、直立人、海德堡人或尼安德特人。但現在我們說:不。這本身就是一個群體,具有鮮明的特徵和特徵。”

過去,正如另一位研究人員希拉·梅博士指出的那樣,遺傳學家已經提出,一個未知的種群代表了智人和尼安德特人之間缺失的聯繫。Nesher Ramla 人口可以代表答案。

“作為非洲、歐洲和亞洲之間的十字路口,以色列土地是一個大熔爐,不同的人口在這里相互混合,後來傳播到整個舊世界,”她補充道。“Nesher Ramla 遺址的發現為人類歷史書寫了新的、引人入勝的篇章。”

New prehistoric human unknown to science discovered in Israel

Hebrew U and Tel Aviv University researchers found remains of a new type of ‘Homo’ who lived in the region some 130,000 years ago.

By ROSSELLA TERCATIN

JUNE 24, 2021 21:56

Skull found at the site among other items at Nesher Ramla.

(photo credit: DR. YOSSI ZAIDNER)

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A new type of early human previously not known to scientists has been discovered in Israel, Tel Aviv University and Hebrew University researchers announced Thursday as their extraordinary findings appeared in the prestigious academic journal Science.

Researchers believe the new “Homo” species intermarried with Homo sapiens and was an ancestor of the Neanderthals.

Tens of thousands of years ago, the busy central region of what is now a densely populated and traffic-jammed part of Israel, was a landscape that very much resembled the African savanna. It featured rhinos, wild horses and cattle and other large animals that were perfect game for ancient hunter-gatherers.

The site of Nesher Ramla, a few kilometers from the modern-day city, was probably close to a water reservoir where early humans could hunt animals. Today, the dig site is filled with many animal bones, stone tools for making fire and butchering, and human bones, including skulls, TAU anthropologist Prof. Israel Hershkovitz said.

“We know that modern humans – or Homo sapiens – arrived in this area some 200,000 years ago,” he said. “When we started excavating and examining the different archaeological layers, we found that they dated back between 140,000 and 120,000 years ago, so we expected to find remains of Homo sapiens. We did not realize that another form of human was living alongside them.”

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The site was discovered during a salvage excavation led by Hebrew University archaeologist Dr. Yossi Zaidner at the Nesher cement plant. Israeli law demands that a salvage excavation be carried out alongside any new construction project.

Thick archaeological layers uncovered during the dig at Nesher Ramla. (Photo credit: Dr. Yossi Zaidner)

“This is an extraordinary discovery,” said Zaidner. “We never imagined that alongside Homo sapiens, archaic Homo roamed the area so late in human history.”

The researchers believe that the newly discovered human type, which they named after the site, lived in the region hundreds of thousands of years ago and at least until 130,000 years ago.

The Nesher Ramla research team (Left to Right): Israel Hershkovitz, Marion Prevost, Hila May, Rachel Sarig and Yossi Zaidner. (Photo credit: Tel Aviv University)

Hershkovitz said it took a long time to determine that the bones they found indeed belonged to a hitherto unknown species.

“There was no ‘eureka’ moment,” he noted.

But the findings may radically change what researchers have so far believed about how ancient populations evolved and interacted, including how sapiens and Neanderthal, other ancient human types, related to each other.

“We have shown that contrary to what was previously believed, the Neanderthals are not a European story, but very much a story of the Levant,” he said.

Researchers believe the Nesher Ramla was an ancestor of the Neanderthals and other archaic Asian populations.

“Previously, it was thought that Neanderthals arrived in [what is now] Israel around 70,000 to 50,000 years ago from Europe,” Hershkovitz remarked. “However, now we are talking about a population living here some 130,000 years ago.”

Some features of the remains, like the teeth and the jaws, were more similar to Neanderthal species, while the skulls resembled the Homo type. But something did not make sense.

Fossil remains of skull and jaw found at Nesher Ramla. (Photo credit: Tel Aviv University)

When the researchers understood that the bones they had retrieved did not belong to either a Neanderthal or a Homo sapiens, they started to examine the possibility that they belonged to the last survivors of a more archaic population that they thought had become extinct hundreds of thousands of years earlier.

“We started to look for other members of this population, and we discovered that some fossils previously unearthed at other prehistoric sites in Israel, including the Qesem cave, belonged to the same group,” Hershkovitz said.

“We therefore realized that we were dealing with a huge population that lived in the region, and probably also migrated in different directions, including in Asia and in Europe and later became the humans we know as Neanderthal.”

According to Hershkovitz, Nesher Ramla Homo and Homo sapiens not only coexisted peacefully and exchanged technology, but also produced offspring.

“They engaged culturally and biologically,” he said. “In Europe, the story was very different because when modern humans arrived there around 45,000 years ago, they completely eliminated the local Neanderthals. This did not happen here.”

“We think that some later fossils we found in several caves dating back to 100,000 years ago probably belonged to offspring of sapiens and Nesher Ramla,” he added.

For example, in the Qafzeh cave in the Lower Galilee, archaeologists found the remains of several humans presenting the features of both species, some closer to the sapiens, some to the Nesher Ramla.

“It is similar to what happens when we see that certain children look more like their mother and some look more like their father,” Hershkovitz noted.

The scientists were not able to extract any DNA from the fossils.

“Warm weather destroys DNA,” Hershkovitz said. “In Israel, we have not been able to find any preserved DNA from earlier than 15,000 years ago.”

For this reason, the researchers’ conclusions are based on the morphology of the bones found.

“People think in paradigms,” said TAU Dr. Rachel Sarig. “That’s why efforts have been made to ascribe these fossils to known human groups like Homo sapiens, Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis or the Neanderthals. But now we say: No. This is a group in itself, with distinct features and characteristics.”

In the past, geneticists had already suggested that an unknown population represented the missing link between sapiens and Neanderthal, as pointed out by another researcher, Dr. Hila May. The Nesher Ramla population could represent the answer.

“As a crossroads between Africa, Europe and Asia, the Land of Israel served as a melting pot where different human populations mixed with one another, to later spread throughout the Old World,” she added. “The discovery from the Nesher Ramla site writes a new and fascinating chapter in the story of humankind.”

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