外交官的國際新聞導覽及中東中亞的歷史故事 Diplomat's daily news review and history research on Middle East and Central Asia
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伊朗總統易卜拉欣·賴西（右）歡迎日本外相茂木敏充於 2021 年 8 月 22 日在伊朗德黑蘭總統辦公室會面。（伊朗總統辦公室，美聯社）
茂木茂木目前正在中東進行為期 10 天的旅行，並在埃及、約旦、伊拉克和土耳其停留。他計劃在本週晚些時候訪問卡塔爾來結束他的旅行。
艾薩克·赫爾佐格總統於 2021 年 8 月 18 日在耶路撒冷會見日本外相茂木敏充。 (Mark Neyman/GPO)
Japanese foreign minister holds talks in Tehran, days after Israel visit
Meeting with Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi, aimed at ‘deescalating tensions,’ comes after discussions on Iran with Lapid in Jerusalem
Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi, right, welcomes Japanese Foreign Minister Toshimitsu Motegi for their meeting at the presidency office, in Tehran, Iran, on August 22, 2021. (Iranian Presidency Office via AP)
Japanese Foreign Minister Toshimitsu Motegi met Iranian officials in Tehran on Sunday, just days after meeting top Israeli leaders in Jerusalem.
According to Iranian news agencies, Motegi met with Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi, on Sunday in Tehran, and the two discussed the de-escalation of tensions in the region. The president’s official website, president.ir, said Motegi discussed bilateral, regional, and international issues with Raisi.
The two-day visit is the first by a Japanese official since Raisi became Iran’s new president and the first since the Japanese prime minister visited Iran in 2019. The Iranian Students News Agency (ISNA) an Iranian state-run news organization, said that Motegi is in Tehran at the official invitation of Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif.
Iran featured in discussions last week between Motegi and Foreign Minister Yair Lapid in Jerusalem. According to Tokyo, the Japanese foreign minister held a “discussion over the situation in the Middle East, such as the Middle East Peace, Iran, and Afghanistan,” and Motegi “expressed his expectation that the development of relations between Israel and Arab states would be a step toward easing tensions and stabilization of the region.”
Motegi also met with Prime Minister Naftali Bennett and President Isaac Herzog while in Israel, though Iran was not mentioned in readouts of the meetings.
Motegi is currently on a 10-day trip across the Middle East, and has made stops in Egypt, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. He is slated to wrap up his trip with a visit to Qatar later this week.
President Isaac Herzog meets Japanese Foreign Minister Toshimitsu Motegi in Jerusalem, on August 18, 2021. (Mark Neyman/GPO)
The Japanese foreign minister is scheduled to meet with other Iranian officials during his visit to Tehran, including Raisi’s nominated foreign minister, Hossein Amirabdollahian, and other high-ranking officials.
Iran’s state-run IRNA – Islamic Republic News Agency reported Saturday that Motegi’s visit to Tehran is aimed at boosting bilateral relations with Iran, and furthering diplomatic efforts to deescalate and stabilize the Middle East.
During Sunday’s meeting, Raisi welcomed efforts by Japan and other countries to help establish peace and stability in Afghanistan and the region. “Iran has always supported peace and stability in Afghanistan. Of course, we believe that Afghans should make their own decisions in Afghanistan.”
Raisi said he is opposed to the creation of insecurity in the region, adding: “The presence of Americans in the region, including Afghanistan, has not provided security.”
Motegi said Tokyo also supports diplomatic efforts by regional countries to achieve peace and stability in the region. He said Japan believes problems should be resolved peacefully, and through dialogue.
Earlier on Sunday, Motegi met with Zarif and the two also discussed de-escalation of tensions in the region. A semi-official ISNA news agency report on Sunday said that Motegi discussed bilateral, regional, and international issues with Zarif.
In 2019, former Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe visited Iran’s top leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei as an interlocutor for former US president Donald Trump, hoping to ease tensions between Washington and Tehran. But Khamenei did not consider Trump worthy of an exchange of messages.
Bennett is slated to depart for Washington later this week, and to meet with US President Joe Biden in the White House on Thursday, with Iran at the top of his agenda.
說明。2021 年 3 月 2 日，一架聯合航空公司的波音 737 飛機出現在弗吉尼亞州杜勒斯華盛頓杜勒斯國際機場的門口。（Daniel SLIM / AFP）
聲明說，來自美國航空公司、阿特拉斯航空公司、達美航空公司、Omni、夏威夷航空公司和聯合航空公司的 18 艘民用飛機將協助數十艘參與疏散的軍用貨物運輸。
隨著數千名士兵試圖保護阿富汗首都機場的安全，華盛頓設定了在 8 月 31 日前完成五角大樓有史以來最大的撤離任務之一的最後期限。
2021 年 8 月 16 日，美國士兵在喀布爾的喀布爾機場站崗。（Wakil Kohsar / AFP）
總統喬拜登表示，多達 15,000 名美國人需要從阿富汗撤離，他表示，政府還希望將至少 50,000 名阿富汗盟友及其家人帶出該國。
五角大樓週六表示，自行動於 8 月 14 日開始以來，迄今已有 17,000 人被帶走，其中許多人首先飛往卡塔爾或科威特。總數包括 2,500 名美國人。
2021 年 8 月 19 日，在塔利班軍事接管阿富汗後，阿富汗人民坐在一架美國軍用飛機內離開阿富汗，在喀布爾的軍用機場。(Shakib RAHMANI / 法新社)
美國國家安全顧問傑克沙利文週日告訴 CNN，美國軍方及其合作夥伴在過去 24 小時內又運送了 7,900 人。
CRAF 只被激活過兩次——為 1990-91 年的海灣戰爭和 2002-2003 年的伊拉克入侵飛行部隊。
Pentagon orders US airlines to assist with chaotic Kabul airlift
Secretary of Defense activates rarely-used Civil Reserve Air Fleet; the 18 civilian aircraft will transport people from American military bases in Gulf states to Europe and the US
By FRANKIE TAGGARTToday, 9:49 pm
Illustrative. A United Airlines Boeing 737 plane is seen at the gate at Washington's Dulles International Airport in Dulles, Virginia, on March 2, 2021. (Daniel SLIM / AFP)
WASHINGTON (AFP) — The United States on Sunday enlisted several major airlines in its frantic evacuation of tens of thousands of Afghans, Americans, and other foreigners from Kabul, following its fall to Taliban extremists.
Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin activated the rarely-used Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) to aid the onward movement of people arriving at US bases in the Middle East, the Pentagon said.
“We’re going to try our very best to get everybody, every American citizen who wants to get out, out,” Austin said in an ABC interview on the evacuation mission, adding that the same applied to America’s Afghan allies.
Eighteen civilian craft, from American Airlines, Atlas, Delta, Omni, Hawaiian, and United, will aid dozens of military cargo transports involved in the evacuation, the statement said.
Rather than going in and out of Kabul, the planes will transport people from US bases in Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to European countries and, for many, onward to the United States.
With thousands of troops trying to secure the Afghan capital’s airport, Washington has set a deadline to complete one of the largest evacuation missions the Pentagon has ever conducted by August 31.
US soldiers stand guard at the Kabul airport in Kabul on August 16, 2021. (Wakil Kohsar / AFP)
But Austin did not rule out asking the president to extend the deadline.
“We’re going to continue to assess the situation. And again, work as hard as we can to get as many people out as possible. And as we approach that deadline, we’ll make a recommendation to the president,” he told ABC.
Up to 15,000 Americans need to be removed from Afghanistan, according to President Joe Biden, who says the administration wants to get at least 50,000 Afghan allies and their family members out of the country, as well.
Widely criticized over the chaotic exit after a sudden Taliban victory, Biden has warned that the frantic effort to fly Americans, other foreigners, and Afghan allies out of Taliban-occupied Kabul is dangerous.
There have been reports of Taliban militants intimidating and beating people trying to reach the airport, but Austin said the militants had largely been letting American passport holders pass through safely.
The situation was further complicated on Saturday when the US government warned its citizens to stay away from the airport because of “security threats.”
The Pentagon said Saturday that 17,000 people so far had been taken out since the operation began on August 14, with many flown first to Qatar or Kuwait. The total included 2,500 Americans.
Afghan people sit inside a US military aircraft to leave Afghanistan, at the military airport in Kabul on August 19, 2021 after Taliban’s military takeover of Afghanistan. (Shakib RAHMANI / AFP)
US National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan told CNN Sunday that the US military and its partners had flown out a further 7,900 people in the last 24 hours.
“In terms of what we’ll be able to accomplish going forward… we can’t place a specific figure on exactly what we’ll be able to do, but I’ll just tell you that we’re going to try to exceed expectations, and do as much as we can, and take care of as many people as we can, for as long as we can,” Austin told ABC.
The CRAF has only been activated twice — to fly troops for the 1990-91 Gulf War and again in 2002-2003 for the Iraq invasion.
2021 年 8 月 21 日，阿富汗安全部隊新吸收的人員在潘杰希爾省達拉區的班德喬伊地區參加軍事訓練。（Ahmad SAHEL ARMAN / 法新社）
Ali Maisam Nazary 說，自從塔利班在閃電襲擊首都喀布爾後控制了這個國家，成千上萬的人前往潘杰希爾加入戰鬥並找到一個安全的避風港繼續他們的生活。
納扎里補充說，在那裡，傳奇聖戰組織指揮官艾哈邁德·沙阿·馬蘇德的兒子艾哈邁德·馬蘇德在 2001 年 9 月 11 日襲擊事件發生前兩天被基地組織暗殺，在那裡集結了大約 9,000 人的戰鬥部隊。
2021 年 8 月 19 日，阿富汗武裝人員在潘杰希爾省巴扎拉克的帕拉克地區用武器和悍馬車支持阿富汗安全部隊對抗塔利班。（Ahmad SAHEL ARMAN / 法新社）
雖然塔利班控制了阿富汗的絕大多數地區，但納扎里樂觀地強調了一些地區的當地民兵已經開始抵制他們的強硬統治並與馬蘇德的 NRF 建立聯繫的報導。
2021 年 8 月 21 日，在塔利班驚人地接管阿富汗幾天后，阿富汗當地居民的孩子拿著獵槍和一面旗幟站在潘杰希爾省達拉區班德喬伊地區的一座橋上。（艾哈邁德·薩赫勒·阿曼/法新社）
納扎里說，除了馬蘇德的戰鬥部隊，潘杰希爾現在收容了來自阿富汗各地的 1,000 多名流離失所者，他們湧入山谷尋找避難所。
“戰爭只是阿富汗衝突的副產品。導致衝突的原因是阿富汗是一個由少數民族組成的國家…… [並且] 在一個多民族國家，你不能讓一個民族主導政治，而其他人則處於邊緣。”
Afghan resistance forces ready for fight, but hope for negotiations
Thousands have made their way this past week to redoubt in Panjshir province, where many are threatening long-term conflict with the Taliban if talks over country’s future fail
Newly absorbed personnel in the Afghan security forces take part in a military training in Bandejoy area of Dara district in Panjshir province on August 21, 2021. (Ahmad SAHEL ARMAN / AFP)
KABUL, Afghanistan (AFP) — Former Afghan government forces forming a resistance movement in a fortified valley are preparing for “long-term conflict,” but are also seeking to negotiate with the Taliban, their spokesman told AFP in an interview.
Since the Taliban took control of the country following a lightning charge into the capital Kabul, thousands of people have made their way to Panjshir to both join the fight and find a safe haven to continue their lives, Ali Maisam Nazary said.
There, Ahmad Massoud, the son of legendary Mujahideen commander Ahmad Shah Massoud, who was assassinated by Al-Qaeda two days before the September 11, 2001 attacks, has assembled a fighting force of around 9,000 people, Nazary added.
Pictures taken by AFP during training exercises show dozens of recruits performing fitness routines, and a handful of armored Humvees driving across the valley northeast of Kabul.
The National Resistance Front’s main goal is to avoid further bloodshed in Afghanistan and press for a new system of government.
But Nazary said the group is also prepared for conflict, and if the Taliban does not negotiate, it will face resistance across the country.
Afghan armed men supporting the Afghan security forces against the Taliban stand with their weapons and Humvee vehicles at Parakh area in Bazarak, Panjshir province on August 19, 2021. (Ahmad SAHEL ARMAN / AFP)
“The conditions for a peace deal with the Taliban is decentralization — a system that ensures social justice, equality, rights, and freedom for all,” said Nazary, the NRF’s head of foreign relations, adding that if the Taliban does not agree, there will be “long-term conflict.”
Talks between local leaders from Afghanistan’s north and authorities in Pakistan were taking place until just days ago, he added.
While the Taliban control the vast majority of Afghanistan, Nazary optimistically highlighted reports that local militias in some districts have already begun resisting their hardline rule and have formed links with Massoud’s NRF.
“Massoud did not give the order for these things to happen but they are all associated with us,” Nazary said. “The Taliban are overstretched. They cannot be everywhere at the same time. Their resources are limited. They do not have support among the majority.”
He said, however, that Massoud had different views from Amrullah Saleh, latterly the country’s vice president, who is also holed up out in the valley, and last week vowed to lead an uprising.
“Mr. Saleh is in Panjshir. He opted to stay in the country and not flee,” Nazary said, noting Saleh’s strong anti-Pakistan stance was at odds with Massoud, who wants good relations with Afghanistan’s Taliban-supporting neighbor.
“Mr. Saleh is anti-Taliban and anti-Pakistani. That does not mean he is a part of this movement. He is in Panjshir and he is respected,” Nazary added.
The aim right now is to defend Panjshir and its people, Nazary said. “If there is any aggression because our fight is only for defense; if anyone attacks us we will defend ourselves.”
Children of local Afghan residents carrying hunting rifles and a flag stand over a bridge in Bandejoy area of Dara district in Panjshir province on August 21, 2021, days after the Taliban’s stunning takeover of Afghanistan. (Ahmad SAHEL ARMAN / AFP)
Alongside Massoud’s fighting force, Panjshir now hosts more than 1,000 displaced people from across Afghanistan who have poured into the valley looking for sanctuary, Nazary said.
“We are seeing Panjshir become a safe zone for all those groups who feel threatened in other provinces.” He added that the province has seen an influx of intellectuals, women’s and human rights activists, and politicians “who feel threatened by the Taliban.”
Massoud appealed for weapons from the United States in an op-ed published in the Washington Post on Thursday. Nazary told AFP that they also require humanitarian assistance to feed and take care of the newly arrived.
Massoud is determined to stand by the people of the valley and take up his father’s mantle, Nazary added, stressing that Afghanistan needs a federated system of government to close its endless cycle of war.
“War is just a byproduct of conflict in Afghanistan. What has caused the conflict is that Afghanistan is a country made up of ethnic minorities… [and] in a multi-ethnic country you cannot have one ethnic group dominate politics and others having a presence in the margins.”
Nazary says Massoud’s resistance, and others across Afghanistan, are vital in making this change happen.
“Panjshir has always been a beacon of hope.”
2021 年 8 月 22 日 22:14
2021 年 8 月 17 日，塔利班發言人 Zabihullah Mujahid 在阿富汗喀布爾舉行的新聞發布會上發表講話。
消息人士告訴媒體熱線，塔利班將很快宣布組建由毛拉阿卜杜勒·加尼·巴拉達爾 (Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar) 領導的政府。
直到最近，塔利班駐卡塔爾多哈外交辦公室的負責人巴拉達爾在 8 月 15 日喀布爾淪陷後返回阿富汗。2010年2月，他在巴基斯坦被三軍情報局（ISI）和中央情報局官員組成的小組抓獲，並於2018年10月應美國要求獲釋。
2021 年 8 月 16 日，在巴基斯坦-阿富汗邊境城鎮查曼抵達友誼門過境點後，舉著塔利班旗幟的人聚集在一起歡迎一名從阿富汗監獄獲釋的男子（未圖示）。（圖片來源：REUTERS） )
消息人士告訴媒體專線，Hashmat Ghani 會見了塔利班指揮官 Khalil al-Rahman Haqqani，並承諾全力支持。
週日，Hashmat Ghani 在一條推文中說：“雖然我們必須接受塔利班，但不應以此作為西方放棄阿富汗人民的理由。我們一半的人口依賴日薪。在需要時凍結他們的錢可能會帶來災難，不僅在阿富汗，而且在該地區。”
代表團週五在伊斯蘭堡舉行新聞發布會，稱“阿富汗在 1996 年經歷了一黨（塔利班）政府，但失敗了。為了避免這種情況，我們正在努力組建一個適合多民族阿富汗社會的包容性政府。”
阿富汗人民伊斯蘭統一黨（Hezb-e Wahdat Islami Mardum-e阿富汗）領導人和議員穆罕默德·穆哈奇克告訴媒體專線，“為了結束戰爭並在阿富汗建立國家穩定，未來的政府不應單方面形成，而應以人民的意願和各民族和宗教團體的參與為基礎。”
薩利赫現在位於阿富汗中北部、喀布爾以北 93 英里的潘杰希爾山谷，他與已故反蘇和反塔利班游擊隊指揮官艾哈邁德·沙阿·馬蘇德的兒子艾哈邁德·馬蘇德宣布組建反塔利班陣線和國防部長比斯米拉汗穆罕默迪。
該山谷是超過 100,000 人的家園，其中包括阿富汗最大的塔吉克族人聚集地，這個新組織被稱為 Panjshir 抵抗組織，也被稱為阿富汗民族抵抗陣線。
他的父親是被稱為“潘杰希爾之獅”的塔吉克族人，於 2001 年 9 月 9 日被一名自殺式炸彈襲擊者暗殺。分析人士認為，他是在基地組織的慫恿下被殺的。
前美國負責中東事務的副助理國防部長、前美國財政部駐國際安全援助部隊 (ISAF) 高級代表西蒙娜·萊丁 (Simone Ledeen) 告訴媒體，“現在還處於早期階段，很難說有多大來自潘杰希爾的抵抗運動將是有效的。
Taliban to unveil governing framework in coming days
Amir Muhammad Khan Muttaqi, a senior Taliban negotiator, confirmed that an important meeting of the top military and political leadership of the Taliban was held in Kandahar on Friday.
By ARSHAD MEHMOUD/THE MEDIA LINE
AUGUST 22, 2021 22:14
Taliban spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid speaks during a news conference in Kabul, Afghanistan August 17, 2021.
(photo credit: REUTERS/STRINGER)
Taliban will soon announce the formation of a government led by Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar, sources tell The Media Line.
Baradar, until recently head of the Taliban’s diplomatic office in Doha, Qatar, returned to Afghanistan after the August 15 fall of Kabul. In February 2010, he was captured in Pakistan by a team of Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and CIA officers, and in October 2018, he was released at the request of the United States.
The Taliban and other Afghan political leaders are continuing their discussions on the formation of a government.
Amir Muhammad Khan Muttaqi, a senior Taliban negotiator, confirmed to The Media Line that an important meeting of the top military and political leadership of the Taliban was held in Kandahar on Friday.
“Members of the Taliban Supreme Consultative Council (Majlis e-Shura), Doha-based political head Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar and the Taliban’s military chief also participated in the meeting,” he added.
“Our doors are open to all those who want to establish an Islamic state in Afghanistan,” Muttaqi continued. “We want a government in Afghanistan that can amend the state’s constitution for the implementation of an Islamic system.”
People with Taliban's flags gather to welcome a man (not pictured) who was released from prison in Afghanistan, upon his arrival at the Friendship Gate crossing point at the Pakistan-Afghanistan border town of Chaman, Pakistan August 16, 2021. (credit: REUTERS)
Meanwhile, formerly Doha-based senior Taliban officials Mullah Shahabuddin Delawar, Mullah Khairullah Khairkhwa and Mullah Abdul Salam Hanafi met with former Afghan President Hamid Karzai and former Chief Executive of Afghanistan Abdullah Abdullah in Kabul on Saturday.
A high-level Taliban delegation also met on Friday with former prime minister and Soviet-era jihadi leader Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and discussed forming an “inclusive government.”
“Hekmatyar asserted that he supports the current Islamist organization and that he will stand against the outlaws,” sources said.
And in a surprising move on Saturday evening, Hashmat Ghani, a politician, businessman and younger brother of ousted Afghan President Ashraf Ghani, pledged allegiance to the Taliban in Kabul.
Hashmat Ghani met with Taliban commander Khalil al-Rahman Haqqani and promised his full support, sources told The Media Line.
On Sunday, Hashmat Ghani said in a tweet, “While we have to accept the Taliban, it should not be used as a reason for the West to abandon the people of Afghanistan. Half of our population is dependent on daily wages. Freezing their money at the time of need could spell disaster, not just in Afghanistan but for the region.”
Meanwhile, a delegation of Afghan political leaders, including National Assembly Speaker Mir Rahman Rahmani and senior members of the former Northern Alliance, visited Pakistan last week.
They met with Prime Minister Imran Khan, Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi, Army Chief of Staff Gen. Qamar Javed Bajwa and Lt. Gen. Faiz Hameed, Pakistan’s top spy and the director-general of Inter-Services Intelligence.
The delegation held a press conference in Islamabad on Friday and said that “Afghanistan experienced a single party [Taliban] government in 1996, which failed. To avoid such a situation, we are trying to form an inclusive government that will be suitable for the multi-ethnic Afghan society.”
Pakistan is likely to host a regional conference in an effort to prevent continuing civil war in Afghanistan, sources in Islamabad said on Saturday.
China, Russia and Iran would be the main participants at the conference, a Pakistan Foreign Ministry official told The Media Line.
Muhammad Mohaqiq, the leader of the People’s Islamic Unity Party of Afghanistan (Hezb-e Wahdat Islami Mardum-e Afghanistan) and a member of parliament, told The Media Line that “to end the war and create national stability in Afghanistan, the future government should not be formed unilaterally but rather based on the will of the people and the participation of all ethnicities and religious groups.”
To this end, “Negotiations with the Taliban and national political figures are an undeniable necessity,” Mohaqiq added.
Even as the Taliban declared victory, ousted Vice President Amrullah Saleh announced last week: “I am standing for my country and the war is not over.”
In a statement on Twitter, Saleh said that “as per the constitution, in the absence of the president,” he is now the caretaker Afghan president. “I am in touch with all the leaders to get their support and consensus,” he added.
Saleh, now in the Panjshir Valley in north-central Afghanistan, 93 miles north of Kabul, announced the formation of an anti-Taliban front, along with Ahmad Massoud, son of the late anti-Soviet and anti-Taliban guerilla commander Ahmad Shah Massoud, and Defense Minister Bismillah Khan Mohammadi.
The valley is home to more than 100,000 people, including Afghanistan’s largest concentration of ethnic Tajiks, and the new organization is called the Panjshir resistance, also known as the National Resistance Front of Afghanistan.
Ahmad Massoud “declared war” on the Taliban.
His father, an ethnic Tajik known as the “Lion of Panjshir,” was assassinated by a suicide bomber on September 9, 2001. Analysts believe he was killed at the instigation of al-Qaida.
Ahmad Massoud the son said in a video that he has not left Afghanistan and is with his people in Panjshir. The valley is the only major center of resistance to the Taliban.
Sources confirmed that Saleh and Massoud have taken refuge in the Panjshir Valley, established contact with key commanders of the former Northern Alliance and persuaded all of them to join hands against the Taliban.
In an op-ed, Massoud claimed to have prepared fighters for an active struggle and called on the United States to supply arms and ammunition to his militia.
However, Haqqani, the Taliban military commander, on Saturday said in Kabul that “Ahmad Massoud has pledged loyalty to the Taliban via a telephone call.”
Ali Nazari, Massoud’s spokesperson, swiftly rejected the Haqqani claim and told The Media Line from an undisclosed location that “these rumors are a part of baseless propaganda.”
Simone Ledeen, a former US deputy assistant secretary of defense for the Middle East and a former senior US Treasury representative to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), told The Media Line, “It is still early days, so difficult to tell how large and effective the resistance movement from Panjshir will be.
“In terms of overall effectiveness, any resistance movement will need to focus on fundraising and recruitment and will likely request material and financial support from friendly nations,” she said.
“Expect to see a social media presence to counter the Taliban narrative. In the past several days, reports of the Taliban hunting journalists have been circulating,” Ledeen continued. “Many media organizations will no longer be able to operate freely in Afghanistan, and may turn to citizen reporting on social media in the future.
“It will be important to note if any NATO country supports an anti-Taliban resistance effort. I suspect” this will happen, and “if Arab states choose to play a larger and more visible role in combating any terrorist organization” they will also contribute, she said.
“Given the Taliban’s close relationship and overlap with al-Qaida and Iran, it would certainly make sense to see a growing influence and involvement from some of the Gulf nations in the future,” Ledeen said.
Ahmad Wali Massoud, chairman of the Massoud Foundation and a former Afghan ambassador to the United Kingdom, also spoke with The Media Line. He is a younger brother of the late Ahmad Shah Massoud and an uncle of the Ahmad Massoud discussed above.
“We must forget the mistakes of the past and move forward,” Ahmad Wali Massoud said.
“There are obstacles in the way of peace and stability in Afghanistan,” he continued. “The Afghanistan issue has not only internal but external features and peace cannot be achieved without a wide range of consensus.
“If the Taliban have changed, they should negotiate with their opponents with an open heart and mind,” he carried on. “If they negotiate in that same spirit, we will tell them that for long-lasting peace and stability in the country, we can go forward,” Massoud added.
“Irrespective of who is behind our unfolding tragedy – Ghani’s proxy regime, [US diplomat Zalmay] Khalilzad and Abdullah’s proxy peace plan or the Taliban’s proxy war − it does not change the fact that Afghanistan is crashing” and that we Afghans need to fix that, Massoud said.
2021 年 8 月 22 日 17:11
一群太年輕而無法回憶起塔利班 1996 年至 2001 年統治的阿富汗婦女，在該組織重新控制阿富汗並導致數千人逃離該國後，她們的親屬曾講述過同樣的創傷。
2021 年 8 月 16 日，阿富汗喀布爾喀布爾機場外，一名塔利班戰士沖向人群，這是從視頻中拍攝的靜止圖像。（信用：REUTERS TV/via REUTERS）
“我們花了 20 年的時間來建設我們的國家……現在一切都崩潰了，”另一位女士補充道。
Afghan women students see no future in Afghanistan
When they last held power, Taliban strictly enforced their ultra-conservative interpretation of Sunni Islam that included banning women from going to school or working.
AUGUST 22, 2021 17:11
Afghan women leave the site of a blast and gun fire in Jalalabad.
(photo credit: REUTERS/PARWIZ)
A group of Afghan women too young to recall the Taliban's 1996-2001 rule are experiencing the same trauma once recounted by relatives after the group retook control of Afghanistan, leading thousands to flee the country.
"We are going back to darkness," said one of the university students evacuated to Qatar, who described feelings of anxiety and fear and like others declined to provide details that could identify them or their families back home for security reasons.
"It's all the stories that we were hearing from our parents and our grandparents, and at that time it was a story but now it's like the nightmare came true," a second woman said.
The four who spoke to Reuters are among hundreds of Afghan students, mostly women, evacuated to the Gulf Arab state.
When they last held power, Taliban strictly enforced their ultra-conservative interpretation of Sunni Islam that included banning women from going to school or working.
A Taliban fighter runs towards crowd outside Kabul airport, Kabul, Afghanistan August 16, 2021, in this still image taken from a video. (credit: REUTERS TV/via REUTERS)
Many doubt the militant group's proclamations that this time women's rights will be protected under the framework of Islam.
"Everybody knows how harsh and brutal that era was," the second woman told Reuters at a residential compound in the capital Doha housing evacuees, including other nationalities.
She said she did not believe there were enough female teachers in Afghanistan for the gender-segregated classes the Taliban insist on.
The group of women said that the Taliban's values were alien to them and that they would not return to Afghanistan as long as the group exerted control, even under a power-sharing government.
"I feel like I no longer belong to this country and I cannot have my country back because the situation is getting worse day by day," the third woman said.
"It took us 20 years to build our country and … now everything has collapsed," another woman added.
The third woman said she tried to bring a piece of soil with her but it was left behind in luggage at Kabul airport. Now all she has to remind her of Afghanistan is her passport.
She did not know where she would settle but said she was determined to do her best to find a new home and complete her studies.
"I will do whatever I can do … because I don't see the future inside (Afghanistan)."
2021 年 8 月 22 日 17:05
伊朗外交部長賈瓦德·扎里夫於 2021 年 1 月 29 日在土耳其伊斯坦布爾與土耳其外長梅夫魯特·恰武什奧盧出席新聞發布會
土耳其正在與伊朗接壤的邊境修建隔離牆，將阿富汗人拒之門外，並希望控制機場將他們送回。作為土耳其的重要盟友，德國和其他歐洲國家可能會支付它來粉碎難民的希望，就像歐盟國家自 2015 年以來所做的那樣。
塔利班戰士穿著制服在阿富汗扎布爾省 Qalat 的街道上游行，圖片取自 2021 年 8 月 19 日上傳的社交媒體視頻（圖片來源：REUTERS）
幾乎所有土耳其媒體都由政府控制，或者與支持執政的 AKP 黨的極右翼團體有聯繫，因此土耳其的頭條新聞可以解釋為模仿政府的敘述。
與此同時，政府運營的 TRT World 網站上的一篇文章標題為：“國際行為者如何為塔利班統治奠定基礎。”
正在與俄羅斯合作購買 S-400 並與中國達成新交易的土耳其也對他們的想法感興趣。
上週，親政府的阿納多盧新聞網站上一篇更有趣的文章說：“土耳其試圖根據 [a] 新興世界新秩序的現實來定位自己……隨著歷史的軸心從 [the] 大西洋移到 [the] 太平洋，土耳其恰如其分地鞏固了其外交政策的多邊層面。”
就像美國和蘇聯於 1945 年遷入柏林一樣，土耳其認為這是一個關鍵時刻。隨著美國的衰落，新的全球領導人將進入眾所周知的 2021 年柏林，也就是喀布爾。
Turkey sees Afghanistan as lever for global agenda - analysis
Ankara is pursuing both its Islamic and pragmatic geopolitical agendas in Kabul. Despite its concerns, it sees the Taliban win as a boost for its global aspirations.
AUGUST 22, 2021 17:05
Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif attends a news conference with his Turkish counterpart Mevlut Cavusoglu in Istanbul, Turkey, January 29, 2021
(photo credit: TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTRY /HANDOUT VIA REUTERS)
Turkey is desperate to find a way to work with the Taliban and get control of Kabul’s Hamid Karzai International Airport.
It has several agendas. It wants to control Afghanistan as a key route to China and Iran and also to sit astride global jihadist moments from Idlib to Kabul so that it can use them for its own agenda to become an Islamic world leader.
Turkey’s ruling AKP party is linked to the Muslim Brotherhood and Hamas, and it wants to work with Malaysia, Pakistan and other countries on what it sees as “Islamic” causes, such as pressuring India over Kashmir. But it has pragmatic reasons for cooperation with the Taliban as well: Kabul can be the key to influence over Iran, Pakistan, China and Russia.
Turkey’s military presence in Afghanistan is to strengthen the
’s hand in the international arena, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said last week. Erdogan means he wants to help the Taliban, much as Turkey’s ally Qatar has helped them.
Ankara will also position itself as a faucet controlling the flow of Afghan refugees into Europe. It will use the refugee pressure to get funding from Germany in exchange for stemming the tide of Afghans.
Turkey is building a wall on the border with Iran to keep Afghans out and wants control of the airport to ship them back. Germany, a key ally of Turkey, and other European states will likely pay it to crush the hopes of refugees, as European Union states have done since 2015.
Taliban fighters march in uniforms on the street in Qalat, Zabul Province, Afghanistan, in this still image taken from social media video uploaded August 19, 2021 (credit: REUTERS)
But what is Turkey saying about its role in Afghanistan?
Almost all Turkish media is controlled by the government or is linked to far-right groups that support the governing AKP Party, so Turkish headlines can be construed as mimicking the government narrative.
“Turkey will exert all efforts for stability in Afghanistan,” Daily Sabah reported last week.
Meanwhile, an article at government-run TRT World’s website was titled: “How international actors laid the groundwork for Taliban rule.”
“Despite the Taliban insurgency’s strength and its powerful local connections across the country, many experts think that some regional players and international actors, primarily the US, have played a crucial role in facilitating Taliban rule across Afghanistan,” the article said.
Turkey, which is working with Russia to buy S-400s and has new deals with China, is also interested in what they think.
Russia and China want the Taliban to keep ISIS and al-Qaeda weak in Afghanistan and not be a platform for terrorism, according to the article.
A more interesting article on the pro-government Anadolu news site said last week: “Turkey seeks to position itself according to realities of [a] emerging new world order… As the axis of history moves from [the] Atlantic to [the] Pacific, Turkey aptly consolidates [the] multilateral dimension of its foreign policy.”
This article encapsulates the worldview of Ankara in its move to push some of its chess pieces into Afghanistan with the hopes of working with China, Russia and Iran to control Kabul.
Much like the US and Soviet Union moved into Berlin in 1945, Turkey sees this as a key moment. As the US declines, the new global leaders will move into the proverbial Berlin of 2021, which is Kabul.
The post-American world that came in the wake of the US Global War on Terrorism is one where Turkey, Russia, China and Iran will work in concert and not against each other to weaken the US.