2021.09.03 國際新聞導讀-巴格達峰會與開羅峰會都在解決區域糾紛、美國撤出阿富汗不是壞事、阿富汗戰鬥未歇、真主黨要來的伊朗油輪已進入敘利亞準備卸貨

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2021.09.03 國際新聞導讀-巴格達峰會與開羅峰會都在解決區域糾紛、美國撤出阿富汗不是壞事、阿富汗戰鬥未歇、真主黨要來的伊朗油輪已進入敘利亞準備卸貨

為什麼以色列和美國沒有被邀請參加巴格達會議?

許多國家認為以色列是一個地區大國,在對伊朗的製衡體系中可以發揮重要作用,伊朗可能會打擊其核設施

ELIE PODEH

2021 年 9 月 2 日 20:01

上週,伊拉克總統巴勒姆·薩利赫和法國總統埃馬紐埃爾·馬克龍出席了巴格達峰會前的新聞發布會。

(圖片來源:THAIER AL-SUDANI/REUTERS)

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8 月 28 日星期六舉行的巴格達會議在地點和參與者方面都不同尋常。會場在巴格達,東道主為伊拉克總理穆斯塔法·卡迪米,參加者包括法國、埃及、約旦和卡塔爾的領導人,以及沙特阿拉伯、伊朗、科威特和土耳其的外交部長。

該活動力圖實現兩個目標:一,更有限的,是為了加強伊拉克的穩定;另一個是更廣泛的,以加強地區穩定。敘利亞、黎巴嫩和也門已經成為其中一些演員的戰場,沒有被邀請參加此次活動。它的時機,在美國從阿富汗撤軍的高峰期,肯定不是巧合。它反映了該地區各國日益認識到,它們不能再依賴美國的參與,現在必須自謀生路。

會議的召開表明了中東的幾個重要事態發展。第一個與東道國伊拉克有關,該國將自己定位為區域調解人。我們應該記住,自 1990 年代初伊拉克因薩達姆侯賽因入侵科威特而遭到抵制以來,伊拉克並沒有在該地區發揮重要作用。更重要的是,2003 年美國接管伊拉克、什葉派佔多數的“加冕”以及內戰的爆發使伊拉克成為遜尼派阿拉伯世界的賤民。

儘管伊拉克主辦了 2012 年阿拉伯聯盟峰會,但它主要忙於國內問題和擊敗伊斯蘭國的努力。然而,作為一個由什葉派多數控制的阿拉伯國家,伊拉克現在可以方便地在遜尼派阿拉伯沙特阿拉伯和非阿拉伯什葉派國家伊朗之間進行調解。因此,雖然伊拉克以前在阿拉伯世界尋求霸權,但它現在正在尋求通過在該地區的競爭對手之間進行調解來鞏固其地位和影響力。

第二個發展涉及伊拉克、約旦和埃及三邊聯盟的形成和加強。

2019 年以來,這三個國家的領導人和外長至少會晤了 5 次,會談的重點是加強經濟和安全合作,包括共享能源和電力項目(例如,將伊拉克與約旦電網連接起來以減少其依賴伊朗,通過亞喀巴出口伊拉克石油,並建立自由貿易區)。

雖然伊拉克和埃及之前曾爭奪阿拉伯世界的領導權,但它們也經歷了合作時期,例如兩伊戰爭(1980-1988),以及成立了包括也門在內的阿拉伯合作委員會,並與也門解散。伊拉克 1990 年代入侵科威特。目前的情況使這一歷史性聯盟得以延續。

第三個發展是,伊朗和沙特阿拉伯儘管恩怨甚深,但還是設法為討論和對話鋪平了道路,這表明媒體在“溫和”阿拉伯國家與伊朗、敘利亞、敘利亞、真主黨和哈馬斯過於簡單化了。事實上,我們看到沙特阿拉伯、阿聯酋、卡塔爾和土耳其進行複雜的現實政治,為與那些被定義為敵人的人進行談判敞開了大門。

在巴格達會議上,阿聯酋和科威特外長會見了伊朗外長,但尚不清楚伊朗-沙特會議是否也在場邊舉行。儘管如此,巴格達自 4 月以來一直主持伊朗和沙特代表之間的會談,旨在緩和他們之間的緊張局勢。

法國總統馬克龍正試圖在伊拉克的複興中提升他的國家的經濟利益,並逐漸找到重建黎巴嫩的方法。另一方面,美國並不是這次會議的正式參與者,但應該記住,仍有2500名美國士兵部署在伊拉克,一個大型美國外交使團在會議地點附近的巴格達受保護的“綠色地帶”開展活動。

最後的會議公報表示支持加強伊拉克的機構及其穩定,但沒有提出實現這些目標的具體措施。在地區背景下,公報也指出,與會者認識到他們面臨的共同挑戰,這需要在睦鄰友好關係的基礎上進行合作,避免干涉彼此國內事務並尊重每個國家的國家主權。時間會證明這些陳詞濫調是轉化為行動還是停留在紙面上。時間還將證明是否在會議間隙舉行了重要會議。

那麼以色列呢?在從阿富汗撤出美國表面上,宣布了一個加強其區域地位和重要性。

在沒有西方超級大國贊助人的情況下,許多國家認為以色列是一個地區大國,在對伊朗的製衡體系中可以發揮重要作用,如果需要,伊朗可能會襲擊其核設施,因為它1981 年在伊拉克,2007 年在敘利亞。然而,這次會議表明,儘管以色列、阿聯酋和巴林之間建立了公共聯盟,以及以色列與沙特阿拉伯的秘密關係,但這些國家正試圖根據最壞情況下的假設與伊朗達成諒解——核伊朗——以色列的選擇仍將擺在桌面上。

作者在希伯來大學中東和伊斯蘭研究系任教,並且是以色列區域外交政策研究所 Mitvim 的董事會成員。

Why were Israel and the US not invited to the Baghdad conference?

Many countries perceive Israel as a regional power with an important role to play in the system of checks and balances vis-à-vis Iran, which could strike its nuclear facilities

By ELIE PODEH

SEPTEMBER 2, 2021 20:01

IRAQ’S PRESIDENT Barham Salih and France’s President Emmanuel Macron attend a news conference ahead of the Baghdad summit, last week.

(photo credit: THAIER AL-SUDANI/REUTERS)

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The Baghdad conference held on Saturday, August 28, was unusual in terms of both venue and participants. The venue was Baghdad, the host was Iraqi Prime Minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi, and participants included the leaders of France, Egypt, Jordan and Qatar, and foreign ministers of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait and Turkey.

The event sought to accomplish two goals: one, more limited, was to bolster Iraq’s stability; the other, broader, to strengthen regional stability. Syria, Lebanon and Yemen, which have become battlefields for some of these actors, were not invited to the event. Its timing, at the height of the US withdrawal from Afghanistan, was surely no coincidence. It reflected the growing understanding by the states of the region that they can no longer rely on US involvement and must now fend for themselves.

The convening of the conference points to several important developments in the Middle East. The first relates to the host, Iraq, which is positioning itself as a regional mediator. Iraq, we should remember, has not played a significant role in the region since the early 1990s, when it was boycotted over Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait. What is more, the 2003 US takeover of Iraq, the “crowning” of the Shi’ites majority, and the outbreak of civil war turned Iraq into a pariah in the largely Sunni Arab world.

Although Iraq hosted the 2012 Arab League Summit, it was mostly busy with domestic problems and efforts to defeat the Islamic State. However, as an Arab state controlled by a Shi’ite majority, Iraq is now conveniently placed to mediate between Sunni Arab Saudi Arabia and Iran, a non-Arab Shi’ite state. Thus, whereas Iraq previously sought hegemony in the Arab world, it is now seeking to bolster its position and influence by mediating among rivals in the region.

The second development relates to the formation and strengthening of a trilateral alliance among Iraq, Jordan and Egypt.

Since 2019, the leaders and foreign ministers of these three states have met at least five times, with their talks focusing on stronger economic and security cooperation, including shared energy and power projects (for example, hooking up Iraq to the Jordanian grid to reduce its reliance on Iran, exporting Iraqi oil through Aqaba, and establishing a free trade zone).

Although Iraq and Egypt previously competed for leadership of the Arab world, they also experienced periods of cooperation, such as during the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), and the establishment of the Arab Cooperation Council that included also Yemen and was dissolved with Iraq’s 1990s invasion of Kuwait. Current circumstances enable the renewal of this historic alliance.

The third development is that Iran and Saudi Arabia, despite their deep enmity, have managed to pave the way for discussions and dialogue, illustrating that the binary division made by the media between “moderate” Arab states and the radical axis of Iran, Syria, Hezbollah and Hamas is an oversimplification. In fact, we see Saudi Arabia, the Emirates, Qatar and Turkey conducting sophisticated realpolitik that leaves the door open to talks with those defined as enemies.

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At the Baghdad conference, the foreign ministers of the UAE and Kuwait met with Iran’s foreign minister, but it is unclear whether an Iranian-Saudi meeting was also held on the sidelines. Nonetheless, Baghdad has hosted talks since April between Iranian and Saudi representatives aimed at easing tensions between them.

French President Macron is trying to advance his country’s economic interests in Iraq’s rehabilitation, and by-the-by to find ways to rebuild Lebanon, too. On the other hand, the US was not a formal participant at the conference, although one should remember that 2,500 American soldiers are still deployed in Iraq, and a large US diplomatic mission operates in Baghdad’s protected “green zone” near the conference site.

The final conference communique expressed support for the strengthening of Iraq’s institutions and its stability, but stopped short of proposing concrete measures for the implementation of these goals. In the regional context, too, the communique noted that participants recognized the shared challenges they face, which require cooperation on the basis of good neighborly relations that avoid intervention in each other’s domestic matters and respect each country’s national sovereignty. Time will tell whether these general platitudes are translated into actions or remain on paper. Time will also tell whether significant meetings were held on the sidelines of the conference.

And what about Israel? The US pullout from Afghanistan ostensibly heralded a strengthening of its regional position and importance.

In the absence of a Western superpower patron, many countries perceive Israel as a regional power with an important role to play in the system of checks and balances vis-à-vis Iran, which could strike its nuclear facilities, if need be, as it did in 1981 in Iraq and in 2007 in Syria. However, this conference illustrates that despite the public alliance forged among Israel, the UAE and Bahrain, and Israel’s clandestine ties with Saudi Arabia, these countries are trying to reach understandings with Iran based on the assumption that in a worst-case scenario – a nuclear Iran – the Israeli option will still be on the table.

The writer teaches in the Department of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies at Hebrew University and is a board member of Mitvim, the Israeli Institute for Regional Foreign Policies.

美國在阿富汗政策的歷史視角——分析

由於未能阻止襲擊,美國情報界經歷了一次重大改革。

作者:YOAV J. TENEMBAUM

2021 年 9 月 2 日 20:08

8 月 30 日,阿富汗喀布爾,一名 TALIBAN 成員站崗,阿富汗男子為一輛發射火箭的車輛拍照。

(圖片來源:STRINGER/REUTERS)

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應該從廣闊的歷史角度來理解塔利班最近對阿富汗的接管及其隨之而來的影響。在這種情況下,必須避免簡單的比較。

在發生了有史以來最嚴重的恐怖襲擊事件後,美國及其盟國在阿富汗開展了軍事行動。現代史上第一次非國家行為體大規模實施恐怖襲擊,造成2977人死亡、6000多人受傷。美國的中心地帶成為襲擊目標,紐約雙子塔被毀,華盛頓五角大樓受到重創。如果不是美聯航 93 號航班上的乘客試圖控制這架在賓夕法尼亞墜毀的飛機,那麼另一個目標就會被擊中,造成更多人員傷亡。

現在人們知道,在 9/11 事件中有四次企圖進行恐怖襲擊。然而,隨著襲擊的發生,沒有人知道還有多少人未決。那天美國政府普遍存在的不確定感,實際上在接下來的幾天裡,都令人震驚。

自 1941 年 12 月珍珠港事件以來,美國從未以這種方式對敵人感到驚訝。然而,與珍珠港相反,華盛頓和紐約成為了目標。這次恐怖襲擊的影響在恐怖主義歷史上是獨一無二的。即使在那時,它也被視為與之前發生的任何事情都不同。與過去的分界線太清楚了。歷史分水嶺的感覺立即出現。

喬治·W·布什( George W. Bush)總統政府的注意力焦點發生了大轉變。在 9/11 事件之前,布什希望專注於國內問題,而在美國公民遭受前所未有的襲擊之後,他和他的政府將大部分時間和精力投入到更廣泛的外交事務和國家安全上。

由於未能阻止襲擊,美國情報界經歷了一次重大改革。自 1947 年《國家安全法》以來,沒有進行過類似的改變。

由於 9/11,美國和整個國際體系普遍採取了前所未有的預防態度。美國機場的安全措施發生了很大變化。事實上,9/11 事件的影響是遍及全球。世界各地的機場都採取了類似的步驟。美國政府在其主權領土外以法外手段審問恐怖分子嫌疑人。這項新政策背後的恐懼是建立在經驗之上的。之前沒有發生過像 9/11 這樣的事情。今後不應再發生任何類似的事情。

隨著恐怖主義的變化,人們對它的態度也發生了變化。布什對此直言不諱:“要么你支持我們,要么反對我們。” 支持恐怖主義的國家將成為直接目標,例如阿富汗。其目的不再僅僅是通過情報和警察行動來防止恐怖主義。必須制定一個包羅萬象的戰略。將採取積極的政策。恐怖組織將通過外交、法律、金融和軍事手段被無情地追捕。

2021 年 8 月 30 日,美國陸軍少將、第 82 空降師指揮官克里斯·多納休登上一架 C-17 運輸機,作為最後一名離開阿富汗喀布爾哈米德卡爾扎伊國際機場的美國軍人,使用夜視儀拍攝的照片光學。(信用:第十八空降軍/通過路透社講義)

布什政府採取了軍事上積極主動和進攻性的政策,旨在防止和懲罰針對美國的恐怖主義。考慮到這一目標,美國在國際聯盟的領導下,在當地武裝團體的幫助下,在 9/11 事件發生後對阿富汗進行了全面襲擊,旨在推翻塔利班政權和摧毀該國的基地組織基地。

美國及其盟友擊敗了基地組織並推翻了塔利班政權。勝利來得很快。對軍事行動的國際支持很普遍。這場戰爭取得了明顯的成功,但建立穩定、民主政權的意圖最終失敗,導致塔利班在被推翻 20 年後接管。

阿富汗不是越南,在越南,美國進行干預以協助盟國對抗共產主義侵略。美國在 2001 年對阿富汗的干預是在美國領土上對美國公民的直接襲擊之後發生的。日本在 1941 年對遠離美國本土的夏威夷的美國軍事目標進行了類似的襲擊,導致全面戰爭,直到日本接受無條件投降才結束。

2001 年的阿富汗由一個政府領導,該政府庇護了在 9/11 事件中發動襲擊的恐怖組織。這是一個合法的目標,不亞於 1941 年的日本。

可以肯定的是,日本與阿富汗不同,是一個種族同質的社會,聽從天皇的話。一旦徹底失敗,就更容易將其帶入穩定的政治秩序。因此,可以預期阿富汗的戰後現實會有所不同,但導致戰爭的原因並非如此。

作者是特拉維夫大學政治學、政府和國際事務學院講師。

A historical perspective on US policy in Afghanistan - analysis

The intelligence community in the United States underwent a major overhaul as a result of the failure to prevent the attacks.

By YOAV J. TENEMBAUM

SEPTEMBER 2, 2021 20:08

A TALIBAN member stands guard as Afghan men take pictures of a vehicle from which rockets were fired, in Kabul, Afghanistan, August 30.

(photo credit: STRINGER/ REUTERS)

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The recent takeover of Afghanistan by the Taliban, and its ensuing effects, should be understood by taking a broad historical perspective. In this context, facile comparisons must be eschewed.

The United States and its allies undertook a military operation in Afghanistan following the worst terrorist attack in living memory. For the first time in modern history, a non-state actor managed to carry out a terrorist attack on a grand scale, killing 2,977 people and wounding more than 6,000 others. The heartland of the United States was targeted as the Twin Towers in New York were destroyed, and the Pentagon in Washington was badly hit. Had it not been for the attempt of passengers on United Airlines flight 93 to gain control of the airplane, which crashed in Pennsylvania, a further target would have been hit, with many more casualties resulting from it.

One knows now that there were four attempts at carrying out terrorist attacks on 9/11. However as the attacks took place, no one knew how many were still pending. The sense of uncertainty prevailing in the US Government during that day, indeed in the following days as well, was striking.

Not since Pearl Harbor in December 1941 had the United States been surprised by an enemy in such a manner. However, contrary to Pearl Harbor, Washington and New York were targeted. The impact of this terrorist attack was like no other in the history of terrorism. It was seen even then as different from anything that had previously occurred. The dividing line with the past was all too clear. The sense of a historical watershed emerged immediately in its wake.

The administration of President George W. Bush made a U-turn in its focus of attention. Whereas prior to 9/11 Bush wished to concentrate on domestic issues, he devoted most of his and his administration’s time and energy to foreign affairs and national security more widely following the unprecedented attack on US citizens.

The intelligence community in the United States underwent a major overhaul as a result of the failure to prevent the attacks. No similar change had been undertaken since the National Security Act of 1947.

An unprecedented preventive attitude prevailed in the United States and in the international system as a whole as a result of 9/11. Security measures at airports in the United States changed considerably. Indeed, the effect of 9/11 was to reach worldwide. Similar steps were adopted at airports throughout the world. The US government interrogated suspected terrorists outside its own sovereign territory by what was reported to be extra-judicial means. The fear behind this new policy was founded upon experience. Nothing like 9/11 had taken place before; nothing remotely similar should ever take place henceforward.

As terrorism changed, so did attitudes toward it. Bush was categorical about it: “Either you are with us or against us.” States sponsoring terrorism were to become a direct target, like Afghanistan. The aim was no longer merely to prevent terrorism through intelligence and police action. An all-encompassing strategy was to be devised. A proactive policy was to be adopted. Terrorist organizations were to be pursued relentlessly through diplomatic, legal, financial and military means.

US Army Major General Chris Donahue, commander of the 82nd Airborne Division, steps on board a C-17 transport plane as the last US service member to leave Hamid Karzai International Airport in Kabul, Afghanistan August 30, 2021 in a photograph taken using night vision optics. (credit: XVIII Airborne Corps/Handout via REUTERS)

A militarily proactive and offensive policy was adopted by the Bush administration aimed at both preventing and punishing terrorism against the US. With this objective in mind, the United States, at the head of an international alliance and with the aid of local armed groups, carried out an all-out attack on Afghanistan in the wake of 9/11, aimed at toppling the Taliban regime and destroying the al-Qaeda bases in the country.

The United States and its allies defeated al-Qaeda and toppled the Taliban regime. The victory was swift. International support for the military operation was widespread. The war was a clear-cut success, but the intention to establish a stable, democratic regime, ultimately failed, leading to the takeover by the Taliban, 20 years after it had been toppled.

Afghanistan was no Vietnam, in which the US intervened to assist an allied state against Communist aggression. US intervention in Afghanistan in 2001 came in the wake of a direct attack on US citizens on US soil. A similar attack by Japan in 1941 on US military targets in Hawaii, far away from the US mainland, led to a full-out war, which did not end until Japan accepted unconditional surrender.

Afghanistan in 2001 was led by a government that harbored the terrorist group that carried out the attacks on 9/11. It was a legitimate target, no less than Japan was in 1941.

To be sure, Japan unlike Afghanistan was an ethnically homogeneous society, heeding the emperor’s words. Once fully defeated, it was easier to lead it to a stable political order. Thus, the post-war reality in Afghanistan could be expected to be different, but the reasons leading to war were not.

The writer is a lecturer at the School of Political Science, Government and International Affairs at Tel Aviv University.

阿富汗對塔利班的最後一次抵抗 傷亡慘重

8 月 15 日喀布爾淪陷後,數千名當地民兵以及軍隊和特種部隊的殘餘部隊在潘杰希爾集結。

通過路透

2021 年 9 月 2 日 15:30

塔利班戰士身著制服在阿富汗扎布爾省卡拉特的街道上游行,這張靜態圖片取自 2021 年 8 月 19 日上傳的社交媒體視頻

(圖片來源:路透社)

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週四,忠於當地領導人艾哈邁德·馬蘇德的塔利班部隊和戰士在阿富汗的潘杰希爾山谷作戰,雙方都表示,在最近幾天的戰鬥中,塔利班在最後一個抵抗塔利班統治的省份造成了重大傷亡。

8 月 15 日喀布爾淪陷後,數千名當地民兵以及軍隊和特種部隊的殘餘部隊在潘杰希爾集結。

在前聖戰者組織指揮官的兒子艾哈邁德·馬蘇德 (Ahmad Massoud) 的領導下,他們一直在該省堅守,這是一個陡峭的山谷,難以從外部發起攻擊。

談判解決方案的努力似乎已經破裂,在塔利班準備宣布成立政府之際,雙方都將談判失敗歸咎於對方。

塔利班發言人 Zabihullah Mujahid 說,該組織的戰士已經進入潘杰希爾並控制了一些領土。

“我們在與當地武裝團體談判失敗後開始行動,”他說。“他們損失慘重。”

然而,阿富汗民族抵抗陣線的發言人表示,它完全控制了所有通道和入口,並阻止了在山谷入口處奪取 Shotul 地區的努力。

“敵人多次嘗試從 Jabul-Saraj 進入 Shotul,但每次都失敗了,”他說,指的是鄰近的 Parwan 省的一個城鎮。

本月早些時候,塔利班部隊成員坐在喀布爾的一個檢查站。(信用:路透社)

這位發言人說,自本週早些時候衝突首次爆發以來,NRFA 部隊還在兩條戰線上殺死了大量塔利班戰士。

這位發言人在談到塔利班的損失時說:“已經向對方證明,他們無法通過戰爭解決這個問題。”

雙方對對方的傷亡人數提供了不同的數字,但沒有提供證據。無法核實雙方陣亡的戰士人數。

塔利班說潘杰希爾山谷四面都被包圍,叛軍不可能取得勝利。叛軍表示他們將拒絕投降。

塔利班說它包圍了阿富汗抵抗戰士,呼籲和平

塔利班高級領導人阿米爾汗莫塔奇在潘杰希爾對阿富汗人的錄音講話中呼籲叛亂分子放下武器。

通過路透

2021 年 9 月 1 日 20:48

本月早些時候,塔利班部隊在喀布爾境內站崗。

(圖片來源:路透社)

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一名高級領導人周三表示,塔利班已經包圍了唯一一個抵抗其統治的省份,並呼籲反叛分子與該組織談判達成和解。

自 8 月 15 日喀布爾淪陷以來,多山的潘杰希爾一直是唯一一個反對伊斯蘭組織的省份,儘管塔利班和當地民兵部隊在鄰近的巴格蘭省也發生了戰鬥。

在前聖戰者組織指揮官之子艾哈邁德·馬蘇德 (Ahmad Massoud) 的領導下,數千名當地民兵、軍隊和特種部隊殘餘人員一直在與塔利班抗爭。

塔利班高級領導人阿米爾汗莫塔奇在潘杰希爾對阿富汗人的錄音講話中呼籲叛亂分子放下武器。

“阿富汗伊斯蘭酋長國是所有阿富汗人的家園,”他說。

塔利班宣布大赦過去二十年與外國軍隊合作的所有阿富汗人,但擔心遭到報復的人群繼續湧向邊境,試圖逃離這個內陸國家。

莫塔奇說,塔利班曾多次努力與潘杰希爾的反對派領導人進行談判,“但不幸的是,不幸的是,沒有任何結果。”

沒有理由戰鬥

莫塔奇說,塔利班部隊正在潘杰希爾山谷的四邊進行準備,沒有理由開戰,反塔利班部隊應該記住,即使有塔利班的支持,也無法擊敗塔利班。北約和美軍。

莫塔奇說:“但我們仍在努力確保不發生戰爭,並平靜和平地解決潘杰希爾的問題。”

2021 年 8 月 17 日,塔利班發言人 Zabihullah Mujahid 在阿富汗喀布爾舉行的新聞發布會上發表講話。(來源:REUTERS/STRINGER)

據兩名抵抗運動領導人稱,至少有 7 名塔利班武裝分子在試圖進入山谷時被殺,隨後發表上述言論。

意大利緊急救援組織表示,在潘杰希爾入口處的古爾巴哈爾地區周圍發生戰鬥,四人死亡,五人受傷,已被送往喀布爾的創傷醫院。

阿富汗民族抵抗陣線的發言人周三表示,塔利班部隊兩天前發動了進攻,並在三四個不同的地區發動了進攻,但迄今為止被擊退。

Afghanistan's last holdout against Taliban suffers heavy casualties

Following the fall of Kabul on Aug. 15, several thousand fighters from local militias and the remnants of army and special forces units have massed in Panjshir.

By REUTERS

SEPTEMBER 2, 2021 15:30

Taliban fighters march in uniforms on the street in Qalat, Zabul Province, Afghanistan, in this still image taken from social media video uploaded August 19, 2021

(photo credit: REUTERS)

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Taliban forces and fighters loyal to local leader Ahmad Massoud, fought in Afghanistan's Panjshir Valley on Thursday, with each side saying it had inflicted heavy casualties in recent days of combat in the last province resisting Taliban rule.

Following the fall of Kabul on Aug. 15, several thousand fighters from local militias and the remnants of army and special forces units have massed in Panjshir.

Under the leadership of Ahmad Massoud, son of a former Mujahideen commander, they have been holding out in the province, a steep valley that makes attacks from outside difficult.

Efforts to negotiate a settlement appear to have broken down, with each side blaming the other for the failure of talks as the Taliban prepared to announce a government.

Taliban spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid said the group's fighters had entered Panjshir and taken control of some territory.

"We started operations after negotiation with the local armed group failed," he said. "They suffered heavy losses."

However, a spokesman for the National Resistance Front of Afghanistan, a grouping of rebels, said it had full control of all passes and entrances and had driven back efforts to take Shotul district at the entrance to the valley.

"The enemy made multiple attempts to enter Shotul from Jabul-Saraj, and failed each time," he said, referring to a town in the neighboring Parwan province.

MEMBERS OF TALIBAN forces sit at a checkpoint in Kabul earlier this month. (credit: REUTERS)

The spokesman said NRFA forces had also killed large numbers of Taliban fighters on two fronts since clashes first broke out earlier in the week.

"It has been proven to the other side that they cannot resolve this issue through war," the spokesman said in reference to the Taliban's losses.

Both sides provided varying figures for the other's casualties, without offering evidence. It was not possible to verify the numbers of fighters on either side killed.

The Taliban says the Panjshir valley is surrounded on all four sides and a rebel victory is impossible. The rebels say they will refuse to surrender.

Taliban says it surrounded Afghan resistance fighters, calls for peace

In a recorded speech addressed to Afghans in Panjshir, senior Taliban leader Amir Khan Motaqi called on the rebels to put down their weapons.

By REUTERS

SEPTEMBER 1, 2021 20:48

TALIBAN FORCES stand guard inside Kabul earlier this month.

(photo credit: REUTERS)

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The Taliban has surrounded the only remaining province resisting its rule, a senior leader said on Wednesday, calling on rebels to negotiate a settlement with the group.

Since the fall of Kabul on Aug. 15, mountainous Panjshir has been the only province to hold out against the Islamist group, although there has also been fighting in neighboring Baghlan province between Taliban and local militia forces.

Under the leadership of Ahmad Massoud, son of a former Mujahideen commander, several thousand members of local militias and remnants of army and special forces units have been holding out against the Taliban.

In a recorded speech addressed to Afghans in Panjshir, senior Taliban leader Amir Khan Motaqi called on the rebels to put down their weapons.

"The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is home for all Afghans," he said.

The Taliban have declared an amnesty for all Afghans who worked with foreign forces during the past two decades but crowds fearing reprisals have continued to flock to the borders in an attempt to flee the land-locked country.

Motaqi said the Taliban had made many efforts to negotiate with leaders of the opposition forces in Panjshir, "but unfortunately, unfortunately, without any result."

NO REASON TO FIGHT

Taliban forces are making preparations around the four sides of the Panjshir valley and there is no reason to fight, Motaqi said, adding that the anti-Taliban forces should keep in mind that it had not been possible to defeat the Taliban even with the support of NATO and US forces.

"But we are still trying to ensure that there is no war and that the issue in Panjshir is resolved calmly and peacefully," Motaqi said.

Taliban spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid speaks during a news conference in Kabul, Afghanistan August 17, 2021. (credit: REUTERS/STRINGER)

The remarks came after at least seven Taliban fighters were killed during an attempt to advance into the valley, according to two resistance leaders.

Italian aid group Emergency said four dead and five wounded had been delivered to its trauma hospital in Kabul from the fighting around the Gulbahar area at the entrance to Panjshir.

A spokesman for the National Resistance Front of Afghanistan, which groups the forces in the Panjshir valley, said on Wednesday Taliban forces had launched an offensive two days ago, and had been attacking in three or four different areas but had so far been pushed back.

開羅峰會呼籲四方而非美國領導以巴會談

埃及總統阿卜杜勒·法塔赫·塞西在下個月聯合國大會高級別開幕之前接待了約旦國王阿卜杜拉和巴勒斯坦權力機構主席馬哈茂德·阿巴斯。

作者:KHALED ABU TOAMEH , TOVAH LAZAROFF

2021 年 9 月 2 日 21:45

埃及總統阿卜杜勒·法塔赫·塞西(中)與巴勒斯坦總統馬哈茂德·阿巴斯(右)和約旦國王阿卜杜拉二世在聯合國大會之前在埃及開羅伊蒂哈迪亞總統府舉行會議前合影,2021 年 9 月 2 日

(圖片來源:路透社)

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在周四在開羅舉行的三邊峰會結束時宣布的與以色列、埃及、約旦和巴勒斯坦領導人的任何和平談判中,四方必須取代美國成為主要調解人。

峰會結束時發表的一份聲明稱,他們承諾“共同製定願景,激活恢復談判的努力,並與兄弟和夥伴合作,重振和平進程”,並將“按照”在國際四方的主持下,由聯合國、歐盟、俄羅斯和美國組成。

埃及總統阿卜杜勒·法塔赫·塞西在下個月紐約聯合國大會開幕前接待了約旦國王阿卜杜拉和巴勒斯坦民族權力機構主席馬哈茂德·阿巴斯。

三位領導人希望利用這一國際平台來幫助重振自 2014 年以來一直被凍結的以巴和平進程。

美國歷來是這一進程的中間人,但與過去三十年的任何一位前任不同,美國總統喬拜登沒有提出任何解決衝突的計劃。

納夫塔利·貝內特總理也表示,此時不可能進行和談,也無意與阿巴斯會面。

2021 年 9 月 2 日,埃及總統阿卜杜勒·法塔赫·塞西(C)與巴勒斯坦總統馬哈茂德·阿巴斯(右)和約旦國王阿卜杜拉二世在聯合國大會之前在埃及開羅伊蒂哈迪亞總統府舉行會議之前進行了會談(圖片來源:路透社)

美國和以色列都表示要維持現狀,直到有成功解決衝突的最佳條件。

巴勒斯坦權力機構警告說,談判必須現在就進行,但要由四方主導。

當三位領導人“確認巴勒斯坦問題的核心地位以及埃及和約旦在支持巴勒斯坦人民及其公正和合法權利方面的堅定立場時,阿巴斯在開羅得到了對這一觀點的支持,其中最重要的是他們有權體現他們的獨立, 1967 年 6 月 4 日邊界上的主權國家,以東耶路撒冷為其首都,”峰會聲明解釋說。這應該根據聯合國決議和 2002 年沙特和平倡議來完成。

聲明解釋說,這是實現“地區和國際和平與安全”的唯一途徑,“必須團結一切努力實現這一目標。”

峰會聲明拒絕了“以色列破壞兩國解決方案的非法措施”,包括“建造和擴大定居點……掠奪土地、拆除房屋和將巴勒斯坦人從家園中驅逐”,特別是“從耶路撒冷附近、特別是謝赫賈拉和西爾萬,並停止所有破壞和平努力和兩國解決方案的單方面措施。”

它強調保留耶路撒冷及其伊斯蘭和基督教聖地(如聖殿山)的歷史和法律現狀,強調約旦與該大院的特殊聯繫,正如“歷史上哈希姆對耶路撒冷伊斯蘭和基督教聖地的監護權”所表達的那樣。領導人歡迎埃及在 5 月的 11 天戰爭後穩定加沙局勢並促進飛地重建的努力。

他們呼籲國際社會緩解加沙地帶的人道主義危機,並呼籲以色列承認加沙的人道主義需求。

巴勒斯坦官員說,在峰會之前,阿巴斯分別會見了塞西,並向他介紹了最新的政治發展、巴勒斯坦內部局勢以及西岸和加沙地帶的總體發展情況。

官員們說,阿巴斯對埃及為巴勒斯坦事業所做的不懈努力表示讚賞,並讚揚埃及在結束 5 月的加沙戰爭中“在這方面發揮的歷史作用……體現在其積極和關鍵的作用上”。

阿巴斯和塞西同意繼續就巴勒斯坦局勢進行磋商和協調。塞西肯定了開羅恢復巴勒斯坦人合法權利的目標。

官員補充說,塞西表示支持增加巴勒斯坦權力機構在哈馬斯統治的加沙地帶的作用,並表示他將推動與以色列恢復談判。

Cairo Summit calls on Quartet, not US, to lead Israeli-Palestinian talks

Egyptian President Abdul Fattah al-Sisi hosted King Abdullah of Jordan and PA President Mahmoud Abbas in advance of next month's high level opening of the United Nations General Assembly.

By KHALED ABU TOAMEH, TOVAH LAZAROFF

SEPTEMBER 2, 2021 21:45

Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi (C) poses with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas (R) and Jordan's King Abdullah II before their meeting ahead of the UN general assembly at the Ittihadiya presidential palace in Cairo, Egypt, September 2, 2021

(photo credit: REUTERS)

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The Quartet must replace the United States as the main broker in any peace talks with Israel, Egyptian, Jordanian and Palestinian leaders declared at the end of a trilateral summit in Cairo on Thursday.

They pledged to “work together to develop a vision to activate efforts to resume negotiations, and to work with brothers and partners to revive the peace process,” according to a statement issued at the summit’s end, and that this would be done “in accordance with international resolutions, and under the auspices of the International Quartet,” composed of the United Nations, the European Union, Russia and the United States.

Egyptian President Abdul Fattah el-Sisi hosted King Abdullah of Jordan and Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas in advance of next month’s opening of the UN General Assembly in New York.

The three leaders want to use that international platform to help revive the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, which has been frozen since 2014.

The US has traditionally brokered that process, but unlike any of his predecessors in the last three decades, US President Joe Biden has not put forward any plan for a resolution to the conflict.

Prime Minister Naftali Bennett has also said that peace talks are not possible at this time, and he has no intention of meeting with Abbas.

Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi (C) talks with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas (R) and Jordan's King Abdullah II before a meeting ahead of the UN general assembly at the Ittihadiya presidential palace in Cairo, Egypt, September 2, 2021 (credit: REUTERS)

Both the US and Israel have spoken of maintaining the status quo until there are optimal conditions for a successful resolution to the conflict.

The PA has warned that talks must take place now, but with a Quartet-led process.

Abbas received support for that view in Cairo when the three leaders “affirmed the centrality of the Palestinian issue and the firm positions of Egypt and Jordan in supporting the Palestinian people and their just and legitimate rights, foremost of which is their right to embody their independent, sovereign state on the borders of June 4, 1967, with East Jerusalem as its capital,” the summit statement explained. This should be done in accordance with UN resolutions and the 2002 Saudi peace initiative.

This was the only way to achieve “regional and international peace and security” the statement explained, and “all efforts must be united to achieve it.”

The summit statement rejected “illegal Israeli measures that undermine the two-state solution,” including “construction and expansion of settlements…land grabs, house demolitions and the displacement of Palestinians from their homes,” specifically “from the neighborhoods of Jerusalem, especially Sheikh Jarrah and Silwan, and to stop all unilateral measures that undermine peace efforts and the two-state solution.”

It stressed preservation of the historical and legal status quo in Jerusalem and its Islamic and Christian sanctuaries such as the Temple Mount, highlighting Jordan’s special ties to the compound as expressed in the “historical Hashemite guardianship over the Islamic and Christian holy places in Jerusalem.” The leaders welcomed Egypt’s efforts to stabilize the situation in Gaza after the 11-day war in May, and to foster reconstruction in the enclave.

They called on the international community to alleviate the humanitarian crisis in the Gaza Strip, and for Israel to recognize Gaza’s humanitarian needs.

Prior to the summit, Abbas met separately with Sisi and briefed him on the latest political developments, the internal Palestinian situation, and general developments in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Palestinian officials said.

Abbas expressed his appreciation for Egypt’s tireless efforts on behalf of the Palestinian cause, the officials said, and also praised Egypt’s “historical role in this regard…manifested in its active and key role” in ending the Gaza war in May.

Abbas and Sisi agreed to continue consulting and coordinating on the Palestinian situation. Sisi affirmed Cairo’s aim of restoring Palestinians’ legitimate rights.

Sisi, the officials added, expressed support for increasing the PA’s role in the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip, and said he would push for the resumption of negotiations with Israel.

伊朗燃料船進入敘利亞水域以幫助真主黨 - 報導

對於黎巴嫩和真主黨來說,這將是一個主要的遊戲規則改變者,他們的目標是從正在運輸的伊朗燃料中獲利。

作者:SETH J. FRANZMAN

2021 年 9 月 2 日 15:03

2020 年 9 月 10 日,伊朗船隻 Khark 出現在伊朗的一個未公開地點。

(圖片來源:伊朗軍隊/WANA(西亞新聞社)通過路透社)

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據伊朗媒體和黎巴嫩媒體週四報導,一艘載有燃料伊朗船隻抵達敘利亞領海。Al-Akhbar 是第一個報告抵達情況的人。對於黎巴嫩和真主黨來說,這將是一個主要的遊戲規則改變者,他們的目標是從正在運輸的伊朗燃料中獲利。據推測,燃料將在敘利亞港口卸載,然後轉移到黎巴嫩。

TankerTrackers.com 組織對該信息提出異議,指出“第一艘油輪尚未到達蘇伊士河。 - 第二艘油輪尚未離開伊朗,但已離開港口。- 第三艘油輪離開伊朗。通常需要 10-12 天才能到達到達蘇伊士河。通常。” TankerTrackers.com 稱,幾天前,另一艘裝有 730,000 桶伊朗原油的油輪抵達。

雖然 Al-Akhbar 的報告中關於油輪細節的信息相對較少,但伊朗的 Tasnim 新聞卻提供了更多信息。這表明這對伊斯蘭共和國來說是多麼的自豪。2019 年 7 月,英國皇家海軍陸戰隊臨時扣押了一艘名為Grace 1的大型油輪該油輪正在前往敘利亞的途中。德黑蘭還向委內瑞拉派遣了運載汽油的船隻。美國在 2020 年夏天從其中一些船隻上查獲了燃料。

塔斯尼姆指出,“伊朗燃料即將運抵黎巴嫩恰逢美國國會發表聲明,即'美國尋求解決黎巴嫩燃料危機,不需要進口伊朗燃料。'”包括參議員克里斯墨菲在內的美國代表團(D-Connecticut),最近在黎巴嫩警告那裡的經濟自由落體。美國代表團在與黎巴嫩官員會晤後於昨天離開貝魯特。它應該是接下來來到以色列。

真主黨一直與美國不和,並希望使用燃料輸送來表明它可以運行黎巴嫩的經濟。真主黨還希望通過伊朗與中國建立更緊密的聯繫。該恐怖組織過去曾抨擊美國駐黎巴嫩大使多蘿西·謝伊 (Dorothy Shea)。

據報導,墨菲昨天在貝魯特說:“作為美國官員,我們正在努力尋找解決燃料危機的方法,黎巴嫩沒有動力依賴伊朗燃料或從敘利亞運來的任何其他燃料。” 同一份報告指出,敘利亞正受到美國的製裁。

知情人士稱,由於技術原因,伊拉克石油預計將延遲進入黎巴嫩,同時也籠罩在美國決定從埃及進口天然氣至黎巴嫩的模糊陰影下,伊朗燃料船的護航船隊,第一個將在一周內進入黎巴嫩。這是黎巴嫩人民在美國對黎巴嫩令人窒息的圍困陰影下的唯一希望,”伊朗的塔斯尼姆說。該通訊社與伊朗政權和伊斯蘭革命衛隊關係密切。伊朗的法爾斯新聞對這艘油輪也有同樣的報導。

Al-Akhbar 指出,“伊朗船隻裝有柴油,真主黨秘書長賽義德·哈桑·納斯魯拉在阿舒拉節紀念活動上宣布它從伊朗出發,其最終貨物目的地將是黎巴嫩,並於昨天進入敘利亞領海。 ”

黎巴嫩真主黨領袖賽義德·哈桑·納斯魯拉在紀念阿舒拉節的宗教儀式上通過屏幕發表講話(圖片來源:AL-MANAR/HANDOUT VIA REUTERS)

真主黨和納斯魯拉的參與表明,伊朗支持的組織希望為這批貨物提供信用。

“根據案件後的消息來源,這艘船的貨物將在敘利亞港口卸貨後,由油輪從敘利亞運往黎巴嫩,”Al-Akhbar 寫道。“根據消息來源,該船的部分貨物真主黨將捐贈給政府醫院和療養院,一家私營公司將宣布私人機構和發電機的銷售機制。據消息人士稱,兩艘船將通過相同的機制相繼抵達,但沒有透露它們是否裝載了柴油、汽油或兩者,“第四艘船有可能從伊朗出發。”

這告訴我們,已經接管了黎巴嫩外交政策和國防政策的真主黨現在也在接管其能源政策。很快,真主黨——擁有自己的電話網絡,在銀行、港口和機場發揮作用,現在在超市中發揮作用——現在將進口天然氣和石油,基本上使黎巴嫩成為真主黨帝國的一個省。世界上任何其他地方都沒有像真主黨控制黎巴嫩那樣由非法武裝民兵管理國家。

真主黨還勒索黎巴嫩政治以控制總統職位,阻止組建新政府和任命全職總理。它還派遣戰士到敘利亞威脅以色列,暗殺了 Lokman Slim 等批評者,謀殺了前總理拉菲克·哈里裡,並且可能是在貝魯特港非法儲存硝酸銨的幕後黑手,該港口去年在爆炸中摧毀了貝魯特的部分地區。現在,這個恐怖組織也想成為石油大亨。

伊朗能源出口的目標是向真主黨提供貨物——賦予它權力,就像它非法向它發送導彈、無人機和其他武器一樣。

TankerTrackers.com 的推文似乎對親伊朗媒體的報導表示懷疑,說明了石油和天然氣運輸的陰暗世界,船舶關閉了 AIS 轉發器以隱藏起來。問題是為什麼親伊朗的媒體會描述一艘裝有石油的油輪的到來,這是一種更經常運往敘利亞的貨物,好像它是運往黎巴嫩的天然氣。他們的目標是讓最近的美國代表團難堪,還是給真主黨吹一些風。然而,對燃料分配的希望破滅可能適得其反。

Iranian fuel ship enters Syrian waters to help Hezbollah - report

This will be a major gamechanger for Lebanon and Hezbollah, which aims to profit off the Iranian fuel that is being shipped.

By SETH J. FRANTZMAN

SEPTEMBER 2, 2021 15:03

The Iranian ship Khark is seen at an undisclosed location in Iran, September 10,2020.

(photo credit: IRANIAN ARMY/WANA (WEST ASIA NEWS AGENCY) VIA REUTERS)

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An Iranian ship carrying fuel reportedly reached Syria’s territorial waters, according to Iranian media and Lebanese media on Thursday. Al-Akhbar was the first to report the arrival. This will be a major gamechanger for Lebanon and Hezbollah, which aims to profit off the Iranian fuel that is being shipped. The fuel will supposedly be offloaded at a Syrian port and then transferred to Lebanon.

The organization TankerTrackers.com disputed the information, noting that "first tanker has not reached the Suez yet. - Second tanker hasn't left Iran yet but has left port. - Third tanker is leaving Iran. It normally takes 10-12 days to reach the Suez. Normally." TankerTrackers.com said a different tanker with 730,000 barrels of Iranian crude oil arrived several days ago.

While the Al-Akhbar report is relatively short on tanker details, Iran’s Tasnim news has more information. This shows how much of a point of pride this is for the Islamic Republic. In July 2019, UK Royal Marines temporarily seized a large tanker named the Grace 1, which was on its way to Syria. Tehran has also sent ships to Venezuela carrying gasoline. The US seized fuel from some of those ships in the summer of 2020.

Tasnim notes that the “imminent arrival of Iranian fuel shipments to Lebanon coincides with the US congressional statement that ‘the United States seeks to resolve the Lebanese fuel crisis and does not need to import Iranian fuel.’” A US delegation, including Senator Chris Murphy (D-Connecticut), was recently in Lebanon warning of the economic free fall there. The US delegation left Beirut yesterday after meeting with Lebanese officials. It is supposed to come to Israel next.

HEZBOLLAH HAS been at odds with the US and wants to use the fuel delivery to show it can run Lebanon’s economy. Hezbollah also wants closer ties with China via Iran. The terrorist group has, in the past, slammed US Ambassador to Lebanon Dorothy Shea.

"As US officials, we are working hard to find ways to resolve the fuel crisis, and there is no incentive for Lebanon to rely on Iranian fuel or any other fuel being shipped from Syria," Murphy said in Beirut yesterday, according to reports. The same reports note that Syria is under sanctions from the US.

“Informed sources report that due to technical reasons, Iraqi oil is expected to enter Lebanon with a delay, and also in the shadow of the ambiguity of the US decision to import gas from Egypt to Lebanon, the convoy of Iranian fuel ships, which is the first that will enter Lebanon within a week. This is the only hope of the Lebanese people in the shadow of the suffocating US siege against Lebanon,” Iran’s Tasnim says. The news agency is close to the Iranian regime and the IRGC. Iran’s Fars News has the same report on the tanker.

Al-Akhbar notes that the “Iranian ship is loaded with diesel, which Hezbollah Secretary-General Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah announced on the Ashura commemoration that it set off from Iran, and that its final cargo destination will be Lebanon, entered Syrian territorial waters yesterday.”

Lebanon's Hezbollah leader Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah speaks through a screen during a religious ceremony marking Ashura (credit: AL-MANAR/HANDOUT VIA REUTERS)

The involvement of Hezbollah and Nasrallah shows that the Iranian-backed group wants credit for this shipment.

“According to sources following the case, the cargo of the ship will be transported by tankers from Syria to Lebanon, after unloading it at a Syrian port," Al-Akhbar wrote. "According to the sources, part of the cargo of the ship will be donated by Hezbollah to government hospitals and care homes, with a private company announcing the sale mechanism for private institutions and electricity generators. According to the sources, two ships will arrive successively by the same mechanism, without revealing whether they are loaded with diesel, gasoline, or both, ‘with the possibility of a fourth ship departing from Iran.’”

WHAT THIS tells us is that Hezbollah, which has already taken over Lebanese foreign policy and defense policy, is now also taking over its energy policy. Soon, Hezbollah – which has its own telephone networks, plays a role in banking, the port and airport, and now has a role in supermarkets – will now be importing gas and oil, essentially making Lebanon a province within the Hezbollah empire. In no other place in the world does an illegal, armed militia run a country the way Hezbollah has a stranglehold over Lebanon.

Hezbollah has also blackmailed Lebanese politics to control the presidency, prevented the formation of a new government and the appointment of a full-time prime minister. It has also sent fighters to Syria to threaten Israel, assassinated critics like Lokman Slim, murdered former prime minister Rafic Hariri, and was likely behind illegal storage of ammonium nitrate at the Beirut Port that destroyed part of Beirut in an explosion last year. Now the terror group is angling to be an oil baron as well.

The goal of Iran's energy export is to provide shipments to Hezbollah – to empower it like it illegally sends it missiles, drones and other weapons.

The tweets from TankerTrackers.com, which appear to cast doubt on the reports in pro-Iran media, illustrate the murky world of oil and gas shipping, with ships that switch off their AIS transponders to hide. The question is why pro-Iran media would depict the arrival of a tanker with oil, which is a more regular shipment to Syria, as if it was gas destined for Lebanon. Is their goal to embarrass the recent US delegation, or to put some wind in the sails of Hezbollah. Dashed hopes for the fuel distribution, however, may backfire.

在這一天:雅法條約簽署,結束第三次十字軍東征

該條約由英格蘭國王狮心王理查和阿尤布蘇丹薩拉丁簽署,將耶路撒冷置於伊斯蘭控制之下,保證猶太人可以留在這座城市。

通過AARON REICH

2021 年 9 月 2 日 17:02

英格蘭國王狮心王理查出現在一位藝術家描繪的 1192 年雅法戰役中。

(圖片來源:維基共享資源)

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2021 年 9 月 2 日,標誌著《雅法條約》簽署 829 週年,基督教和伊斯蘭軍隊之間達成休戰並結束第三次十字軍東征。

該條約是在幾個月前的雅法戰役後簽署的。在這場戰鬥中,英格蘭國王理查一世(也被稱為狮心王理查)的軍隊與埃及和敘利亞的阿尤布蘇丹薩拉丁的軍隊發生了衝突。

當時,理查德和十字軍正在建立前一年的兩場成功戰役,阿卡之戰讓十字軍奪回了富有且具有重要戰略意義的港口城市,以及阿爾蘇夫戰役,威脅了薩拉丁對耶路撒冷的控制並被視為十字軍的重大勝利。Arsuf位置是一個歷史爭論的問題,但特拉維夫大學的研究人員設法確定了 Herzliya、Kibbutz Shefayim 和 Rishpon、Kfar Shmaryahu、現代 Arsuf 和 A​​rsuf-Kedem 村莊之間的特定區域。

在此之後,理查德開始攻占城堡並試圖向耶路撒冷推進。然而,他努力做到了這一點,由於領導層之間的分歧等各種原因,多次嘗試被阻止。談判失敗,最終,理查德很快開始準備前往英國,因為他的兄弟約翰和法國國王菲利普奧古斯都的行為威脅到了他回國的利益。

然而,就在他準備離開的時候,薩拉丁猛攻雅法,在三天內攻占了這座城市。然而,十字軍在這座城市的城堡中堅持了下來。

1187 年十字軍東征期間,哈丁戰役後的薩拉丁和蓋伊·德·呂西尼昂。小說發生在第一次十字軍東征期間(來源:SAIDTAHSINE/WWW.GOODFREEPHOTOS.COM)

看到這一點,理查據推測發起了進攻,帶領一支只有 54 名騎士、幾百名步兵和大約 2,000 名來自熱那亞和比薩的弩手,正如中世紀拉丁散文敘事Itinerarium Regis Ricardi所記錄的那樣。與薩拉丁約 10,000 名騎兵的軍隊相比,基督徒處於重大劣勢。然而,穆斯林軍隊爆發了,許多學者表示他們擔心這次襲擊只是一支更大部隊的先鋒隊。

薩拉丁後來試圖發動反擊,但防御者堅持並最終擊敗了阿尤布軍隊。確切的損失尚不清楚,但有人估計薩拉丁的損失為 700 人,而理查德僅殺死了兩名士兵。

英格蘭最偉大的國王獅王理查德?(信用:FLICKR/體育)

最終,雙方都厭倦了戰鬥,最終達成了休戰協議。這就是導致該條約的原因。

同意基督徒和穆斯林都可以安全地在聖地旅行。耶路撒冷仍由穆斯林控制,但基督徒朝聖者將被允許進入,從提爾市到雅法的海岸線仍將掌握在基督徒手中。

將耶路撒冷置於伊斯蘭控制之下也使該市的猶太人能夠繼續居住在那裡——因為與十字軍不同,薩拉丁對猶太人寬容。

以色列的新聯盟正在“行走在蛋殼上”-意見

本尼·甘茨 (Benny Gantz) 和他的聯盟中其他黨派領導人就與巴勒斯坦權力機構主席馬哈茂德·阿巴斯 (Mahmoud Abbas) 會面的鬥爭是政府如何分崩離析的完美例子。

通過GIL HOFFMAN

2021 年 9 月 2 日 22:12

上個月在議會中的聯盟領導人。

(照片來源:YONATAN SINDEL/FLASH90)

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利庫德集團週日在拉馬特甘 (Ramat Gan) 的 Kfar Maccabiah 酒店開會,而其領導人本傑明·內塔尼亞胡 (Benjamin Netanyahu) 仍在夏威夷豪華的拉奈島上度假。

這次會議由 MK Yoav Kisch 組織,旨在製定戰略以推翻納夫塔利·貝內特總理的政府,從國家預算開始,該預算必須在 11 月 14 日之前通過成為法律,否則將自動啟動選舉。

30 名利庫德集團 MKs 中只有 11 名出席了會議,但與會者表示,出席人數很少實際上使其更有效。會議結束後,預算進行了分配和分配,派系中的所有MK都接到了停止預算和推翻政府的任務。

年長的 MK 教授從未參與過州預算的年輕立法者。出席會議的 MKs 感到他們有可以成功讓利庫德集團重新掌權的計劃。

“你可以稱之為秘密計劃,”一位參與者說。“我稱之為工作,反對派的工作。”

現在內塔尼亞胡從夏威夷回來,休息得很好,更加堅定了重返英超的決心。他的同事說,他在島上的時間並沒有說服下個月將滿 72 歲的內塔尼亞胡退出政壇。

“如果內塔尼亞胡在本屆議會重新擔任總理,請不要感到驚訝,”與會人士說。“當 Kadima 掌權時,沒有人認為我們可以打倒他們,但我們成功了,部分歸功於一場名為第二次黎巴嫩戰爭的大型活動。現在有一個名為冠狀病毒的大型事件,並且有一個更加多樣化的聯盟。我們會打破他們。這只是時間問題。”

預計預算及其伴隨的經濟安排法案將在周四晚間勉強通過一讀。但是接下來要為以色列議會財政委員會的每一項條款爭吵數週。

有助於聯盟避免叛亂的一個因素是,其 20 多位 MK 成員通過挪威法律進入議會。部長們退出議會並允許新的 MKs 進入,使他們完全受制於黨的領導人,無法展示他們的政治力量。

“我們無法增加預算,因為他們購買了 20 名挪威人,”與會者承認。

但利庫德集團 MK 表示,並非每個 MK 都是挪威人,多元化聯盟的微弱多數使其非常脆弱且容易燃燒。

本周國防部長本尼·甘茨和他的聯盟中其他黨派領導人就他與巴勒斯坦民族權力機構主席馬哈茂德·阿巴斯的會晤而發生的鬥爭是政府如何分崩離析的完美例子。甘茨之前曾三度試圖說服貝內特讓他與阿巴斯會面,然後在他與美國總統喬拜登會面後的一個特別敏感的時間抓住了他。

甘茨將兩個半小時的會議描述為處理繞過哈馬斯向加沙的巴勒斯坦人提供資金的安排所必需的。但貝內特的同夥認為這是企圖激怒政府內部的右翼和左翼,並讓自己掌權。

會議迫使貝內特的發言人一再表示,不會與巴勒斯坦人進行外交進程,從而失去了貝內特在與拜登會晤時在國際社會中獲得的任何資產。右翼政客比以往任何時候都更難解釋為什麼他們坐在一個與阿巴斯交談的政府中,而左翼政客必須告訴他們的選民為什麼他們自己沒有與巴勒斯坦領導人會面。

貝內特和甘茨在事件發生後舉行了一次特別激烈的會議,雙方都指責對方暗殺了角色。

Maariv 報紙上的一幅漫畫最能說明這一點。在漫畫中,甘茨是學生,班尼特是老師,他在黑板上用兩張圖片畫了“關於阿巴斯的課”。巴勒斯坦領導人的照片上寫著“邪惡”這個詞,而 Ra'am(阿拉伯聯合名單)負責人曼蘇爾·阿巴斯的照片被標記為“好”。

財政部部長阿維格多·利伯曼具有諷刺意味的辯護既Abbases會議上,在他的辦公室耶路撒冷在週一的新聞發布會。他說巴勒斯坦權力機構的經濟穩定符合以色列的利益。

耶路撒冷郵報在新聞發布會上詢問利伯曼,國家預算中對阿拉伯部門的空前撥款是否只是對拉姆領導人的一種支付,或者他們是否表明媒體和公眾對他的(利伯曼的)有什麼誤解? )一直以來對阿拉伯人的感情。

利伯曼的回應是熱情地捍衛增加對以色列阿拉伯人的資金的需求。他談到了最近發生的阿拉伯內部暴力和謀殺事件。

“阿拉伯地區正在發生的事情絕對是瘋狂的,”他說。“顯然,不能讓它繼續下去。沒有工作的年輕人訴諸犯罪。這就是為什麼我們需要投資於該領域的教育、經濟發展和安全。”

利伯曼說,本屆以色列議會的亮點是看著曼蘇爾·阿巴斯告訴內塔尼亞胡,他曾四次邀請他到位於貝爾福和斯摩棱斯金街的總理官邸,並告訴他,無論貝內特願意給他什麼,他都會給他更多。

“比比需要停止胡言亂語,”利伯曼說。“內塔尼亞胡可以就他現在所說的‘阿巴斯稅’申請一項專利,他說我們正在支付這筆稅。”

如果利伯曼對通過預算感到壓力,他沒有表現出來。在影響三個聯盟黨派的農業遊說團體的威脅下,他表示,如果沒有外部壓力,MKs 早就達成協議。

但利伯曼承認,由於政府內部存在許多不同的觀點,聯盟將始終如履薄冰。

一旦預算通過,其他挑戰將取而代之,威脅到政府的未來。知道利庫德集團在場邊制定回歸計劃仍然是聯盟致力於盡一切可能繼續前進的原因。

Israel's new coalition is 'walking on eggshells' - opinion

The fight between Benny Gantz and the rest of the party leaders in his coalition over meeting with PA President Mahmoud Abbas is the perfect example of how the government could come apart.

By GIL HOFFMAN

SEPTEMBER 2, 2021 22:12

THE LEADERS of the coalition in the Knesset last month.

(photo credit: YONATAN SINDEL/FLASH90)

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The Likud faction met on Sunday at Ramat Gan’s Kfar Maccabiah Hotel, without its leader, Benjamin Netanyahu, who was still on his family vacation on the luxurious Hawaiian island of Lanai.

The meeting, organized by MK Yoav Kisch, was intended to devise strategies for bringing down Prime Minister Naftali Bennett’s government, starting with the state budget, which must be passed into law by November 14 or an election would be automatically initiated.

Only 11 out of 30 Likud MKs showed up for the meeting, but participants said the meager attendance actually made it more effective. Following the meeting, the budget was divided up and assigned, and all the MKs in the faction received their tasks in stopping the budget and toppling the government.

Older MKs taught younger legislators who have never worked on a state budget. The MKs who attended left feeling that they had plans that could succeed in returning the Likud to power.

“You can call it a secret plan,” one participant said. “I call it work, the work of the opposition.”

Now Netanyahu has returned from Hawaii well-rested and even more determined to come back to the premiership. His associates said his time on the island did not persuade Netanyahu, who will turn 72 next month, to retire from politics.

“Don’t be surprised if Netanyahu returns to be prime minister in the current Knesset,” the participant in the meeting said. “When Kadima took power, no one thought we could bring them down, but we succeeded, thanks in part to a mega-event called the Second Lebanon War. Now there is a mega-event called the coronavirus, and there is a coalition that is much more diverse. We will break them. It is only a matter of time.”

The budget and its accompanying economic arrangements bill were expected to narrowly pass their first reading late Thursday. But weeks of fighting over every clause in the Knesset Finance Committee lie ahead.

One factor that will help the coalition avoid rebellions is that more than 20 of its MKs entered the Knesset via the Norwegian Law. Ministers quit the parliament and allowed the new MKs to enter, making them completely beholden to their party leaders and unable to flex their political muscles.

“We can’t build on the budget because they bought 20 Norwegians,” the participant in the meeting admitted.

But the Likud MKs said not every MK is Norwegian, and the narrow majority the diverse coalition has makes it very fragile and easily combustible.

The fight this week between Defense Minister Benny Gantz and the rest of the party leaders in his coalition over his meeting with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas is the perfect example of how the government could come apart. Gantz tried three times before to persuade Bennett to enable him to meet with Abbas, before catching him at a particularly sensitive time just after his meeting with US President Joe Biden.

Gantz painted the two-and-a-half-hour meeting as necessary to deal with arrangements for delivering funding to Palestinians in Gaza while bypassing Hamas. But Bennett’s associates saw it as an attempt to anger both the Right and the Left inside the government and bring himself to power.

The meeting forced Bennett’s spokesman to say repeatedly that there will be no diplomatic process with the Palestinians, which lost Bennett whatever assets he had gained in the international community in his meeting with Biden. Politicians on the Right had a harder time than ever explaining why they are sitting in a government that speaks to Abbas, while those on the Left had to tell their constituents why they themselves were not meeting with the Palestinian leader.

Bennett and Gantz held a particularly intense meeting after the incident in which each accused the other of character assassination.

A cartoon in the Maariv newspaper illustrated it best. In the cartoon, Gantz was the student and Bennett the teacher, who drew on the board a “lesson about Abbas” with two pictures. The picture of the Palestinian leader had on it the word “evil” and a picture of Ra’am (United Arab List) head Mansour Abbas was labeled “good.”

FINANCE MINISTER Avigdor Liberman ironically defended meeting with both Abbases, at a press conference at his Jerusalem office on Monday. He said economic stability in the PA is an Israeli interest.

The Jerusalem Post asked Liberman at the press conference whether the unprecedented allocations to the Arab sector in the state budget are just a payment to the Ra’am leader, or whether they indicated that the press and the public had gotten something wrong about his (Liberman’s) sentiment toward Arabs all along.

Liberman responded by passionately defending the need for increased funding for Israeli-Arabs. He spoke about the recent spate of intra-Arab violence and murders.

“What’s happening in the Arab sector is absolutely crazy,” he said. “Clearly, it cannot be allowed to continue. Young people who have no jobs resort to crime. That is why we need to invest in education, economic development and security in that sector.”

Liberman said the highlight of the current Knesset was watching Mansour Abbas tell Netanyahu that he invited him four times to the Prime Minister’s Residence on Balfour and Smolenskin streets and told him that whatever Bennett would offer him, he would give him more.

“Bibi needs to stop babbling,” Liberman said. “Netanyahu can take out a patent on what he now calls ‘the Abbas tax” that he says we are paying.”

If Liberman was stressed about passing the budget, he didn’t show it. Amid threats from the agricultural lobby that influences three coalition parties, he said the MKs would have reached an agreement long ago, were it not for the outside pressure.

But Liberman acknowledged that due to the many different views inside the government, the coalition would always be walking on eggshells.

Once the budget passes, other challenges will take its place, threatening the government’s future. Knowing that the Likud is on the sidelines making plans to return remains what keeps the coalition committed to doing everything possible to keep going.

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