2021.09.04 國際新聞導讀-塔利班任命巴拉達爾擔任國家領袖、最高精神領袖阿洪札德則擔任宗教事務的領袖、卡達支持哈瑪斯與塔利班、美國可能與塔利班聯合攻擊伊斯蘭國呼羅珊省

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2021.09.04 國際新聞導讀-塔利班任命巴拉達爾擔任國家領袖、最高精神領袖阿洪札德則擔任宗教事務的領袖、卡達支持哈瑪斯與塔利班、美國可能與塔利班聯合攻擊伊斯蘭國呼羅珊省

塔利班任命阿卜杜勒·加尼·巴拉達爾為阿富汗新政府首腦

Baradar 是伊斯蘭組織的聯合創始人和事實上的領導人,但理論上在最高領袖 Hibatullah Akhundzada 的領導下任職。

通過路透社,耶路撒冷郵報STAFF

2021 年 9 月 3 日 10:37

2019 年 5 月 30 日,塔利班首席談判代表毛拉·阿卜杜勒·加尼·巴拉達爾(前)在俄羅斯莫斯科與阿富汗高級政客進行和平談判後離開

(圖片來源:路透社/EVGENIA NOVOZHENINA)

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塔利班消息人士證實,據報導,阿卜杜勒·加尼·巴拉達爾已被任命為阿富汗政府的新領導人。

Baradar 是伊斯蘭組織的聯合創始人和事實上的領導人,儘管理論上服務於最高領袖 Hibatullah Akhundzada,並被授予毛拉的頭銜。

在與蘇聯支持的阿富汗政府作戰的聖戰者組織中,他於 1994 年幫助組建了塔利班。在塔利班對阿富汗的第一次統治下,巴拉達爾還擔任過許多不同的職務。

這是在塔利班接管國家和總統阿什拉夫·加尼逃離喀布爾之後,阿富汗新政府將是什麼樣子的第一次重大觀察。塔利班現在完全控制了整個阿富汗,除了頑固的潘杰希爾省

塔利班高級官員毛拉·巴拉達爾·阿洪德 (Mullah Baradar Akhund) 與一群人坐在一起,發表視頻聲明,該靜態圖像取自在不明地點錄製並於 2021 年 8 月 16 日發布的視頻(來源:社交媒體/路透社)

此外,塔利班消息人士還表示,已故塔利班創始人毛拉奧馬爾的兒子毛拉穆罕默德·雅庫布和謝爾·穆罕默德·阿巴斯·斯塔內克扎伊將在政府中擔任要職。

“所有最高領導人都已抵達喀布爾,在那裡宣布新政府的準備工作已進入最後階段,”一位不願透露姓名的塔利班官員告訴路透社。

另一名塔利班消息人士稱,阿洪扎達將專注於伊斯蘭教框架內的宗教事務和治理。

這是一個發展的故事。

Taliban taps Abdul Ghani Baradar as new head of Afghanistan's government

Baradar is the co-founder and de facto leader of the Islamist organization, though in theory serves under Supreme Leader Hibatullah Akhundzada.

By REUTERS, JERUSALEM POST STAFF

SEPTEMBER 3, 2021 10:37

Taliban chief negotiator Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar (front) leaves after peace talks with Afghan senior politicians in Moscow, Russia May 30, 2019

(photo credit: REUTERS/EVGENIA NOVOZHENINA)

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Abdul Ghani Baradar has reportedly been named the new head of the Afghan government, Taliban sources confirmed.

Baradar is the co-founder and de facto leader of the Islamist organization, though in theory serves under Supreme Leader Hibatullah Akhundzada, and has been given the title of mullah.

He had helped form the Taliban in 1994 after having served in the Mujahadeen fighting against the Soviet-backed Afghan government. Under the Taliban's first rule over Afghanistan, Baradar had also served in a number of different capacities.

This is the first major look at what a new Afghan governemnt will look like following the Taliban's takeover of the country and the flight of president Ashraf Ghani from Kabul. The Taliban now fully controls all of Afghanistan, barring the holdout province of Panjshir.

Mullah Baradar Akhund, a senior official of the Taliban, seated with a group of men, makes a video statement, in this still image taken from a video recorded in an unidentified location and released on August 16, 2021 (credit: SOCIAL MEDIA/REUTERS)

In addition, Taliban sources also indicated that Mullah Mohammad Yaqoob, the son of late Taliban founder Mullah Omar, and Sher Mohammad Abbas Stanekzai will take senior positions in the government.

"All the top leaders have arrived in Kabul, where preparations are in final stages to announce the new government," one Taliban official told Reuters, on condition of anonymity.

Akhunzada will focus on religious matters and governance within the framework of Islam, another Taliban source said.

This is a developing story.

卡塔爾支持形象意識的塔利班重返阿富汗 - 分析

多哈正式主持了美國和塔利班之間的談判,多哈在 2021 年初宣布達成和平協議。

作者:HUDHAIFA EBRAHIM/媒體行

2021 年 9 月 3 日 07:17

上週末,阿富汗加茲尼市內的一名塔利班戰士。

(照片來源:路透社/STRINGER)

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在與美國打了20 年的戰爭之後,卡塔爾在強硬的塔利班運動重返阿富汗方面發揮了重要作用,這場戰爭在 9 月 11 日襲擊事件後爆發並導致該組織在那裡的統治被推翻。但分析人士認為,2021 年的塔利班與 2000 年的塔利班不同。

多哈在和談期間正式主持了美國與塔利班的多輪談判,正是多哈在2021年初宣布達成協議。但隨著第一名外國士兵從喀布爾撤出,人們開始質疑協議的現實性及其細節。

專門研究激進組織的沙特政治分析師兼記者 Furat Bassem 告訴媒體,塔利班正在重組,著眼於從多哈奪回阿富汗的權力,多哈自 2001 年以來一直接待塔利班領導人。

“我在多哈與談判代表關係密切,我得到消息,塔利班正在激烈談判,並且能夠取得成果。他們接受了政治藝術的訓練,不再像以前一樣,但世界上仍然對他們的行為存在政治恐懼,”他說。

巴塞姆解釋說:“自阿富汗戰爭以來,多哈一直接待該運動的領導人,這是美國政府所了解的。多哈的塔利班領導人接受了重新訓練以進行統治,毛拉(阿卜杜勒·加尼)巴拉達爾也從他在巴基斯坦的監獄直接釋放到多哈,並通過卡塔爾軍機返回阿富汗,正如大家所看到的。”

他強調,美國於 2020 年 2 月在前總統唐納德·特朗普 (Donald Trump) 領導下與塔利班簽署的協議“得到了卡塔爾的全力支持,卡塔爾監督了協議的各個細節。”

巴塞姆聲稱,該協議“包括美國和卡塔爾對該運動的軍事支持,以換取(塔利班)不支持極端主義團體,而且阿富汗不會再次成為他們的平台,此外還有其他協議,如投資鋰(礦山)和其他礦產,其價值估計超過一萬億美元。”

在最近這份未註明日期的講義中,從阿富汗撤離的人員抵達卡塔爾多哈的烏代德空軍基地。(信用:路透社)

卡塔爾政治分析家阿卜杜拉·阿爾馬里告訴媒體,“總的來說,阿富汗街頭似乎更能接受已經持續了二十年的塔利班運動,而不是接受美國任命的統治者。因為他們沒有為國家的發展做出貢獻,反而是國家的負擔。”

他補充說:“塔利班基本上不像其他極端的伊斯蘭運動。這是一個屬於 Ash'ari 教派的運動,與 Salafi al-Qaida 組織存在很大分歧。” 儘管存在分歧,但塔利班在 2001 年拒絕將基地組織成員移交給美國,“他們是穆斯林,(根據伊斯蘭法律)不允許移交他們”。

卡塔爾記者 Eid al-Kubaisi 向媒體證實,“卡塔爾只主持了幾輪​​談判,現在它向阿富汗人民提供支持,而不是塔利班,正在發生的事情是根據與美國的協議進行的。美國的。”

他補充說:“留下的軍事裝備是恢復安全的一部分,因為美國意識到政府軍的失敗,而 300,000 名阿富汗士兵的數量只是紙上談兵;因為實際數字遠低於這個數字,但由於政治腐敗,註冊了 30 萬名戰士。”

al-Kubaisi 補充說:“我們目睹了安全部隊的崩潰,塔利班直到到達喀布爾才開始戰鬥。” “阿富汗街頭的運動得到了極大的支持和接受。另一方面,塔利班是否會履行對國際社會的承諾,將有一個協議。卡塔爾將成為該協議的觀察員之一。”

沙特政治分析家和極端組織專家 Hazem Al-Shammari 告訴媒體專線,“卡塔爾負責該運動的重生及其在過去幾年的支持,直到它再次掌權。”

他繼續說:“塔利班領導人在多哈酒店,他們重新學習政治,除了伊斯蘭對哈納菲學派的裁決,但不那麼嚴格,這使他們能夠以不同的方式領導國家;但塔利班仍然對各方構成威脅。”

他說,塔利班、伊朗和土耳其在多哈達成了另一項協議,這解釋了在阿富汗和伊朗之間的過境點繼續開展業務的輕鬆程度,以及土耳其希望繼續運營喀布爾機場的願望。多哈是這項協議的幕後推手。

阿富汗記者沙姆斯人哈克穆罕默德告訴媒體行說:“塔利班在阿富汗的地區影響很大,並有管理他們的能力,甚至是美國的戰爭期間,這種影響仍在繼續,通過背誦古蘭經中心。”

他指出,“新塔利班將允許女性戴上伊斯蘭頭巾工作和完成學業,她們也可以去市場,但音樂和藝術仍將被禁止。”

穆罕默德還說,“塔利班佔領的營地內有幾個卡塔爾情報機構,但他們只是在那裡進行觀察。”

他強調,在卡塔爾的領導下,塔利班運動宣布對所有曾與阿富汗政府或美軍合作過的人進行大赦。接管後發生的殺戮“都是個人行動,其中大部分也是該運動的一些成員為人民報仇,他們可能因為一些與美軍合作的翻譯或線人而受到傷害。”

穆罕默德預計,“塔利班政府將在未來兩年內獲得國際認可,塔利班將證明它與以前不同,而是在卡塔爾訓練的現代版本,然後卡塔爾在這場運動中的角色將是透露了。”

美國政治分析家和恐怖組織專家馬克史密斯告訴媒體,“美國並沒有在阿富汗問題上被欺騙,而是以隨機方式撤軍。”

“至於卡塔爾在協議中的作用,美國國務院阿富汗和解事務特別代表哈利勒扎德近兩年一直在多哈,他是該協議的教父之一。美國已同意將阿富汗移交給塔利班,”他補充說。

史密斯強調,“阿富汗的局勢需要幾年才能穩定下來,但塔利班不會像以前那樣回歸,它只想按照自己的伊斯蘭教法進行統治,不會允許任何其他宗教團體在其領土上存在2001 年的情景不會再次出現。”

他說,美國留下的軍事裝備仍然是與塔利班達成的協議的一部分,而卡塔爾、法國和土耳其可能是塔利班行動的保證者和觀察者,“俄羅斯、中國和伊朗肯定會他們在這個國家的影響力。”

Qatar behind image-conscious Taliban's return to Afghanistan - analysis

Doha officially hosted negotiations between the US and the Taliban and it was Doha that announced at the beginning of 2021 that a peace agreement had been reached.

By HUDHAIFA EBRAHIM/THE MEDIA LINE

SEPTEMBER 3, 2021 07:17

A TALIBAN fighter inside the city of Ghazni, Afghanistan, last weekend.

(photo credit: REUTERS/STRINGER)

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Qatar has played a major role in the return of the hard-line Taliban movement to power in Afghanistan after 20 years of war with the United States that erupted after the September 11 attacks and led to the overthrow of the group’s rule there. But analysts believe that the 2021 Taliban is not the same as the Taliban of 2000.

Doha officially hosted several rounds of negotiations between the US and the Taliban during peace talks, and it was Doha that announced at the beginning of 2021 that an agreement had been reached. But with the start of the withdrawal of the first foreign soldier from Kabul, came questions about the reality of the agreement and its details.

Furat Bassem, a Saudi political analyst and journalist specializing in militant groups, told The Media Line that the Taliban were restructuring with an eye toward taking back the reins of power in Afghanistan from Doha, which has been hosting Taliban leaders since 2001.

“I was close to the negotiators in Doha, and I got information that the Taliban were negotiating fiercely, and were able to make gains. They were trained in the art of politics and are no longer the same as before, but there is still political fear in the world about their actions,” he said.

Bassem explained that “Doha has hosted the movement’s leaders since the war on Afghanistan, and that was with the knowledge of US administrations. The Taliban leaders in Doha were retrained to rule, also Mullah (Abdul Ghani) Baradar was released from his prison in Pakistan directly to Doha, and returned to Afghanistan via a Qatari military plane, as everyone has seen.”

He stressed that the US agreement signed with the Taliban in February 2020 under former President Donald Trump “was fully sponsored by Qatar, which oversaw the various details of the agreement.”

Bassem claims that the agreement “included US and Qatari military support for the movement, in exchange for (The Taliban) not supporting extremist groups, and that Afghanistan would not again be a platform for them, in addition to other agreements such as investing in lithium (mines) and other minerals whose value is estimated at more than one trillion dollars.”

Evacuees from Afghanistan arrive at Al-Udeid airbase in Doha, Qatar in this recent undated handout. (credit: REUTERS)

Abdullah Al Marri, a Qatari political analyst, told The Media Line that “it seems that the Afghan street, in general, is more accepting of the Taliban movement, which has endured for twenty years, than accepting of the rulers appointed by the United States, because they did not contribute to the development of the country, but rather were a burden on it.”

He added that: “The Taliban is basically not like other extremist Islamic movements. It is a movement that belongs to the Ash’ari sect, and it is in great disagreement with the Salafi al-Qaida organization.” Despite that disagreement, the Taliban in 2001 refused to hand over al-Qaida members to the United States “they are Muslims, and it is not permissible (under Islamic law) to hand them over.”

Qatari journalist Eid al-Kubaisi confirmed to The Media Line that “Qatar only hosted the rounds of negotiations, and now it provides support to the Afghan people, not the Taliban, and what is happening is being done according to the agreement with the United States of America.”

He added that “The military equipment that was left is part of the support to restore security, as the United States was aware of the failure of government forces, and that the number of 300,000 Afghan soldiers is just ink on paper; because the real numbers are much less than that, but because of political corruption, 300,000 fighters were registered.”

“We witnessed the collapse of the security forces in moments, and the Taliban did not fight until it reached Kabul,” al-Kubaisi added. “There is great support and acceptance of the movement in the Afghan street. On the other hand, there is an agreement that will govern whether the Taliban will fulfill its promises to the international community or not. Qatar will be one of the observers of this agreement.”

Hazem Al-Shammari, a Saudi political analyst and specialist in extremist groups, told The Media Line that “Qatar is responsible for the rebirth of the movement and its support over the past years, until it reached power again.”

He continued that “The Taliban leaders were in Doha hotels, and they studied politics again, in addition to Islamic rulings on the Hanafi school of thought, but with less strictness, which allows them to lead the country in a different way; But the Taliban will remain a danger to all sides.”

He said that another agreement took place in Doha between the Taliban, Iran and Turkey, which explains the ease with which business is continuing at the border crossing between Afghanistan and Iran, as well as Turkey’s desire to continue operating the airport in Kabul. Doha was behind this agreement.

Afghan journalist Shams al-Haq Muhammad told The Media Line that “the Taliban have great influence in the regions of Afghanistan and have the ability to manage them, and this influence continued even during the American war, through Quran memorization centers.”

He pointed out that “the new Taliban will allow women to work and complete their studies if they wear the Islamic headscarf, and they can also go out to markets, but music and arts will remain forbidden.”

Muhammad also said that “there are several elements of Qatari intelligence inside the camps that were seized by the Taliban, but they are only there for observation.”

He stressed that the Taliban movement, under Qatari guidance, announced a general amnesty for everyone who previously worked with the Afghan government or the American forces. The killings that occurred following the takeover “were all individual operations, and most of them were also to avenge the people by some members of the movement, who may have been harmed because of some translators or informants who worked with US forces.”

Muhammad expects that “the Taliban government will be internationally recognized during the next two years, and the Taliban will prove that it is not the same as before, but rather a modern version trained in Qatar, and then the Qatari role with this movement will be revealed.”

American political analyst and terror group expert Mark Smith told The Media Line “the United States was not deceived about Afghanistan, but rather the withdrawal took place in a random manner.”

“As for Qatar’s role in the agreement, Zalmay Khalilzad (the US special representative for Afghanistan reconciliation at the State Department) has been in Doha for the past two years, and he is one of the godfathers of this agreement. America has agreed to hand over Afghanistan to the Taliban,” he added.

Smith stressed that “the situation needs several years to stabilize in Afghanistan, but the Taliban will not return as before, it only wants to rule according to its own Islamic law, and will not allow any other religious group to exist on its soil so that the 2001 scenario does not return again.”

He said that the military equipment that the US left behind remained as part of the agreement with the Taliban and that while Qatar, France and Turkey may be the guarantors and observers of what the Taliban will do, “Russia, China and Iran will certainly have their influence in this country.”

乘坐黑鷹勝利飛行,塔利班遊行掠奪美國硬件

懸掛伊斯蘭主義者旗幟的直升機嗡嗡響起,被俘的悍馬車隊在阿富汗坎達爾省的運動中心地帶遊行

大衛·福克斯2021 年 9 月 1 日,晚上 8:39

2021 年 9 月 1 日,在坎大哈,一架懸掛著塔利班旗幟的直升機在聚集在一起慶祝美國從阿富汗撤出所有部隊的支持者上方飛揚。(JAVED TANVEER / 法新社)

阿富汗坎大哈(法新社)——週三,一架黑鷹直升機在阿富汗南部塔利班的精神中心地帶上空盤旋,而下方的戰鬥機則站在被俘虜的悍馬上,伊斯蘭主義者正在炫耀他們掠奪的美國軍事裝備。

塔利班的勝利一圈,慶祝美國軍隊的最後撤出,在該組織驚人的兩週接管之後,結束了醞釀中的 20 年叛亂。

在通往阿富汗第二大城市坎大哈的高速公路上,一長隊綠色裝甲戰車並排行駛,其中大部分都在天線上掛著黑白相間的塔利班旗幟。

戰鬥機控制著美國、北約和阿富汗軍隊在兩年戰爭期間使用的多用途卡車,而其他人則在該市郊區的艾諾邁納 (Ayno Maina) 爬上車輛。

武裝分子攜帶的輕武器包括美國的 M16 步槍。

滿載支持者的皮卡車駛過軍車車隊,其中一些配備了重型武器和機槍。

2021 年 9 月 1 日,在美國將所有部隊撤出阿富汗後,在坎大哈,悍馬車上的塔利班戰士在公路上游行慶祝(JAVED TANVEER / 法新社)

至少一架黑鷹直升機在頭頂嗡嗡作響,這表明塔利班缺乏合格的飛行員,因此有人在控制前阿富汗軍隊。

坎大哈是普什圖族的中心地帶,是塔利班的發源地,也是 1996 年強硬派上台的地方。到 2001 年,當美國領導的軍隊入侵時,塔利班已經控制了該國大部分地區。

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在坎大哈板球場,數百人聚集在一起聽演講,在上個月成功進攻塔利班並蔑視美國之後,他們對塔利班大加讚賞。

年長的領導人坐在球員休息區的陰涼處,斜靠在木製咖啡桌後面的扶手椅上。

其他人盤腿坐在草地上,而更多的人則聚集在露台上觀看。

身著迷彩服的武裝戰士站在人群面前。

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2021 年 9 月 1 日,在塔利班軍事接管阿富汗後,美國將所有部隊撤出阿富汗,在坎大哈,悍馬車上的塔利班戰士在公路上游行慶祝。(賈維德·坦維爾 / 法新社)

“我們共同的敵人發誓要為我們的土地帶來經濟繁榮,但沒有做到,”一位名叫薩奇布的塔利班招募人員說。

“他們聲稱帶來了一個文明的系統。去看看機場,所有飛機都留在中間。

“美國不僅襲擊了我們的年輕軍人。美國已經腐蝕了我們的媒體。它帶走了我們的文化。它踐踏了我們的經濟。”

塔利班的秘密最高領導人 Hibatullah Akhundzada 週日表示,在多年的陰影中生活後,他住在坎大哈。

有消息說他將於週三露面,但他沒有出現,讓該市的新州長向人群發表講話。

在網上發布的活動集結視頻中,另一架直升機從頭頂尾隨塔利班旗幟飛過,戴著頭巾的​​戰士在下方揮手。

一天前,數千名塔利班信徒湧上坎大哈街頭,揮舞旗幟,高呼“上帝是最偉大的”,慶祝美國最終撤軍。

美國將軍稱可能與塔利班就打擊IS進行協調

但馬克米利的言論並未表明美國撤出阿富汗後立即與伊斯蘭組織合作的計劃

作者:ROBERT BURNSLOLITA C. BALDOR2021 年 9 月 2 日,上午 11:04

2021 年 9 月 1 日,美國參謀長聯席會議上將馬克·米利在華盛頓五角大樓與國防部長勞埃德·奧斯汀舉行的簡報會上就阿富汗戰爭的結束髮表講話。(美聯社照片/蘇珊沃爾什)

華盛頓(美聯社)——美國參謀長聯席會議主席馬克米利將軍錶示,美國“有可能”尋求與塔利班協調,在阿富汗打擊伊斯蘭國聖戰分子或其他人。

米利沒有詳細說明,他週三的評論似乎也沒有表明立即計劃與塔利班合作。

過去三週,美國軍事指揮官每天都在喀布爾機場外與塔利班指揮官協調,以促進超過 124,000 人的撤離。但這對雙方來說是一個方便的問題,並不一定表明他們將來會追求甚至想要建立正常的關係。

美國軍方於 2001 年秋季將塔利班趕下台,並在隨後的 19 年中與他們作戰。

既然戰爭已經結束,美國與塔利班關係的範圍和性質是需要解決的關鍵問題之一。美國在喀布爾的外交存在已移至卡塔爾多哈。美國總統喬拜登最近多次指出,塔利班是阿富汗伊斯蘭國家集團的公然敵人,這表明塔利班與美國有共同利益。

在五角大樓與國防部長勞埃德奧斯汀舉行的新聞發布會上,米利稱塔利班“無情”,並補充說:“他們是否會改變還有待觀察。” 他建議,最近在喀布爾機場與塔利班的合作安排不一定是未來的模式。

“在戰爭中,你做你必須做的事是為了降低任務和武力的風險,而不是你一定想做的事,”米利說。

在該組織於 2020 年 9 月 20 日分享的視頻中,可以看到伊斯蘭國呼羅珊的一名成員在阿富汗。(推特截圖)

上週,伊斯蘭國在喀布爾機場門口發生自殺式爆炸襲擊,造成至少 169 名阿富汗人和 13 名美國軍人死亡,拜登承諾進一步針對阿富汗境內的伊斯蘭國集團進行打擊。星期六,美國軍方在阿富汗進行了一次無人機襲擊,據稱造成兩名伊斯蘭國策劃者喪生。週二,拜登說,“對 ISIS-K:我們還沒有完成你的工作,”指的是 IS 阿富汗分支。

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如果沒有美軍駐紮在當地,也沒有友好的政府部隊可以與極端主義網絡共享情報,那麼針對伊斯蘭國激進分子或其他聖戰組織(例如基地組織)將更加困難。但拜登政府聲稱,它可以通過監控和可能打擊該地區其他地方的資產來遏制這些團體。

儘管塔利班反對伊斯蘭國,但目前還不清楚他們是否會傾向於與美軍或中央情報局合作,因為他們已經在喀布爾重新獲得了權力。米利最近有與塔利班領導人打交道的經歷;去年兩次,最近一次是在 12 月,他與他們面對面會面,試圖減緩他們對美國支持的阿富汗政府的攻擊,該政府於 8 月中旬垮台,引發了以美國為首的瘋狂撤離。

對於最近幾天在喀布爾機場的協調表明未來與塔利班的關係的可能性,奧斯汀聽起來至少和米利一樣持懷疑態度。

“我不會對更廣泛的問題做出任何邏輯上的飛躍,”奧斯汀說。

美國國防部長勞埃德·奧斯汀於 2021 年 9 月 1 日在華盛頓五角大樓舉行的簡報會上就阿富汗戰爭結束髮表講話。(美聯社照片/蘇珊沃爾什)

奧斯汀和米利在 20 年戰爭期間都在阿富汗指揮過軍隊,他們在周三的新聞發布會上的評論主要集中在向在阿富汗服役的人致敬,包括那些死傷者。他們還感謝所有為最後一次空運做出貢獻的人,奧斯汀稱之為美國歷史上最大規模的平民疏散。

米莉和奧斯汀敦促退伍軍人將他們的服務視為值得併受到美國公眾的讚賞,同時承認回憶可能是痛苦的。

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“戰爭是艱難的。它是惡毒的。這是殘酷的。這是無情的,”米利說。“是的,我們都有痛苦和憤怒。當我們看到過去 20 年和過去 20 天發生的事情時,就會產生痛苦和憤怒。”

隨著美國捲入戰爭結束,所有美國軍隊都撤離該國,拜登正在努力應對與塔利班建立新關係的前景。他已責成國務卿安東尼·布林肯與國際夥伴協調,讓塔利班履行承諾,讓美國人和其他想在未來幾天離開的人安全通行。

2021 年 8 月 31 日,塔利班發言人 Zabihullah Mujahid(C,披著披肩)在喀布爾機場向媒體發表講話。(WAKIL KOHSAR / 法新社)

美國中央司令部司令海軍陸戰隊上將弗蘭克·麥肯齊 (Frank McKenzie) 將撤離期間美國與塔利班的關係描述為“非常務實且非常務實”,稱他們幫助保護了機場。但來自阿富汗人民的其他報告描述了槍擊、暴力和塔利班阻止絕望的阿富汗人通過大門的行動。

拜登週二在全國講話中為他結束美國最長戰爭並在 8 月 31 日截止日期前撤出所有美軍的決定進行了辯護。

拜登在白宮宣布:“我不會延長這場永遠的戰爭。” “而且我不打算永久退出。”

拜登因處理疏散而受到嚴厲批評,尤其是共和黨人。但他表示,前總統唐納德特朗普於 5 月 1 日首次與塔利班談判,最終擺脫長達 20 年的戰爭是不可避免的,無論何時計劃和進行,都將是困難的,可能會發生暴力事件。

“對於那些要求在阿富汗進行第三個十年戰爭的人,我問,'什麼是至關重要的國家利益?'”拜登說。他補充說:“我根本不相信,繼續在阿富汗部署數千名美軍並在阿富汗花費數十億美元,不會增強美國的安全和保障。”

US general says coordination with Taliban ‘possible’ on strikes against IS

But Mark Milley’s remarks don’t indicate immediate plans to work with Islamist group after US withdrawal from Afghanistan

By ROBERT BURNS and LOLITA C. BALDOR2 September 2021, 11:04 am

US Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Mark Milley speaks during a briefing with Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin at the Pentagon in Washington, September 1, 2021, about the end of the war in Afghanistan. (AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

WASHINGTON (AP) — General Mark Milley, chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, said it’s “possible” the United States will seek to coordinate with the Taliban on counterterrorism strikes in Afghanistan against Islamic State jihadists or others.

Milley did not elaborate, and his comment Wednesday did not appear to suggest immediate plans to work with the Taliban.

US military commanders coordinated daily with Taliban commanders outside the Kabul airport over the past three weeks to facilitate the evacuation of more than 124,000 people. But that was a matter of convenience for both parties and not necessarily a sign that they will pursue, or even want, a regular relationship in the future.

The US military ousted the Taliban from power in the fall of 2001 and fought against them for the 19 years that followed.

The extent and nature of a US-Taliban relationship, now that the war is over, is one of the key issues to be worked out. The US diplomatic presence in Kabul has been moved to Doha, Qatar. US President Joe Biden has noted several times recently that the Taliban are avowed enemies of the Islamic State group in Afghanistan, suggesting a shared interest with the United States.

At a Pentagon news conference with Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin, Milley called the Taliban “ruthless,” adding: “Whether or not they change remains to be seen.” He suggested that the recent cooperative arrangement with the Taliban at Kabul airport was not necessarily a model for the future.

“In war, you do what you must in order to reduce risk to mission and force, not what you necessarily want to do,” Milley said.

A member of Islamic State Khorasan is seen in Afghanistan, in a video shared by the group on September 20, 2020. (Twitter screenshot)

Biden has promised further targeting of the Islamic State group in Afghanistan in response to the IS suicide bombing last week at a Kabul airport gate that killed at least 169 Afghans and 13 American service members. On Saturday, the US military carried out a drone strike in Afghanistan that it said killed two IS planners. On Tuesday, Biden said, “To ISIS-K: We are not done with you yet,” referring to the IS Afghan offshoot.

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Targeting Islamic State militants or other jihadist groups, such as al-Qaeda, will be more difficult with no US military forces on the ground and no friendly government forces with which to share intelligence on extremist networks. But the Biden administration asserts that it can contain these groups by monitoring and potentially striking with assets based elsewhere in the region.

Although the Taliban oppose IS, it’s far from clear that they will be inclined to work with the US military or the Central Intelligence Agency now that they have regained power in Kabul. Milley has recent experience with Taliban leaders; twice last year, most recently in December, he met face-to-face with them in an attempt to slow their attacks on the US-backed Afghan government, which collapsed in mid-August, triggering the frantic US-led evacuation.

Austin sounded at least as skeptical as Milley regarding the possibility that the coordination in recent days at the Kabul airport suggests a future relationship with the Taliban.

“I would not make any leaps of logic to broader issues,” said Austin.

US Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin speaks during a briefing at the Pentagon in Washington, September 1, 2021, about the end of the war in Afghanistan. (AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

Both Austin and Milley commanded troops in Afghanistan during the 20-year war and their comments at Wednesday’s news conference largely focused on tributes to those who served in Afghanistan, including those who died or were wounded. They also thanked all who contributed to the final airlift, which Austin called the largest evacuation of civilians in American history.

Milley and Austin urged war veterans to view their service as worthwhile and appreciated by the American public, while acknowledging that the memories can be painful.

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“War is hard. It’s vicious. It’s brutal. It’s unforgiving,” Milley said. “Yes, we all have pain and anger. When we see what has unfolded over the last 20 years and over the last 20 days, that creates pain and anger.”

With the US involvement in the war over and all American military out of the country, Biden is grappling with the prospects of a new relationship with the Taliban. He has tasked Secretary of State Antony Blinken with coordinating with international partners to hold the Taliban to their promise of safe passage for Americans and others who want to leave in the days ahead.

Taliban spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid (C, with shawl) speaks to the media at the airport in Kabul on August 31, 2021. (WAKIL KOHSAR / AFP)

Marine Gen. Frank McKenzie, head of US Central Command, has described the US relationship with the Taliban during the evacuation as “very pragmatic and very businesslike,” saying they helped secure the airport. But other reports from people in Afghanistan described shootings, violence and Taliban moves to block desperate Afghans from getting through the gates.

Biden in an address to the nation Tuesday defended his decision to end America’s longest war and withdraw all US troops by an August 31 deadline.

“I was not going to extend this forever war,” Biden declared from the White House. “And I was not going to extend a forever exit.”

Biden is coming under heavy criticism, particularly from Republicans, for his handling of the evacuation. But he said it was inevitable that the final departure from two decades of war, first negotiated with the Taliban for May 1 by former president Donald Trump, would have been difficult, with likely violence, no matter when it was planned and conducted.

“To those asking for a third decade of war in Afghanistan, I ask, ‘What is the vital national interest?’” Biden said. He added, “I simply do not believe that the safety and security of America is enhanced by continuing to deploy thousands of American troops and spending billions of dollars in Afghanistan.”

“自由是我們的座右銘”:阿富汗婦女要求權利,因為塔利班尋求承認

伊斯蘭組織承諾包容性政府和更溫和的宗教統治形式,但許多阿富汗人深表懷疑,擔心過去二十年獲得的權利會倒退

凱西·甘農今天,下午 5:56

2021 年 9 月 3 日星期五在阿富汗喀布爾舉行的抗議活動中,婦女聚集在一起要求她們在塔利班統治下的權利。(美聯社照片/Wali Sabawoon)

阿富汗喀布爾(美聯社)——週五,一小群阿富汗婦女在喀布爾總統府附近抗議,要求塔利班在阿富汗新統治者組建政府和尋求國際承認之際獲得平等權利。

上個月,塔利班在幾天之內佔領了該國的大部分地區,並慶祝了經過 20 年戰爭的最後一批美軍撤離。現在,他們面臨著治理一個嚴重依賴國際援助的飽受戰爭蹂躪的國家的緊迫挑戰。

與 1996 年至 2001 年他們上次統治該國時相比,塔利班承諾建立一個包容性的政府和更溫和的伊斯蘭統治形式。但許多阿富汗人,尤其是婦女,深表懷疑,並擔心過去二十年獲得的權利會倒退。

喀布爾的抗議活動是幾天以來的第二次婦女抗議活動,另一場抗議活動在西部城市赫拉特舉行。大約 20 名拿著麥克風的婦女聚集在塔利班槍手的注視下,他們允許示威繼續進行。

婦女要求獲得教育、重返工作崗位的權利以及在治理國家中發揮作用。“自由是我們的座右銘。這讓我們感到自豪,”讀到他們的一個標誌。

一名塔利班戰士一度冒險闖入人群,但目擊者稱,他對停下來觀看示威的旁觀者而不是抗議者本人感到憤怒。

2021 年 9 月 3 日星期五在阿富汗喀布爾舉行的抗議活動中,婦女聚集在一起要求她們在塔利班統治下的權利。(美聯社照片/Wali Sabawoon)

塔利班曾表示,婦女將能夠繼續接受教育和外出工作,而在武裝分子最後一次掌權時,婦女的權利被剝奪。但塔利班也發誓要實施伊斯蘭教法或伊斯蘭教法,但沒有提供具體細節。

穆斯林世界對伊斯蘭教法的解釋千差萬別,以較為溫和的方式為主。塔利班早期的統治是由阿富汗獨特的部落傳統塑造的,在這種傳統下,婦女不得公開露面。即使在西方支持的政府執政 20 年期間,這些習俗依然存在,尤其是在農村。

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塔利班可能更緊迫的擔憂是陷入危機的經濟。公務員已經幾個月沒有領到工資了,自動取款機已經關閉,銀行每週取款限制在 200 美元,導致他們外面聚集了大量人群。援助組織警告說,在嚴重干旱的情況下,飢餓會普遍存在。

塔利班表示,在激進分子上個月進入喀布爾後停止服務的西聯匯款將恢復轉賬,這可能有助於阿富汗人從居住在國外的親屬那裡獲得現金。但阿富汗的大部分外匯儲備都在國外並被凍結,而西方國家則在考慮如何與塔利班打交道,給當地貨幣帶來壓力。

西聯匯款沒有立即就恢復服務發表評論。

塔利班表示,他們希望與所有國家,甚至是美國,保持良好關係,最近幾天,他們在海灣國家卡塔爾與外國使節舉行了一系列會晤,卡塔爾長期以來一直在那裡擔任政治職務。

2021 年 9 月 3 日星期五在阿富汗喀布爾舉行的抗議活動中,婦女聚集在一起要求她們在塔利班統治下的權利。(美聯社照片/Wali Sabawoon)

預計西方國家將要求塔利班兌現其組建包容性政府並防止阿富汗成為恐怖組織避風港的承諾。他們也可能會在婦女權利問題上向塔利班施壓,儘管這對於該組織的強硬基地來說可能更難推銷,因為他們沉浸在阿富汗非常保守的部落文化中。

塔利班文化委員會發言人艾哈邁杜拉·穆塔奇 (Ahmadullah Muttaqi) 說,阿拉伯聯合酋長國的一名高級官員周五飛往喀布爾國際機場與塔利班官員會面,但沒有透露他的名字。阿富汗 TOLO 電視台報導稱,這架飛機還載有 60 噸食品和醫療援助物資。

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據塔利班稱,駐卡塔爾的塔利班高級官員謝爾·穆罕默德·斯塔尼克扎伊最近會見了英國和德國代表團,另一名官員阿卜杜勒·薩拉姆·哈納菲與中國外交部副部長吳江浩通了電話。

在塔利班於 8 月 15 日進入喀布爾後的幾天裡,大多數西方大使館都被疏散和關閉。塔利班敦促外交官返回。

塔利班政治領導人在電視上說,世界無所畏懼。但許多阿富汗人,以及與該組織戰鬥了二十年的西方國家,仍然深表懷疑。

在塔利班從喀布爾國際機場以美國為首的大規模空運中接管後,成千上萬的阿富汗人逃離了該國。混亂的場面,從阿富汗人在起飛前緊緊抓住軍用飛機後墜落身亡,再到導致 169 名阿富汗人和 13 名美國軍人喪生的自殺式炸彈襲擊,標誌著美國最長戰爭的痛苦結束。

2021 年 9 月 3 日星期五在阿富汗喀布爾舉行的抗議活動中,婦女聚集在一起要求她們在塔利班統治下的權利。(美聯社照片/Wali Sabawoon)

在最後一批美軍撤離後,塔利班接管了機場,現在正與來自卡塔爾和土耳其的技術專家一起努力恢復運營。塔利班表示,他們將允許任何持有適當證件的人免費旅行,但是否有任何商業航空公司會提供服務還有待觀察。

巴基斯坦國際航空公司的官員會見了阿富汗仍然獨立的民航管理局。但該航空公司發言人阿卜杜拉·哈菲茲 (Abdullah Hafeez) 表示,清理碎片並恢復正常運營需要“一些時間”。

“在國際航班進入機場之前,還有很多工作要做,”他說。

‘Freedom is our motto’: Afghan women demand rights as Taliban seek recognition

Islamist group promising inclusive government and more moderate form of religious rule, but many Afghans are deeply skeptical, fear rollback of rights gained over last two decades

By KATHY GANNONToday, 5:56 pm

Women gather to demand their rights under the Taliban rule during a protest in Kabul, Afghanistan, Friday, Sept. 3, 2021. (AP Photo/Wali Sabawoon)

KABUL, Afghanistan (AP) — A small group of Afghan women protested near the presidential palace in Kabul on Friday, demanding equal rights from the Taliban as Afghanistan’s new rulers work on forming a government and seeking international recognition.

The Taliban captured most of the country in a matter of days last month and celebrated the departure of the last US forces after 20 years of war. Now they face the urgent challenge of governing a war-ravaged country that is heavily reliant on international aid.

The Taliban have promised an inclusive government and a more moderate form of Islamic rule than when they last ruled the country from 1996 to 2001. But many Afghans, especially women, are deeply skeptical and fear a rollback of rights gained over the last two decades.

The protest in Kabul was the second women’s protest in as many days, with the other held in the western city of Herat. Around 20 women with microphones gathered under the watchful eyes of Taliban gunmen, who allowed the demonstration to proceed.

The women demanded access to education, the right to return to work and a role in governing the country. “Freedom is our motto. It makes us proud,” read one of their signs.

A Taliban fighter ventured into the crowd at one point, but witnesses said he was angry at the bystanders who had stopped to watch the demonstration and not the protesters themselves.

Women gather to demand their rights under Taliban rule during a protest in Kabul, Afghanistan, Friday, Sept. 3, 2021. (AP Photo/Wali Sabawoon)

The Taliban have said women will be able to continue their education and work outside the home, rights denied to women when the militants were last in power. But the Taliban have also vowed to impose Sharia, or Islamic law, without providing specifics.

Interpretations of Islamic law vary widely across the Muslim world, with more moderate strains predominating. The Taliban’s earlier rule was shaped by Afghanistan’s unique tribal traditions, under which women are not to be seen in public. Those customs endure, especially in the countryside, even during 20 years of Western-backed governments.

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A potentially more pressing concern for the Taliban is the economy, which is mired in crisis. Civil servants haven’t been paid for months, ATMs have been shut down and banks are limiting withdrawals to $200 per week, causing large crowds to form outside them. Aid groups have warned of widespread hunger amid a severe drought.

The Taliban said Western Union, which halted service after the militants entered Kabul last month, will resume transfers, which may help Afghans to receive cash from relatives living abroad. But most of Afghanistan’s foreign reserves are held abroad and frozen while Western nations consider how to engage with the Taliban, putting pressure on the local currency.

There was no immediate comment from Western Union on the resumption of service.

The Taliban say they want good relations with all countries, even the United States, and have held a string of meetings with foreign envoys in recent days in the Gulf nation of Qatar, where they have long maintained a political office.

Women gather to demand their rights under Taliban rule during a protest in Kabul, Afghanistan, Friday, Sept. 3, 2021. (AP Photo/Wali Sabawoon)

Western nations are expected to demand the Taliban live up to their promises to form an inclusive government and prevent Afghanistan from being a haven for terrorist groups. They may also press the Taliban on women’s rights, though that could be a harder sell for the group’s hard-line base, which is steeped in Afghanistan’s deeply conservative, tribal culture.

Ahmadullah Muttaqi, a spokesman for the Taliban’s cultural commission, said a senior official from the United Arab Emirates flew into Kabul’s international airport on Friday to meet with Taliban officials, without naming him. Afghanistan’s TOLO TV reported that the aircraft was also carrying 60 tons of food and medical aid.

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Sher Mohammad Stanikzai, a senior Taliban official based in Qatar, recently met with British and German delegations, according to the Taliban, which said another official, Abdul Salam Hanafi, had a phone call with Chinese deputy foreign minister Wu Jianghao.

Most Western embassies were evacuated and shuttered in the days after the Taliban rolled into Kabul on Aug. 15. The Taliban have urged diplomats to return.

Taliban political leaders have gone on TV to say the world has nothing to fear from them. But many Afghans, as well as Western nations that spent two decades fighting the group, remain deeply skeptical.

Tens of thousands of Afghans fled the country after the Taliban takeover in a massive US-led airlift out of Kabul international airport. The scenes of chaos, from Afghans clinging to military aircraft as they took off before falling to their deaths, to a suicide bombing that killed 169 Afghans and 13 US service members, marked a bitter end to America’s longest war.

Women gather to demand their rights under Taliban rule during a protest in Kabul, Afghanistan, Friday, Sept. 3, 2021. (AP Photo/Wali Sabawoon)

The Taliban assumed control of the airport after the last American forces flew out and are now working to restore operations with technical experts from Qatar and Turkey. The Taliban say they will allow free travel for anyone with proper documents, but it remains to be seen whether any commercial airlines will offer service.

Officials from Pakistan International Airlines have met with Afghanistan’s still-independent civil aviation administration. But Abdullah Hafeez, a spokesman for the airline, said it will take “some time” to clean up the debris and restore normal operations.

“There is still a lot of work to be done before international flights can come into the airport,” he said.

哈馬斯稱埃及導致加沙隧道坍塌,造成3​​人死亡

巴勒斯坦團體稱,埃及軍隊向隧道中註入了天然氣;試圖打擊邊境走私的開羅尚未對事件發表評論

通過TOI人員今天,晚上 9:28

在這張 2013 年 9 月 30 日星期一的檔案照片中,一名巴勒斯坦工人在埃及和加沙地帶南部邊界拉法的一條走私隧道內休息。(美聯社/哈特姆穆薩)

哈馬斯控制的飛地當局說,週五在從加沙地帶南部通往埃及的地下隧道坍塌後發現了三名巴勒斯坦人的屍體。

內政部發言人伊亞德·博佐姆(Iyad al-Bozom)在一份聲明中說,週四部分隧道坍塌後,“民防隊在拉法市南部邊境附近的地下發現了三具屍體”。

一位不願透露姓名的接近哈馬斯的消息人士稱,死亡發生在天然氣從埃及一側進入隧道後,引發了坍塌,導致“三名工人”喪生。

埃及尚未對這一事件發表評論。

巴勒斯坦人過去曾表示,埃及使用天然氣來阻止使用沿邊界發現的非法隧道。

埃及已經拆除了其領土和加沙之間的數百條隧道,但據信,商業貨物和武器走私者仍然在那裡經營著許多地下通道。

Hamas says Egypt caused Gaza tunnel collapse, killing 3

Palestinian groups say Egyptian forces pumped gas into the tunnel; Cairo, which has sought to clamp down on border smuggling, has yet to comment on incident

By TOI STAFFToday, 9:28 pm

In this Monday, September 30, 2013 file photo, a Palestinian worker rests inside a smuggling tunnel in Rafah, on the border between Egypt and the southern Gaza Strip. (AP/Hatem Moussa)

The bodies of three Palestinians were discovered on Friday after an underground tunnel from the southern Gaza Strip to Egypt collapsed, authorities in the Hamas-controlled enclave said.

“Civil defense teams found three bodies under the ground near the border, south of Rafah” city after part of the tunnel collapsed on Thursday, interior ministry spokesman Iyad al-Bozom said in a statement.

The deaths occurred after gas was sent into the tunnel from the Egyptian side, triggering the collapse that killed “three workers,” a source close to Hamas said on condition of anonymity.

Egypt has not commented on the incident.

Palestinians have in the past said that Egypt uses gas to halt the use of illegal tunnels it finds along the border.

Egypt has demolished hundreds of tunnels between its territory and Gaza, but smugglers of commercial goods and weapons are still believed to operate a number of subterranean passageways there.

疫苗引起的副作用在 COVID 病例中更為常見——以色列研究

對 200 萬以色列人的研究未能發現接種後任何嚴重副作用的高發生率;冠狀病毒患者患心肌炎的可能性是疫苗接種者的 4 倍

通過內森杰斐 2021 年 8 月 30 日,晚上 7:10

2021 年 8 月 24 日,一名衛生工作者在耶路撒冷準備 Covid-19 疫苗。 (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90)

以色列的研究表明,在增加心肌炎和其他被認為是接種後副作用的疾病的風險方面,COVID 遠比疫苗差。

同行評審的副作用研究的作者被認為是迄今為止同類研究中規模最大的,他們表示,它為輝瑞疫苗的安全性提供了新的保證。他們認為,這應該促使那些因為罕見的副作用而避免注射的人進行認真的反思。

“迄今為止,由於擔心心肌炎等罕見副作用而對接種疫苗猶豫不決的任何人都應該意識到,未接種疫苗的人感染冠狀病毒的風險更高,”該研究所研究負責人 Ran Balicer 教授說。 Clalit Health Services 負責製作這項研究。

該研究查看了近 200 萬份醫療記錄,未能確定接種疫苗後出現任何嚴重副作用的高發率——同時發現,在新接種的疫苗中,有幾種情況比正常情況少見。

根據巴利塞的說法,它提供了清晰的數字,可以讓人們對副作用的發生率進行透視,這在許多人的腦海中顯得尤為突出。

以色列政府的冠狀病毒高級顧問巴里塞說:“到目前為止,猶豫是否接種疫苗的主要動機之一是缺乏有關可能的疫苗副作用的信息。這項深入的研究提供了有關疫苗安全性的可靠信息,我們希望它能幫助那些尚未決定接種疫苗的人。”

討論最多的疫苗副作用之一,一種稱為心肌炎的心髒病,在接種疫苗的人群中被發現升高,每 100,000 人中的病例比正常情況多 2.7 例(稱為過剩病例)。但在沒有接種疫苗並隨後感染 COVID-19 並康復的人中,過剩病例為每 10 萬人中有 11 人。

以色列最大的衛生服務提供商 Clalit 的創新主管 Ran Balicer 教授於 2020 年 6 月 10 日在特拉維夫 (EMMANUEL DUNAND / AFP)

該研究剛剛發表在《新英格蘭醫學雜誌》上,重點關注接受輝瑞疫苗接種的人,並跟踪患者的健康狀況長達六週。該研究得出的結論是,“BNT162b2 疫苗與所檢查的大多數不良事件的風險升高無關。”

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主要的例外是淋巴結腫大,淋巴結腫大和帶狀皰疹。每 100,000 名接種疫苗的人中有 78 例淋巴結腫大,但未接種疫苗和感染者中只有 3 例。

在未接種疫苗的人群中,每 100,000 人中的帶狀皰疹病例比正常情況少 9 例,但接種疫苗的患者中有 16 例多於病例。

衛生部長尼贊·霍洛維茨 (Nitzan Horowitz) 在阿拉伯以色列小鎮卡法卡西姆 (Kfar Qassem) 的一個臨時設立的疫苗接種中心。2021 年 8 月 23 日。(Yossi Aloni/FLASH90)

數據表明,在接種疫苗的人群中,人們擔心的副作用在正常範圍內——甚至比正常情況更不常見,但在感染 COVID-19 的人群中有所升高。

結果表明,在接種疫苗的人群中,急性腎損傷和心律失常的發生率低於預期。然而,在未接種疫苗和受感染的患者中,存在過剩病例——急性腎損傷和心律失常的病例分別高達每 100,000 人中 125 人和 166 人。

還有其他一些情況在康復患者中更為常見,但在接種疫苗的人群中處於大致正常範圍內。這些包括肺栓塞(感染者中每 100,000 人中有 62 次過剩事件)、深靜脈血栓形成(43 次事件)、心肌梗塞(25 次事件)、心包炎(11 次事件)和顱內出血(7.6 次事件)。

在接種疫苗的人和未接種疫苗的感染者中,發現闌尾炎高於正常水平,達到相似的水平——每 10 萬人分別有 5 例和 4 例過剩病例。

廣告

該研究是與哈佛大學合作進行的,哈佛大學選擇研究以色列數據,因為它是全面的。該研究的合著者、哈佛大學傳染病動力學中心主任馬克·利普西奇說,疫苗安全研究的一個主要挑戰是比較同類患者。

“對於發展如此之快的疫苗而言,這尤其具有挑戰性,但 Clalit 非凡的數據庫使設計研究以應對這些挑戰的方式成為可能,從而建立對研究結論可靠性的信心。”

Side effects feared from vaccine are more common in COVID cases — Israeli study

Research on 2 million Israelis fails to find high incidence of any serious side effect post-inoculation; coronavirus patient 4 times more likely to get myocarditis than vaccinee

By NATHAN JEFFAY 30 August 2021, 7:10 pm

A health worker prepares a Covid-19 vaccine in Jerusalem, on August 24, 2021. (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90)

COVID is far worse than vaccines in elevating risk of myocarditis and other conditions that have been feared as post-inoculation side effects, Israeli research shows.

The authors of the peer-reviewed side effects study, thought to be the largest of its kind to date, say it offers new reassurance on the safety of the Pfizer vaccine. They believe that it should prompt a serious rethink among people who shun the shots because of the rare side effects.

“Anyone who has been hesitant to get vaccinated so far due to concerns about rare side effects such as myocarditis, should be aware that the risk is higher among unvaccinated people infected with the coronavirus,” said Prof. Ran Balicer, head of research at the Clalit Health Services, which produced the study.

The study looked at almost two million medical records, and failed to identify high incidence of any serious side effect post-vaccination — while finding that several conditions are less common than normal among the newly inoculated.

According to Balicer, it provides clear figures that put the incidence of side effects, which loom large in the minds of many, into perspective.

Balicer, a senior adviser to the Israeli government on the coronavirus, said: “So far one of the main motives for hesitation to get vaccinated has been a lack of information about possible vaccine side effects. This in-depth study provides reliable information on the safety of the vaccines, and we hope it will help those who have not yet decided on the vaccine.”

One of the most discussed vaccine side effects, a heart condition called myocarditis, was found to be elevated among vaccinated people, with 2.7 more cases per 100,000 people than would normally occur (known as surplus cases). But among people who didn’t vaccinate and subsequently caught COVID-19 and recovered, surplus cases stood at 11 per 100,000.

Professor Ran Balicer, head of innovation at Clalit, Israel’s biggest health services provider, in Tel Aviv on June 10, 2020 (EMMANUEL DUNAND / AFP)

The study, just published in the New England Journal of Medicine, focused on people who received the Pfizer vaccine, and tracked patients’ health for six weeks. The study concluded that “the BNT162b2 vaccine was not associated with an elevated risk of most of the adverse events examined.”

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The main exceptions were lymphadenopathy, which enlarges lymph nodes, and shingles. There were 78 surplus cases of lymphadenopathy per 100,000 vaccinated people but only 3 among the unvaccinated and infected.

There were nine fewer cases of shingles per 100,000 among the unvaccinated population than the norm, but 16 surplus cases among vaccinated patients.

Health Minister Nitzan Horowitz at a temporary set up vaccination center in the Arab Israeli town of Kfar Qassem. August 23, 2021. (Yossi Aloni/FLASH90)

The data indicates that the conditions feared as side effects were largely in the normal range — or even less common than normal — among vaccinated people, but elevated among those who caught COVID-19.

Acute kidney injury and arrhythmia turned out to be less common among the vaccinated than would be expected. Yet among the unvaccinated and infected patients, there were surplus cases — as many as 125 and 166 per 100,000 in the case of acute kidney injury and arrhythmia respectively.

There were other conditions that were more common among recovered patients, but in the broadly normal range among the vaccinated. These included pulmonary embolism (62 surplus events per 100,000 among the infected), deep vein thrombosis (43 events), myocardial infarction (25 events), pericarditis (11 events), and intracranial hemorrhage (7.6 events).

Appendicitis was found higher than the norm among both vaccinated people and the unvaccinated infected to a similar level — with five and four surplus cases per 100,000 people respectively.

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The research was conducted in partnership with Harvard University, which chose to study Israeli data because it is comprehensive. Marc Lipsitch, director of Harvard’s Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, a co-author of the study, said that a major challenge of vaccine safety research is comparing like-for-like patients.

“This is especially challenging when it comes to vaccines that are advancing so fast, but Clalit’s extraordinary database makes it possible to design research that addresses these challenges in a way that builds confidence in the reliability of the research’s conclusions.”

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