2021.09.12 國際新聞導讀-塔利班所屬普希圖族人很可能是失落的以色列10支派的後裔、美軍防空系統撤離中東讓友邦陷入危機、以色列對伊朗核武濃縮計畫感到憂心想動手攻擊、研究顯示不打疫苗者重症死亡比例高於有打疫苗者11倍

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2021.09.12 國際新聞導讀-塔利班所屬普希圖族人很可能是失落的以色列10支派的後裔、美軍防空系統撤離中東讓友邦陷入危機、以色列對伊朗核武濃縮計畫感到憂心想動手攻擊、研究顯示不打疫苗者重症死亡比例高於有打疫苗者11倍

塔利班是以色列的後裔嗎?

普什圖人的習俗包括在第八天行割禮並避免混合肉和牛奶——這與古希伯來人有聯繫嗎?

作者:邁克爾·弗倫德

2021 年 9 月 9 日 04:16

隨著喀布爾在 9 月 11 日襲擊事件發生 20 週年之際落入塔利班手中,世界的注意力再次轉向阿富汗。

這個內陸國家隱藏在亞洲中南部,西面是伊朗,東面是巴基斯坦,這個曾經是基地組織和奧薩馬·本·拉登的行動基地的內陸國家現在也很迷人複雜的。

然而,在其動蕩的過去,它曾是大英帝國、蘇聯和現在的美國的爆發點,阿富汗長期以來一直是猶太歷史中一個更有趣的未解之謎的所在地:一些人的命運以色列失落的十個部落。

在過去的二十年裡,報紙頭條不時地提出一個誘人的問題,即構成塔利班大部分的普什圖部落是否真的是我們失散多年的親戚,他們是被亞述帝國流放的以色列人的後裔。 2700 年前。

雖然這種聯繫的可能性可能讓一些人感到幻想,但對證據的粗略觀察表明它不能也不應該被立即排除。

8 月 30 日,阿富汗喀布爾,一名 TALIBAN 成員在守衛,因為阿富汗男子正在為一輛發射火箭的車輛拍照。(圖片來源:STRINGER/REUTERS)

據說普什圖人或帕坦人有數千萬,其中大部分生活在巴基斯坦、阿富汗和印度。他們由數百個氏族和部落組成,在外國征服和占領的浪潮中,他們強烈地保護了他們的遺產。

在該地區伊斯蘭原教旨主義興起之前,許多普什圖人宣稱自己是他們所謂的 Bani Israel(以色列之子),這是他們祖先代代相傳的口頭傳統。

被推薦

早在 13 世紀,各種伊斯蘭旅行者和歷史學家就注意到了這一點,當時在中亞斷言古代以色列人的身份幾乎沒有任何好處。在接下來的 400 年裡,其他伊斯蘭學者和作家注意到這一傳統的持續存在。

在 19 世紀,一些訪問該地區的西方人確信普什圖人實際上是以色列人的後裔。

在他 1858 年的著作《阿富汗人的歷史》中,約瑟夫-皮埃爾·費里爾寫道,主要普什圖部落之一 Yusefzai(約瑟夫之子)的首領向波斯國王 Nader Shah Afshar 贈送了“一本用希伯來語寫成的聖經”和一些古代崇拜中使用的其他物品,並被保存下來。”

同樣,曾在英屬殖民地印度軍隊服役的亨利·W·貝柳少校在他 1861 年的著作《失落的部落》中寫道,“他們的部落和地區的命名,無論是在古代地理上還是在當今,證實了這一普遍的自然傳統。最後,我們有以色列人從米底亞到阿富汗和印度的路線,其中有一系列中間站,上面有幾個部落的名字,清楚地表明了他們漫長而艱鉅的旅程的階段。”

最近,以色列已故總統 Yitzchak Ben-Zvi 在 1957 年對遙遠的猶太社區流放者和救贖者的研究中,用了一整章來討論“阿富汗部落及其起源的傳統”。

本-茲維基於學術研究以及對 1950 年代製造 aliyah 的眾多阿富汗猶太人進行的採訪,寫道:“猶太人在其中生活了幾代人的阿富汗部落,是保留至今的穆斯林。他們關於他們從十個部落的後裔的驚人傳統。” 雖然他謹慎地指出,“當然,我們掌握的證據不足以從中得出實際結論”,但他仍然正確地斷言,“這一傳統而非其他傳統在這些部落中持續存在的事實本身就是一個重要的考慮。”

現代學者大大增加了我們關於這個主題的知識儲備。Navraz Aafreedi 博士是加爾各答的一名印度學者,擁有普什圖人背景,他撰寫了大量且有說服力的關於與以色列人有聯繫的證據的文章,而研究普什圖人的以色列領先學者 Eyal Be'eri 博士則錄製了一系列他們的習俗和傳統與猶太人相同。

這些做法包括在出生後第八天行割禮、避免混合肉和牛奶、在安息日前夕點燃蠟燭,甚至結婚。

其他學者已經註意到普什圖人的古老部落法典、普什圖瓦利語和猶太傳統之間的相似之處。

儘管 DNA 研究提供的支持這些斷言的證據有限,但 2017 年發表在《線粒體 DNA》雜誌上的一篇文章確實發現“普什圖部落之一的哈塔克部落中的猶太聚居地存在遺傳聯繫”。

儘管塔利班已經做了很多努力來抹去他們伊斯蘭前歷史的任何痕跡,但這一傳統拒絕消亡。

正如希伯來大學人類學家 Shalva Weil 博士在談到普什圖人與以色列失落部落的聯繫時所指出的那樣,“關於他們的證據比其他任何人都更有說服力”。

然而,這種引人入勝的歷史好奇心不應讓我們忽視這樣一個事實,即塔利班惡毒地反以色列,而且已知沒有普什圖人對回歸他們的猶太根源表現出任何公眾興趣。

事實上,正如 Be'eri 博士所說,即使普什圖人在生物學和歷史上與以色列人民有聯繫,但這仍然並不意味著“明天他們將皈依猶太教並來到以色列土地上生活”。

他寫道,僅僅談論“數百萬普什圖人從阿富汗和印度大規模皈依和遷移到以色列國”,可能會破壞建立更大區域合作和理解的前景。

當然,還有其他關於普什圖人起源的理論,以及對古代以色列人聯繫的爭論不屑一顧或拒絕的學者。但考慮到普什圖人的古老文明和遙遠的僑民,以及他們在亞洲次大陸不同地區的關鍵政治和人口角色,如果可行,猶太人尋求與他們對話的途徑似乎是謹慎的。

共享歷史身份的可能性本身就可以作為猶太人和普什圖人之間討論的基礎,這可能會減少敵意和懷疑,並可能為未來建立更牢固的關係奠定基礎。

鑑於他們狂熱的神學,塔利班當然不是這些努力的目標。但是世界上還有許多其他普什圖人,我們應該尋求與他們建立橋樑,無論人們是否相信他們是我們失散多年的表親。

作者是 Shavei Israel ( www.shavei.org ) 的創始人兼董事長,該組織伸出援手幫助以色列失落的部落和其他隱藏的猶太社區。

Are the Taliban descendants of Israel?

Pashtun practices include circumcision on the eighth day and refraining from mixing meat and milk — Is there a connection to ancient Hebrews?

By MICHAEL FREUND

SEPTEMBER 9, 2021 04:16

TALIBAN FORCES patrol in front of Hamid Karzai International Airport in Kabul, Afghanistan, September 2

(photo credit: STRINGER/ REUTERS)

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With the fall of Kabul into the hands of the Taliban just shy of the 20th anniversary of the September 11 attacks, the world’s attention has once again turned to Afghanistan.

Tucked away in south-central Asia, with unsavory neighbors such as Iran to the west and Pakistan to the east, the landlocked country, which once served as a base of operations for al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden, is as beguiling as it is complex.

And yet amid its turbulent past, in which it has served as a flashpoint for the British Empire, the Soviet Union and now the United States, Afghanistan has long been home to one of the more intriguing unsolved mysteries of Jewish history: the fate of some of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.

Periodically over the past two decades, newspaper headlines have raised the tantalizing question of whether the Pashtun tribes who make up most of the Taliban are in fact our long-lost relatives, descendants of the Israelites who were cast into exile by the Assyrian empire more than 2,700 years ago.

While the possibility of such a connection may strike some as fanciful, a cursory look at the evidence suggests that it cannot and should not be dismissed out of hand.

The Pashtuns, or Pathans, are said to number in the tens of millions, with the bulk living in Pakistan, Afghanistan and India. They consist of several hundred clans and tribes that have fiercely preserved their heritage amid waves of foreign conquest and occupation.

Prior to the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in the region, many of the Pashtuns declared themselves to be what they referred to as Bani Israel (Sons of Israel), an oral tradition that their ancestors passed down through the generations.

This was noted by various Islamic travelers and historians, stretching as far back as the 13th century, when there was hardly any advantage to be gained by asserting an ancient Israelite identity in Central Asia. Over the next 400 years, other Islamic scholars and writers noted the persistence of the tradition.

In the 19th century, a number of Westerners who visited the region became convinced that the Pashtuns were in fact descendants of the Israelites.

In his 1858 work, History of the Afghans, Joseph-Pierre Ferrier wrote that the chief of one of the main Pashtun tribes, the Yusefzai (Sons of Joseph), presented the Persian shah Nader Shah Afshar “with a Bible written in Hebrew and several other articles that had been used in their ancient worship and which they had preserved.”

Similarly, Major Henry W. Bellew, who served in the British colonial Indian army, in his 1861 work The Lost Tribes, wrote regarding the Pashtuns that, “The nomenclature of their tribes and districts, both in ancient geography, and at the present day, confirms this universal natural tradition. Lastly, we have the route of the Israelites from Media to Afghanistan and India marked by a series of intermediate stations bearing the names of several of the tribes and clearly indicating the stages of their long and arduous journey.”

More recently, the late president of Israel, Yitzchak Ben-Zvi, in his 1957 study about far-flung Jewish communities The Exiled and the Redeemed, devoted an entire chapter to “Afghan tribes and the traditions of their origin.”

Basing himself on scholarly research, as well as on interviews he conducted with numerous Afghani Jews who made aliyah in the 1950s, Ben-Zvi wrote, “The Afghan tribes, among whom the Jews have lived for generations, are Moslems who retain to this day their amazing tradition about their descent from the Ten Tribes.” While he cautiously notes that, “the evidence in our possession is, of course, insufficient for practical conclusions to be drawn therefrom,” he nonetheless correctly asserts, “The fact that this tradition, and no other, has persisted among these tribes is itself a weighty consideration.”

MODERN-DAY scholars have added greatly to our stock of knowledge on this subject. Dr. Navraz Aafreedi, an Indian academic in Kolkata who hails from a Pashtun background, has written extensively and persuasively about the evidence of an Israelite connection, and Dr. Eyal Be’eri, the leading Israeli scholar on the Pashtuns, has recorded a series of their customs and traditions that are identical to those of Jews.

These include practices such as circumcision on the eighth day after birth, refraining from mixing meat and milk, lighting candles on the eve of the Sabbath and even levirate marriage.

Other scholars have noted similarities between the Pashtun’s ancient tribal code, the Pashtunwali, and Jewish traditions.

While DNA studies have provided limited evidence to back up these assertions, a 2017 article in the journal Mitochondrial DNA did find there to be “a genetic connection of Jewish conglomeration in Khattak tribe,” one of the Pashtun clans.

And although the Taliban have done a great deal to erase any trace of their pre-Islamic history, the tradition refuses to die.

As Hebrew University anthropologist Dr. Shalva Weil has noted regarding the Pashtuns’ link with the lost tribes of Israel, “There is more convincing evidence” about them than anybody else.

This fascinating historical curiosity, however, should not blind us to the fact that the Taliban are viciously anti-Israel and no Pashtuns are known to have shown any public interest in returning to their Jewish roots.

Indeed, as Dr. Be’eri has argued, even if the Pashtuns are biologically and historically connected with the people of Israel, it still does not mean that “tomorrow they will convert to Judaism and come to live in the Land of Israel.”

Merely talking about “mass conversion and migration of millions of Pashtuns from Afghanistan and India into the State of Israel,” he has written, could damage prospects for building greater regional cooperation and understanding.

There are, of course, other theories regarding the origins of the Pashtuns as well as scholars who discount or reject the contention of an ancient Israelite connection. But given the Pashtuns’ ancient civilization and far-flung diaspora, and their key political and demographic role in various parts of the Asian subcontinent, it would seem prudent for the Jewish people to seek out avenues of dialogue with them if and wherever feasible.

The mere possibility of a shared historical identity could serve as a basis for discussion between Jews and Pashtuns, one that could lead to a dampening of hostility and suspicion and perhaps lay the groundwork for a stronger relationship in the future.

In light of their fanatical theology, the Taliban are of course not an address for such efforts. But there are plenty of other Pashtuns worldwide with whom we should seek to build bridges, whether or not one believes them to be our long-lost cousins. 

The writer is founder and chairman of Shavei Israel (www.shavei.org), which reaches out and assists the Lost Tribes of Israel and other hidden Jewish communities.

伊朗支持的叛亂分子發動襲擊,美國撤出在沙特阿拉伯的導彈防禦系統

五角大樓承認“重新部署了某些防空資產”,但堅持美國對其中東盟友保持“廣泛而深刻”的承諾

喬恩GAMBRELL今天,上午 11:46

2020 年 2 月 20 日,一名美國空軍成員站在沙特阿拉伯蘇丹王子空軍基地的愛國者導彈電池附近。(Andrew Caballero-Reynolds/Pool via AP,文件)

阿拉伯聯合酋長國迪拜(美聯社)——美聯社分析的衛星照片顯示,最近幾周美國已從沙特阿拉伯撤走其最先進的導彈防禦系統和愛國者電池,儘管該國仍面臨也門胡塞叛軍的持續空襲.

在利雅得以外的蘇丹王子空軍基地重新部署防禦系統之際,美國的海灣阿拉伯盟友緊張地看著美軍從阿富汗混亂地撤出,包括他們在最後一刻從喀布爾被圍困的國際機場撤離。

雖然數以萬計的美國軍隊仍留在阿拉伯半島以對抗伊朗,但海灣阿拉伯國家擔心美國的未來計劃,因為美國軍方認為亞洲的威脅越來越大,需要這些導彈防禦系統。由於伊朗與世界大國的核協議破裂,維也納的談判似乎陷入停滯,緊張局勢仍然很嚴重,這增加了該地區未來發生對抗的危險。

“無論是否植根於冰冷、冰冷的現實,感知都很重要。詹姆斯·A·貝克的研究員克里斯蒂安·烏爾里克森 (Kristian Ulrichsen) 說:“在該地區許多決策權威人士看來,美國不再像過去那樣致力於海灣地區,這一看法非常明顯。”萊斯大學公共政策研究所。

“從沙特的角度來看,他們現在看到奧巴馬、特朗普和拜登——三位連續任總統——做出的決定在某種程度上意味著放棄。”

蘇丹王子空軍基地位於利雅得東南約 115 公里(70 英里)處,自 2019 年導彈和無人機襲擊該王國石油生產中心以來,已有數千名美軍駐紮。據專家和留下的實物殘骸稱,儘管也門胡塞叛軍聲稱發動了這次襲擊,但它似乎是由伊朗實施的。德黑蘭否認發動了這次襲擊,但在 1 月份的一次演習中,伊朗準軍事部隊使用了類似的無人機。

就在空軍基地跑道的西南方向,一個由土堤引出的 1 平方公里(1/3 平方英里)區域有美軍駐紮愛國者導彈電池組,以及一個先進的終端高空區域防禦系統根據 Planet Labs Inc. 的衛星圖像,THAAD 可以在比愛國者更高的高度摧毀彈道導彈。

在這張由 Planet Labs Inc. 提供的衛星照片中,沙特阿拉伯蘇丹王子空軍基地的一個區域曾在 2021 年 9 月 10 日看到配備一個先進終端高空防空部隊的愛國者導彈電池空置。(Planet Labs Inc.通過 AP)

美聯社 8 月下旬看到的衛星圖像顯示,該地區的一些電池已被拆除,但仍然可以看到活動和車輛。週五拍攝的高分辨率行星實驗室衛星照片顯示,該地點的電池墊是空的,沒有可見的活動。

廣告

數月來一直傳言重新部署導彈,部分原因是希望面對美國官員眼中即將與中國和俄羅斯發生的“大國衝突”。然而,撤軍恰逢胡塞武裝對沙特阿拉伯的一次無人機襲擊造成八人受傷,並在該王國位於阿卜哈的機場損壞了一架商用噴氣式客機。自 2015 年 3 月以來,該王國一直與胡塞武裝陷入僵局。

五角大樓發言人約翰柯比在收到美聯社的問題後承認“重新部署了某些防空資產”。他說,美國對其中東盟友保持著“廣泛而深刻”的承諾。

柯比說:“國防部繼續在中東維持數以萬計的部隊和強大的部隊態勢,代表我們一些最先進的空中力量和海上能力,以支持美國的國家利益和我們的區域夥伴關係。”

在給美聯社的一份聲明中,沙特國防部將沙特與美國的關係描述為“牢固、長期和歷史性的”,儘管承認美國已撤出導彈防禦系統。聲明稱,沙特軍隊“有能力保衛其領土、海洋和領空,並保護其人民”。

聲明說:“友好的美利堅合眾國從該地區重新部署一些防禦能力是通過共同理解和重新調整防禦戰略作為作戰部署和部署的一個屬性來進行的。”

說明:2020 年 11 月 24 日,沙特阿拉伯紅海城市吉達的沙特阿美石油設施中受損的筒倉。(Fayez Nureldine/法新社)

儘管有這些保證,沙特王子 Turki al-Faisal 是該國前情報局長,他的公開言論經常與沙特統治家族的想法保持一致,他將愛國者導彈的部署直接與美國與利雅得的關係聯繫起來。

“我認為我們需要對美國的承諾感到放心,”王子在本周播出的一次採訪中告訴 CNBC。“例如,在沙特阿拉伯成為導彈襲擊和無人機襲擊的受害者的時候,這看起來不像是從沙特阿拉伯撤回愛國者導彈——不僅來自也門,而且來自伊朗。”

美國國防部長勞埃德·奧斯汀最近幾天在中東訪問期間,原定前往沙特阿拉伯,但由於美國官員所說的日程安排問題,這次旅行被取消。沙特阿拉伯拒絕討論為什麼在導彈防禦系統撤出後奧斯汀的訪問沒有發生。

沙特阿拉伯擁有自己的愛國者導彈電池組,通常會向來襲目標發射兩枚導彈。在胡塞運動期間,這已成為一項昂貴的提議,因為每枚愛國者導彈的成本超過 300 萬美元。該王國還聲稱攔截了幾乎所有在該王國發射的導彈和無人機,此前專家質疑的成功率非常高。

雖然希臘在 4 月同意向沙特阿拉伯提供愛國者導彈電池,但美國撤軍的時機正值美國在該地區的態勢存在更大的不確定性。沙特阿拉伯和其他海灣阿拉伯國家重新與伊朗進行外交以對沖。

“我認為我們在拜登關於阿富汗的聲明中看到,他所說的話的方式顯然將美國利益放在首位,顯然這讓世界各地的合作夥伴和盟友感到非常失望,他們可能希望在特朗普之後有所不同,”研究員烏爾里克森說。“他聽起來很像‘美國優先’的方式,只是語氣不同。”

US pulls missile defenses in Saudi Arabia amid attacks by Iran-backed rebels

Pentagon acknowledges ‘redeployment of certain air defense assets’ but insists America maintains ‘broad and deep’ commitment to its Mideast allies

By JON GAMBRELLToday, 11:46 am

A member of the US Air Force stands near a Patriot missile battery at Prince Sultan Air Base in Saudi Arabia, February 20, 2020. (Andrew Caballero-Reynolds/Pool via AP, File)

DUBAI, United Arab Emirates (AP) — The US has removed its most advanced missile defense system and Patriot batteries from Saudi Arabia in recent weeks, even as the kingdom faced continued air attacks from Yemen’s Houthi rebels, satellite photos analyzed by The Associated Press show.

The redeployment of the defenses from Prince Sultan Air Base outside of Riyadh came as America’s Gulf Arab allies nervously watched the chaotic withdrawal of US troops from Afghanistan, including their last-minute evacuations from Kabul’s besieged international airport.

While tens of thousands of American forces remain across the Arabian Peninsula as a counterweight to Iran, Gulf Arab nations worry about the US’s future plans as its military perceives a growing threat in Asia that requires those missile defenses. Tensions remain high as negotiations appear stalled in Vienna over Iran’s collapsed nuclear deal with world powers, raising the danger of future confrontations in the region.

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“Perceptions matter whether or not they’re rooted in a cold, cold reality. And the perception is very clear that the US is not as committed to the Gulf as it used to be in the views of many people in decision-making authority in the region,” said Kristian Ulrichsen, a research fellow at the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy at Rice University.

“From the Saudi point of view, they now see Obama, Trump and Biden — three successive presidents — taking decisions that signify to some extent an abandonment.”

Prince Sultan Air Base, some 115 kilometers (70 miles) southeast of Riyadh, has hosted several thousand US troops since a 2019 missile-and-drone attack on the heart of the kingdom’s oil production. That attack, though claimed by Yemen’s Houthi rebels, appears instead to have been carried out by Iran, according to experts and physical debris left behind. Tehran has denied launching the attack, though a drill in January saw Iranian paramilitary forces use similar drones.

Just southwest of the air base’s runway, a 1-square-kilometer (third-of-a-square-mile) area set off by an earthen berm saw American forces station Patriot missile batteries, as well as one advanced Terminal High Altitude Area Defense unit, according to satellite images from Planet Labs Inc. A THAAD can destroy ballistic missiles at a higher altitude than Patriots.

In this satellite photo provided by Planet Labs Inc., an area of Prince Sultan Air Base in Saudi Arabia that once saw Patriot missile batteries stationed with one advanced Terminal High Altitude Air Defense unit stands empty, September 10, 2021. (Planet Labs Inc. via AP)

A satellite image seen by the AP in late August showed some of the batteries removed from the area, though activity and vehicles still could be seen there. A high-resolution Planet Lab satellite picture taken Friday showed the batteries’ pads at the site empty, with no visible activity.

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A redeployment of the missiles had been rumored for months, in part due to a desire to face what American officials see as the looming “great powers conflict” with China and Russia. However, the withdrawal came just as a Houthi drone attack on Saudi Arabia wounded eight people and damaged a commercial jetliner at the kingdom’s airport in Abha. The kingdom has been locked in a stalemate war with the Houthis since March 2015.

Pentagon spokesperson John Kirby acknowledged “the redeployment of certain air defense assets” after receiving questions from the AP. He said the US maintained a “broad and deep” commitment to its Mideast allies.

“The Defense Department continues to maintain tens of thousands of forces and a robust force posture in the Middle East representing some of our most advanced air power and maritime capabilities, in support of US national interests and our regional partnerships,” Kirby said.

In a statement to the AP, the Saudi Defense Ministry described the kingdom’s relationship with the US as “strong, longstanding and historic” even while acknowledging the withdrawal of the American missile defense systems. It said the Saudi military “is capable of defending its lands, seas and airspace, and protecting its people.”

“The redeployment of some defense capabilities of the friendly United States of America from the region is carried out through common understanding and realignment of defense strategies as an attribute of operational deployment and disposition,” the statement said.

Illustrative: A damaged silo at the Saudi Aramco oil facility in Saudi Arabia’s Red Sea city of Jeddah, November 24, 2020. (Fayez Nureldine/AFP)

Despite those assurances, Saudi Prince Turki al-Faisal, the kingdom’s former intelligence chief whose public remarks often track with the thoughts of its Al Saud ruling family, has linked the Patriot missile deployments directly to America’s relationship to Riyadh.

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“I think we need to be reassured about American commitment,” the prince told CNBC in an interview aired this week. “That looks like, for example, not withdrawing Patriot missiles from Saudi Arabia at a time when Saudi Arabia is the victim of missile attacks and drone attacks — not just from Yemen, but from Iran.”

US Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin, on a tour of the Mideast in recent days, had been slated to go to Saudi Arabia but the trip was canceled due to what American officials referred to as scheduling problems. Saudi Arabia declined to discuss why Austin’s trip didn’t happen after the withdrawal of the missile defenses.

Saudi Arabia maintains its own Patriot missile batteries and typically fires two missiles at an incoming target. That’s become an expensive proposition amid the Houthi campaign, as each Patriot missile costs more than $3 million. The kingdom also claims to intercept nearly every missile and drone launched at the kingdom, an incredibly high success rate previously questioned by experts.

While Greece agreed in April to lend a Patriot missile battery to Saudi Arabia, the timing of the US withdrawals comes amid wider uncertainty over the American posture in the region. Saudi Arabia and other Gulf Arab countries have renewed diplomacy with Iran as a hedge.

“I think we saw in Biden’s statements on Afghanistan, the way he said things that he’s clearly going to put US interests first and obviously that came as quite a disappointment to partners and allies around the world who maybe hoped for something different after Trump,” said Ulrichsen, the research fellow. “He sounds quite similar to an ‘America First’ approach, just sort of a different tone.”

貝內特呼籲對伊朗的濃縮激增採取“迅速的國際行動”

似乎在貶低美國重振核協議的努力,總理說“對伊朗將通過談判改變道路的幼稚期望已被證明是毫無根據的”

TOI 工作人員機構提供2021 年 9 月 10 日,晚上 8:37

2021 年 9 月 5 日,納夫塔利·貝內特總理在耶路撒冷總理辦公室主持內閣會議。 (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90)

在聯合國核監督機構報告稱伊朗伊斯蘭共和國近幾個月大幅增加高濃縮鈾的產量並且不允許對其活動進行全面檢查後,總理納夫塔利·貝內特週五呼籲國際社會立即對伊朗採取行動。

貝內特說:“以色列極其嚴肅地看待[國際原子能機構]報告中反映的情況,這證明伊朗繼續向世界撒謊並推進發展核武器的計劃,同時否認其國際承諾。”在一份聲明中。

“我呼籲國際社會對伊朗的嚴厲行動做出適當和迅速的反應。國際原子能機構的報告警告說,現在是採取行動的時候了,”他繼續說道。

總理隨後似乎推翻了伊朗核協議支持者提出的一個關鍵論點,該協議提供德黑蘭制裁減免,以換取對其核計劃的限制。

貝內特說:“認為伊朗將準備通過談判改變其道路的幼稚預期已被證明是毫無根據的。” “只有國際社會採取強有力的立場,並以決定和行動為後盾,才能導致德黑蘭政權發生變化,該政權已經失去了一切克制。

“以色列將盡一切努力阻止伊朗獲得核武器,”他補充說。

伊朗總統哈桑·魯哈尼(右二)於 2021 年 4 月 10 日在伊朗德黑蘭參觀伊朗核新成就展覽時聽取伊朗原子能組織負責人阿里·阿克巴爾·薩利希(Ali Akbar Salehi)的講話。(伊朗總統辦公室,美聯社)

國際原子能機構週二發布的報告顯示,德黑蘭自 5 月以來已將其 60% 濃縮鈾的庫存增加了四倍,公然違反了 2015 年與世界大國達成的旨在遏制其核計劃的協議。

該監管機構還在其機密季度報告中告訴成員國,自 2 月以來,由於伊朗拒絕讓檢查人員接觸 IAEA 的監測設備,其核查和監測活動“受到嚴重破壞”。

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該機構表示,它估計伊朗的裂變純度高達 60% 的濃縮鈾庫存為 10 公斤,自 5 月以來增加了 7.6 公斤。該國裂變純度高達 20% 的鈾庫存現在估計為 84.3 公斤,高於三個月前的 62.8 公斤。

該機構表示,截至 8 月 30 日,伊朗的鈾總庫存估計為 2441.3 公斤,低於 5 月 22 日的 3241 公斤。

根據被稱為聯合綜合行動計劃或 JCPOA 的核協議,德黑蘭僅被允許儲存 202.8 公斤鈾,該計劃承諾伊朗經濟激勵以換取對其核計劃的限制,旨在防止德黑蘭發展核計劃。炸彈。

這家總部位於維也納的機構警告成員,它對正確評估伊朗活動的信心——它所謂的“知識的連續性”——隨著時間的推移而下降,這種情況將繼續“除非伊朗立即糾正這種情況”。

美國總統喬拜登於 2021 年 8 月 27 日在華盛頓特區白宮橢圓形辦公室會見以色列總理納夫塔利貝內特。 (Nicholas Kamm/AFP)

國際原子能機構表示,某些監測和監視設備不能在不維修的情況下放置超過三個月。該機構表示,本月它可以訪問安裝在一個地點的四台監控攝像頭,但其中一台攝像機已被摧毀,另一台已嚴重損壞。

國際原子能機構總幹事拉斐爾·馬里亞諾·格羅西斯表示,他願意前往伊朗會見最近當選的政府進行會談。

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2018 年,美國在時任美國總統唐納德特朗普的領導下單方面退出了核協議,但英國、法國、德國、中國和俄羅斯一直試圖維護該協議。

德黑蘭蓄意違反該協議的策略被視為試圖施加壓力,特別是向歐洲施加壓力,為其提供激勵措施,以抵消美國退出該協議後重新實施的嚴厲制裁。

美國總統喬拜登表示,他對重新加入該協議持開放態度。上一輪在維也納舉行的會談於 6 月結束,但沒有明確結果。

以色列一再警告伊朗正在尋求核武器。前總理本雅明·內塔尼亞胡公開反對 2015 年的協議,稱該協議將為伊朗核武庫鋪平道路,並公開敦促拜登重新加入該協議。

上個月在白宮與拜登會面時,貝內特警告激進伊斯蘭政權獲得核武器的“噩夢”,拜登公開誓言美國“永遠”不會允許伊朗獲得核武器。

以色列軍方負責人阿維夫·科哈維在周一發表的一次採訪中,以色列已經“大大加快”了對伊朗核計劃採取行動的準備。

Bennett calls for ‘rapid international action’ against Iran’s enrichment surge

Appearing to disparage US effort to revive nuclear deal, PM says ‘naive expectation that Iran will change path via negotiations has proven baseless’

By TOI STAFF and AGENCIES10 September 2021, 8:37 pm

Prime Minister Naftali Bennett leads a cabinet meeting at the Prime Minister's Office in Jerusalem on September 5, 2021. (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90)

Prime Minister Naftali Bennett on Friday called on the international community to act immediately against Iran, after the United Nations nuclear watchdog reported that the Islamic Republic has dramatically increased its production of highly enriched uranium in recent months and is not allowing full inspection of its activities.

“Israel views with utmost gravity the picture of the situation reflected in the [International Atomic Energy Agency] report, which proves that Iran is continuing to lie to the world and advance a program to develop nuclear weapons while denying its international commitments,” Bennett said in a statement.

“I call for an appropriate and rapid international reaction to the severe actions of Iran. The IAEA report warns that the time to act is now,” he continued.

The premier then appeared to knock a key argument made by proponents of the Iran nuclear deal, which offered Tehran sanctions relief in exchange for curbs on its nuclear program.

“The naive expectation that Iran will be prepared to change its path via negotiations has been proven to be baseless,” Bennett said. “Only a vigorous stand by the international community, backed up by decisions and actions, will be able to lead to a change by the regime in Tehran, which has lost all restraint.

“Israel will do everything to prevent Iran from attaining nuclear weapons,” he added.

Iranian President Hassan Rouhani, second right, listens to the head of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran Ali Akbar Salehi while visiting an exhibition of Iran’s new nuclear achievements in Tehran, Iran, April 10, 2021. (Iranian Presidency Office via AP)

The IAEA report published Tuesday revealed that Tehran has quadrupled its stockpile of 60 percent-enriched uranium since May, in open contravention of the 2015 accord with world powers that was meant to contain its nuclear program.

The watchdog also told member states in its confidential quarterly report that its verification and monitoring activities have been “seriously undermined” since February by Iran’s refusal to let inspectors access IAEA monitoring equipment.

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The agency said that it estimates Iran’s stock of uranium enriched to up to 60% fissile purity at 10 kilograms, an increase of 7.6 kilograms since May. The country’s stockpile of uranium enriched to up to 20% fissile purity is now estimated at 84.3 kilograms, up from 62.8 kilograms three months earlier.

Iran’s total stock of uranium is estimated at 2441.3 kilograms as of August 30, down from 3241 kilograms on May 22, the agency said.

Tehran is only permitted to stockpile 202.8 kilograms of uranium under the nuclear deal known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, or JCPOA, which promises Iran economic incentives in exchange for limits on its nuclear program, and is meant to prevent Tehran from developing a nuclear bomb.

The Vienna-based agency warned members that its confidence in properly assessing Iran’s activities — what it called the “continuity of knowledge” — was declining over time and that would continue “unless the situation is immediately rectified by Iran.”

US President Joe Biden meets with Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, DC, on August 27, 2021. (Nicholas Kamm/AFP)

The IAEA said that certain monitoring and surveillance equipment cannot be left for more than three months without being serviced. It was provided with access this month to four surveillance cameras installed at one site, but one of the cameras had been destroyed and a second had been severely damaged, the agency said.

IAEA director-general, Rafael Mariano Grossis, said that he was willing to travel to Iran to meet the recently elected government for talks.

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The United States unilaterally pulled out of the nuclear deal in 2018 under then-US president Donald Trump, but Britain, France, Germany, China and Russia have tried to preserve the accord.

Tehran’s strategy of deliberately violating the deal is seen as an attempt to put pressure, particularly on Europe, to provide it with incentives to offset crippling American sanctions re-imposed after the US pullout from the deal.

US President Joe Biden has said that he is open to rejoining the pact. The last round of talks in Vienna ended in June without a clear result.

Israel has repeatedly warned that Iran is seeking nuclear weapons. Former prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu openly opposed the 2015 deal, which it said would pave the way to an Iranian nuclear arsenal, and publicly urged Biden to reenter the deal.

Meeting with Biden at the White House last month, Bennett warned of the “nightmare” of a radical Islamic regime attaining nuclear weapons, and Biden publicly vowed that the US would “never” allow Iran to attain the bomb.

Israel has “greatly accelerated” preparations for action against Iran’s nuclear program, military chief Aviv Kohavi said in an interview published Monday.

PA退出將卡塔爾資金轉移給加沙員工的交易

巴勒斯坦權力機構的決定被視為對埃及、卡塔爾和聯合國為以色列和哈馬斯之間達成長期停戰所做努力的打擊。

哈利·阿布·托梅

2021 年 9 月 11 日 15:28

一名婦女展示了她在 9 月加沙城冠狀病毒爆發期間的封鎖期間從卡塔爾收到的作為援助的 100 美元鈔票。

(圖片來源:穆罕默德·塞勒姆/路透社)

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卡塔爾加沙重建委員會主席 Mohammad al-Emadi 週五宣布,巴勒斯坦權力機構放棄了將卡塔爾援助資金轉移給加沙地帶公務員的協議。

al-Emadi 在一份聲明中說:“巴勒斯坦權力機構已退出最近與卡塔爾委員會就向僱員發放補助金問題達成的協議。”

巴勒斯坦消息人士澄清說,巴勒斯坦權力機構的決定僅與公務員的工資有關,與加沙地帶的貧困家庭無關。

巴勒斯坦權力機構的決定被視為對埃及、卡塔爾和聯合國為以色列和哈馬斯之間達成長期停戰所做努力的打擊。

Al-Emadi 說,巴勒斯坦權力機構通知他,儘管最近達成了諒解,但它決定不通過屬於巴勒斯坦金融管理局的銀行轉移資金。

根據 al-Emadi 的說法,儘管卡塔爾已經將資金轉移給了巴勒斯坦權力機構,但還是做出了這一決定。

他透露,巴勒斯坦權力機構撤回的理由是擔心銀行會面臨訴訟和支持恐怖主義的指控。

他補充說:“卡塔爾委員會目前正在努力解決問題並尋找支付贈款的替代方式。”

巴勒斯坦人在加沙地帶南部的卡塔爾資助的建築項目“哈馬德城”內參加支持卡塔爾的集會。(來源:IBRAHEEM ABU MUSTAFA/REUTERS)

被推薦

上週,卡塔爾官員宣布,與巴勒斯坦權力機構和聯合國達成協議,所有與向加沙地帶貧困家庭支付卡塔爾資金有關的程序都已完成。

他說,這筆資金將在未來幾天內與巴勒斯坦權力機構協調並經各方同意支付。

他說,該協議是在與各方就穩定加沙地帶的平靜狀態進行一系列密集會議之後達成的。

“這些會議取得了積極成果,將作為與改善加沙地帶居民生活條件有關的所有問題的基礎,與聯合國和巴勒斯坦權力機構充分協調,並與所有各方達成一致,”al ——埃馬迪說。“這些結果將對改善加沙地帶的局勢產生明顯的積極影響。”

上個月,卡塔爾宣布與聯合國達成協議,將援助資金轉移給哈馬斯統治的沿海飛地的貧困家庭。

該協議包括一個機制,通過聯合國及其世界糧食計劃署向大約 10 萬個家庭分發卡塔爾提供的現金援助贈款。

PA withdraws from deal to transfer Qatari funds to Gaza employees

The PA decision is seen as a blow to Egyptian, Qatari and United Nations efforts to reach a long-term truce between Israel and Hamas.

By KHALED ABU TOAMEH

SEPTEMBER 11, 2021 15:28

A WOMAN shows a $100 bill she received as aid from Qatar, during a lockdown amid the coronavirus outbreak in Gaza City in September.

(photo credit: MOHAMMED SALEM/ REUTERS)

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The Palestinian Authority has walked away from an agreement to transfer Qatari aid money to public servants in the Gaza Strip, Mohammad al-Emadi, chairman of the Qatari Committee for the Reconstruction of Gaza, announced on Friday.

“The Palestinian Authority has withdrawn from the agreement recently concluded between it and the Qatari Committee regarding the disbursement of the grant for employees,” al-Emadi said in a statement.

The PA decision is related only to salaries of public servants, and not to needy families in the Gaza Strip, Palestinian sources clarified.

The PA decision is seen as a blow to Egyptian, Qatari and United Nations efforts to reach a long-term truce between Israel and Hamas.

Al-Emadi said the PA informed him of its decision not to transfer the funds through banks belonging to the Palestinian Monetary Authority, despite recent understandings.

According to al-Emadi, the decision came in spite of the fact that Qatar had already transferred the funds to the PA.

The PA’s justification for the retraction was fear that the banks would be exposed to lawsuits and accusations of supporting terrorism, he revealed.

“The Qatari committee is currently working to solve the problem and find an alternative way to disburse the grant,” he added.

PALESTINIANS TAKE part in a rally in support of Qatar, inside Qatari-funded construction project ‘Hamad City,’ in the southern Gaza Strip. (credit: IBRAHEEM ABU MUSTAFA/REUTERS)

Last week the Qatari official announced that all procedures related to the disbursement of the Qatari funds to needy families in the Gaza Strip had been completed in agreement with the PA and the UN.

He said the funds will be disbursed in coordination with the PA during the coming days and in agreement with the various parties.

The agreement, he said, came after a series of intensive meetings with all parties regarding stabilizing a state of calm in the Gaza Strip.

“These meetings achieved positive results that will serve as the basis for all issues related to improving the living conditions of the residents of the Gaza Strip, in full coordination with the United Nations and the Palestinian Authority, and in agreement with all parties,” al-Emadi said. “These results will have a clear positive impact on improving the situation in the Gaza Strip.”

Last month Qatar announced an agreement with the UN to transfer the aid money to poor families in the Hamas-ruled coastal enclave.

The deal includes a mechanism for distributing the cash aid grant provided by Qatar to about 100,000 families through the UN and its World Food Program.

以色列 90% 最嚴重的 COVID 患者未接種疫苗 - 衛生部

CDC 顯示未接種疫苗的人死於 COVID-19 的可能性是其他人的 11 倍 * 年底前可能會批准用於 5-11 歲兒童的疫苗

作者:MAAYAN JAFFE-HOFFMAN,路透社

2021 年 9 月 11 日 21:25

2021 年 8 月 5 日,耶路撒冷的紅大衛盾會 (MDA) 在阿米格多爾退休公寓接種第三劑疫苗。

(圖片來源:MARC ISRAEL SELLEM)

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根據公共衛生服務負責人 Sharon Alroy-Preis 博士的說法,以色列大多數最嚴重的 COVID-19 患者都沒有接種疫苗。她指出,美國疾病控制中心在同一天發布的新數據顯示,未接種疫苗的人死於該病毒的可能性是其他人的 11 倍。

“需要強調的是,目前住院的重症患者大部分都沒有接種疫苗,”Alroy-Preis 在接受以色列第 12 頻道採訪時說。她補充說,幾乎每個使用呼吸機的人都沒有接種疫苗。

“在 175 名接受機械通氣的患者中,三分之二根本沒有接種疫苗,”她說。

此外,在採訪時連接到體外膜肺氧合 (ECMO) 機器的 27 名患者中——其中大多數年齡在 60 歲以下——90% 沒有接種疫苗。

“這是拯救生命的問題,而不是你們中有多少人感染了病毒,”阿爾羅伊-普雷斯說,她的評論指向大約 850,000 名選擇不接種疫苗的以色列人。“你這是在危害自己。”

上週,一名婦女在耶路撒冷的 Meuhedet 疫苗接種中心接種了第三劑 COVID-19 疫苗。(來源:YONATAN SINDEL/FLASH90)

週五早些時候,內政部長阿耶萊特·沙克德 (Ayelet Shaked) 還在推特上分享了衛生部情況報告的幻燈片,該幻燈片顯示,28 名患者使用呼吸機,25 人未接種疫苗,呼籲所有人接種第一針、第二針或第三針。

“今天接種疫苗,它可以挽救生命,”Shaked 寫道。“簡單的。”

衛生部數據顯示,早在 8 月份,該國約有 65% 的嚴重病例是未接種疫苗的人造成的。

採訪是在周五進行的,當時美國聯邦衛生官員發表了幾項研究,每項研究都表明疫苗接種可以在面對病毒(包括 Delta 變體)時提供可靠的保護。

一個由CDC第一份報告的大約60萬病毒病例13美國各州和四月和2021年7月間大城市表明,誰沒有完全接種的個體很可能更加合同冠狀病毒,發展為嚴重的COVID-19,甚至死亡。

具體而言,該研究發現,在過去的兩個月中,未接種疫苗的人感染 COVID-19 的可能性大約是完全接種疫苗者的 4.5 倍,住院的可能性是其 10 倍,死於該病的可能性是完全接種者的 11 倍。 .

疾病預防控制中心主任羅謝爾·瓦倫斯基博士在周五的白宮簡報中說,“醫院裡 90% 以上的人”都沒有接種疫苗。

“與接種疫苗的人數相比,我們醫院中未接種疫苗的人數仍然是未接種疫苗的人數的 10 倍,”她說。

“這些數據可能有助於傳達疫苗的實時影響並指導預防策略,例如疫苗接種和非藥物干預,”疾病預防控制中心在其報告中寫道。

該研究還表明疫苗對預防感染有效,儘管它表明它們的總體有效性水平從 91% 下降到 78%。

美國總統喬拜登上個月宣布,美國將從 9 月 20 日那一周開始向所有公民提供第三針,儘管 CDC 和食品和藥物管理局尚未就此事做出任何正式決定。下週,Alroy-Preis 和 Rehovot 魏茨曼科學研究所繫統生物學教授 Ron Milo 打算向 FDA 提交以色列關於加強注射的數據。

“到目前為止,我們已經接種了 270 萬支疫苗,這是一項了不起的成就,”Alroy-Preis 在接受第 12 頻道採訪時說。“我們是一個領先的國家,向世界表明這種疫苗可以挽救生命並抑制嚴重疾病。 ”

衛生部更新說,截至週六晚上,已有超過 280 萬以色列人接種了加強針。

ISRAEL MADE 助推器在 8 月 1 日廣泛使用。

衛生部總幹事 Nachman Ash 告訴 CNN ,在 FDA 會議之前,以色列上個月在未經同行評審的 medRxiv 網站上發布的關於加​​強注射有效性的數據預計將在新英格蘭醫學雜誌上發表。

該研究發現,在 12 天后,接種第三劑的以色列人比僅接種兩劑的以色列人免受嚴重感染的保護高 10 倍。它還發現,接種加強疫苗的個體總體上可以防止 95% 的感染,類似于輝瑞報告的針對原始武漢或阿爾法毒株的原始“新鮮”疫苗功效。

美國一項針對九個州住院治療的疫苗有效性的單獨研究發現,保護率已經減弱,尤其是在 75 歲以上的人群中,下降至 76%——這是該數據集中首次觀察到下降。

阿什告訴美國有線電視新聞網,以色列關於抗體減弱的研究也將發表在新英格蘭醫學雜誌上。以色列的這項研究表明,與 1 月份接受第二次疫苗接種的人相比,3 月接受第二次注射的 60 歲以上的人免受感染的保護率高 60%,預防嚴重 COVID-19 的保護率高 70%。

最後,兩名熟悉情況的消息人士周五和路透社報導稱,最後,美國高級衛生官員表示,他們相信輝瑞的冠狀病毒疫苗可能會在 10 月底前獲准用於5 至 11 歲的兒童

其中一位消息人士稱,美國頂級傳染病專家安東尼·福奇博士在周五美國國立衛生研究院數千名工作人員參加的在線市政廳會議上概述了時間表。另一位熟悉情況的消息人士表示,FDA 預計輝瑞公司也會有類似的時間表。

如果輝瑞在 9 月底之前提交緊急使用授權申請,並且數據支持其使用,“到 10 月時,也就是 10 月的前幾週……輝瑞的產品很可能準備就緒,”據消息人士透露,福奇說。

Alroy-Preis 強調,以色列在獲得 FDA 的批准之前不會給年幼的兒童接種疫苗,這與其在任何官方授權之前決定進行加強注射的決定不同。

她在接受第 12 頻道採訪時說:“一月份可能已經有一種針對 5 歲以上兒童的批准疫苗。只有在獲得批准後,我們以色列才會為兒童接種疫苗。”

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