外交官的國際新聞導覽及中東中亞的歷史故事 Diplomat's daily news review and history research on Middle East and Central Asia
2021.09.16 國際新聞導讀-以色列贖罪日開始、美國伊朗維也納談判核武協議可能近期展開，美國猶太人面對以巴衝突會有的矛盾心情、以色列打第三劑疫苗產生抗體是第二劑的10倍、以國Barzilai醫院的 Prog. Shlomo Maayan測試CODIVIR治療藥物可阻斷COVID19病毒複製
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2021.09.16 國際新聞導讀-以色列贖罪日開始、美國伊朗維也納談判核武協議可能近期展開，美國猶太人面對以巴衝突會有的矛盾心情、以色列打第三劑疫苗產生抗體是第二劑的10倍、以國Barzilai醫院的 Prog. Shlomo Maayan測試CODIVIR治療藥物可阻斷COVID19病毒複製
2021 年 9 月 15 日 15:45
5 月，親以色列的倡導者聚集在洛杉磯，參加 IAC 組織的集會，這是該組織支持以色列的全國性運動的一部分。
作為中學雙胞胎的母親，以色列-美國委員會 ( IAC ) 波士頓地區主任 Lital Carmel 感到沮喪但並不感到驚訝，當他們的一位同齡人走近他們並告訴他們以色列國防軍據稱對巴勒斯坦人犯下的暴行時。
“我們相信力量倍增器的概念。我們從很小的時候開始——初中、高中和大學生——我們的方法是沒有一個組織可以滿足每個人的獨特需求。因此，IAC 的特別之處在於我們通過社區開展工作並賦予社區權力，”該組織的聯合創始人兼首席執行官肖漢姆·尼科萊 (Shoham Nicolet) 告訴《耶路撒冷郵報》。
這種轉變對於以色列人並且習慣於作為多數人而不是受保護的少數人生活的 IAC 成員來說尤其令人不安。
IAC 通過各種項目和幕後維權工作幫助他們彌合這一差距。其程序設計的一個例子是 School Watch 和 Connectivism，它們解決了反猶太和反猶太復國主義情緒。Connectivism 是一個互動學習課程系列，青少年和成年人可以通過了解抵制、撤資和製裁運動、美國課程中關於以色列的偏見教學以及在大學校園中創建一個積極的以色列空間，來學習如何成為親以色列的活動家。
但是，當然，可惡和無知之間存在細微的界限，並且幫助發起這兩項計劃的卡梅爾非常清楚 IAC 在為參與者倡導時必須走鋼絲。
雖然這些舉措在個人層面上是有效的，但 IAC 的運作規模也更大，並利用廣泛的合作夥伴關係來做到這一點。
鑑於反猶太主義襲擊的浪潮，IAC 與數十個紐約地區的猶太社區組織一起，於 5 月在歸零地舉行了大規模集會。集會之後，全國主要城市也發生了類似的事件。
“反猶主義者一直在這裡。當他們說要把我們送進烤箱時，他們就在這裡，現在他們在這裡在猶太教堂上畫卐字。現在 [反猶太主義] 可能是由於社交媒體的緣故，但我們應該專注於尋找正確的解決方案，並了解 IAC 無法單獨完成，” Nicolet 補充道。“讓我們專注於與他們戰鬥，而不是互相爭鬥。”
For Americans, fighting for Israel is an uphill battle
Through grassroots efforts, IAC reaches out to community lay leaders so those who support Israel can have a safe space in the classroom, boardroom and beyond.
By NOA AMOUYAL
SEPTEMBER 15, 2021 15:45
Pro-Israel advocates gather in Los Angeles at an IAC-organized rally in May which was part of the organization’s nationwide campaign supporting Israel.
(photo credit: IAC)
Shoham Nicolet (credit: IAC)
As a mother of twins in middle school, Israeli-American Council (IAC) Boston regional director Lital Carmel was dismayed but not surprised when one of their peers approached them and told them about perceived atrocities the IDF allegedly committed against the Palestinians.
Armed by their mother with the knowledge to counter such remarks, the twins responded by describing how Israel acts in self-defense and its civilians are often targets of rockets fired from Gaza.
While it might seem shocking to hear of fifth graders delving into geopolitical debates during recess, these kinds of encounters are all too common, and the average age when these conversations occur is decreasing.
“This is our new reality,” Carmel said. “Kids growing up in Israel get this education, but when you live in America, if the parents don’t take the time to really do the work and go through the process, then their kids will get information from other sources that they don’t have control over.”
As a nonpartisan pro-Israel organization, IAC strives to provide Israeli-Americans and Jewish-Americans with tools so that when they find themselves in the midst of such a dialogue, they can speak openly and confidently.
Through grassroots efforts, IAC reaches out to community lay leaders so those who support Israel can have a safe space in the classroom, boardroom and beyond.
“We believe in the notion of force multipliers. We start from a very young age – middle school, high school, and college students – and our approach is that there is no one single organization that can address everyone’s unique needs. So what makes the IAC special… is that we work through and empower the community,” Shoham Nicolet, the organization’s co-founder and CEO, told The Jerusalem Post.
That message of unification has become all too relevant these days in the wake of increasing antisemitism in the United States. Just last month, the FBI revealed that 57.5% of religious-based hate crimes are targeted toward Jews. But one does not need to look to statistics to see the cold hard truth that was laid bare during Israel’s most recent operation in Gaza.
From anti-Israel protests to thugs physically attacking Jews on the streets of New York, LA and Boston, anti-Jewish sentiment felt like the rule and not the exception.
IAC is seeing the ramifications of this development on an individual level within certain communities.
“I think what we’ve been seeing in the last two years is a normalization of antisemitism. We were used to seeing it on the radical Right and Left, and suddenly, especially in the past two years, we’ve been seeing more in the mainstream,” Nicolet said.
“In the context of what’s going on, we see more parents moving their kids from private schools to public ones. Jews are feeling less secure on a physical level. I just spoke to teenagers asking them how they feel, and they said it was the first time they felt their non-Jewish friends have been hostile to them,” he added.
This shift is especially jarring for IAC members who are Israeli and are used to living as a majority and not a protected minority.
IAC helps them bridge this gap through a variety of programs and behind-the-scenes activism work. An example of its programming is School Watch and Connectivism, which address anti-Jewish and anti-Zionist sentiment. Connectivism is an interactive study session series where teens and adults can learn how to become pro-Israel activists through understanding the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions movement, biased teaching about Israel in US curricula, and creating an Israel-positive space on college campuses.
Meanwhile, School Watch gives parents and kids a platform to file a complaint if they experience something they deem to be antisemitic in classrooms.
But, of course, there’s a fine line between what’s hateful and what’s ignorant, and Carmel – who helped launch both initiatives – is well-aware of the tightrope IAC must walk when advocating for their participants.
“We actually come across this dilemma on a weekly basis,” she said. “I would say there’s a very fine line.
“For example, we had a school where a student wrote an essay about the legitimacy of a Palestinian state, and the parents felt uncomfortable with that.
“We said, ‘Listen, this is exactly what schools are for. This is freedom of speech. So let’s give your kid the tools to form their own opinion about what was brought to them.’
“There’s a very fine line between the kids and the teachers. So if a teacher writes on the board, ‘End colonization – Free Palestine,’ then this is not okay. If a kid writes it, we address it differently.”
WHILE THESE initiatives are effective on a person-to-person level, IAC also operates on a larger scale and utilizes extensive partnerships to do so.
Along with dozens of New York area Jewish community organizations, IAC held a massive rally at Ground Zero in May, in light of the wave of antisemitic attacks. The rally was followed by similar events in major cities across the country.
Ground Zero, a sacred spot for any New Yorker, was chosen as it is a reminder of when America was directly threatened.
“I think that the choice to do it in a location where the nation’s freedom was under attack was a proper decision,” Nicolet asserted. “The World Trade Center site is a powerful symbol of America’s resilience and resolve against hatred and terrorism, just as the people of Israel stand strong in the face of terrorism and hate,” said Nicolet.
Carmel encourages the community to learn from the success of that rally and how working together is the path toward not only surviving in the Diaspora but thriving.
Yom Kippur this year happens to fall only a few days after the 20th anniversary of 9/11.
“As a community, we need to take this time to think about how we can create more partnerships and coalitions so we speak with one voice, a voice that’s unapologetic and proud of our Jewish heritage and the Jewish state – however imperfect it is,” she said. “Yom Kippur is a very personal day and we all think about it differently. [But I encourage people to understand that] the challenges are much bigger and will only get bigger.”
“Antisemites were always here. They were here when they said they wanted to send us to the ovens, and they’re here now drawing swastikas on synagogues. Now [antisemitism] is greater maybe because of social media, but we should be focused on finding the right solutions and understanding that the IAC can’t do it alone,” Nicolet added. “Let’s focus on fighting them instead of fighting each other.”
致我們的阿拉伯-以色列兄弟姐妹：謝謝 - 意見
2021 年 9 月 15 日 10:34
上個月在 Kfar Qassem 的一個臨時疫苗接種中心的醫務人員。
在有人宣布“阿拉伯-以色列人”是強加的“殖民主義”標籤之前，猶太人民政策研究所的 2020 年多元主義指數發現，51% 的以色列少數民族稱自己為“阿拉伯-以色列人”，只有 7% 稱自己為“巴勒斯坦人”，23 % 稱自己為“以色列人”。
致那些來自 Ra'am Party 的阿拉伯以色列人和他們的選民，他們幫助以色列政府帶來了遲到的變革，並最終不再將以色列議會視為聯合國或 SIB（以色列打擊者協會）的耶路撒冷分支機構，而是將其視為一個功能性的立法機構，可以務實地幫助他們的選民，舒克蘭！托達！謝謝！
對於那些成為冠狀病毒英雄的阿拉伯以色列人——更廣泛地說，他們佔以色列醫生的 17%、以色列的護士的 24% 和以色列的藥劑師的 47%——證明醫學共和國勝過任何衝突，舒克蘭！托達！謝謝！
致 466,000 名非阿拉伯裔以色列人但經常被頑固的白痴對待的以色列非猶太人，尤其是那些在以色列軍隊中服役的英勇貝都因人、德魯茲人和切爾克斯人，包括指揮我兒子的德魯茲人軍官，舒克蘭！托達！謝謝！
簡而言之，對於以色列 198 萬阿拉伯人中的大多數人，他們是忠誠的公民、守法的人，他們尋求美好的中產階級生活，舒克蘭！托達！謝謝！
顯然，以色列-阿拉伯人的身份是多維的，有時還很矛盾。在他令人遺憾的未受讚賞的書中，巴勒斯坦國的價值是什麼？巴勒斯坦哲學家薩里·努塞貝 (Sari Nusseibeh) 指出，以色列最嚴厲的阿拉伯-以色列襲擊者之一 MK Ahmad Tibi 在半島電視台記者詢問他的家鄉泰巴是否會加入他所擁護的新巴勒斯坦國時曾怒不可遏。蒂比希望為他人建立一個巴勒斯坦國，但對一位阿拉伯同胞建議他放棄以色列人的建議感到不滿！
伊琳娜·內夫茲林 (Irina Nevzlin) 主持重新開放、翻新的 Beit Hatfutsot 猶太人博物館，她在 2019 年出版的《身份的影響：了解你是誰的力量》一書中有效地解釋了這一想法。蘇聯解體後，共產主義從獨裁、淨化、反猶太主義的身份真空中走出來，她寫道，“我意識到力量和韌性來自真正理解和聯繫使你成為你的原因……你現在並且與你的種族遺產有關。”
我們的身份仙境不是迪士尼樂園。Lod、Acre 和其他地方五月騷亂的傷疤仍然可見 - 並且隱藏起來。但是，這個新政府可以在積極的基礎上再接再厲，特別是如果它降低犯罪率，簡化阿拉伯人的建築許可程序，並繼續利庫德集團促進的教育和就業進步，同時尊重每一位以色列公民。
阿拉伯-以色列人並不是聖地唯一的身份雜耍者。星期六晚上，在我的 Ashka-sephard、Sabra-oleh、minyan 街區完成了祈禱後，我參加了一場迷人的露天音樂會。利比亞猶太人後裔大衛·多爾 (David D'Or) 在（奧斯曼帝國）蘇丹游泳池與阿爾及利亞-摩洛哥血統的 Avraham Tal、摩洛哥血統的 Amir Benayoun、庫爾德血統的 Idan Amedi 和多代波斯血統的耶路撒冷人 Ehud Banai 合唱. 這個由光頭、棒球帽和各種大小的 kippot 組成的合唱團——在政治上從左到右——發出了傳統的懺悔祈禱。
在耶路撒冷的星空下，兩側是老城的城牆，這些音樂身份魔術師將游擊隊的“vs”變成了“ands”。人群是宗教的和非宗教的——不是反對；Mizrachi 和 Ashkenazi – 不是對抗。這些歌曲創造了一個古老而年輕的身份交響樂，將傳統詞設置為現代旋律，現代歌曲與傳統比喻相呼應，超級時髦的以色列人唱著古老的祈禱——所有觀眾都加入了。
作者是麥吉爾大學北美歷史杰出學者，著有九本關於美國歷史的書和三本關於猶太復國主義的書。他與 Natan Sharansky 合著的書《永不孤單：監獄、政治和我的人民》由 PublicAffairs of Hachette 出版。
To our Arab-Israeli siblings: Thank you - opinion
To those Arab-Israelis who shunned the Palestinian prison-breakers and to those who aided the search for these killers, Shukran! Toda! Thank you!
By GIL TROY
SEPTEMBER 15, 2021 10:34
First, apologies for the sweeping headline. I don’t want to treat all Arab-Israelis as one – that’s usually the job of Israel’s left-wing opponents and far-right racists. Both clump all Arabs together to sharpen the Jewish-Arab divide.
And before anyone declares “Arab-Israeli” an imposed “colonialist” label, the Jewish People Policy Institute’s 2020 Pluralism Index found that 51% of Israeli minorities called themselves “Arab-Israelis,” only 7% called themselves “Palestinian,” and 23% called themselves “Israeli.”
Still, allow me to specify.
To those Arab-Israelis who shunned the Palestinian prison-breakers and to those who aided the search for these killers, Shukran! Toda! Thank you!
To those Arab-Israelis from the Ra’am Party and their voters who helped bring an overdue change to Israel’s government and finally stopped treating the Knesset as the Jerusalem branch of the UN or SIB – the Society of Israel-Bashers – instead embracing it as a functional legislature which can help their constituents pragmatically, Shukran! Todah! Thank you!
To those Arab-Israelis who are coronavirus heroes – and more broadly, those who make up 17% of Israel’s doctors, 24% of Israel’s nurses, and 47% of Israel’s pharmacists – proving that the Republic of Medicine trumps any conflict, Shukran! Todah! Thank you!
To those Arab-Israelis who have spent the last year using their Arabic mastery, their cultural fluency and their patriotic vision to bring alive the Abraham Accords by bridging between Jews and Arabs in the UAE, Bahrain and Morocco, Shukran! Todah! Thank you!
To the 466,000 Israeli non-Jews who aren’t Arab-Israelis but are often treated as such by bigodiots – bigoted idiots – and especially to those heroic Bedouin, Druze and Circassians who serve in Israel’s army, including the Druze officer who commanded my son, Shukran! Todah! Thank you!
In short, to most of Israel’s 1.98 million Arabs who are loyal citizens, law-abiding people seeking good, middle-class, lives, Shukran! Todah! Thank you!
CLEARLY, ISRAELI-ARAB identity is multidimensional and sometimes deeply conflicted. In his sadly unappreciated book What is a Palestinian State Worth? Palestinian philosopher Sari Nusseibeh notes that one of Israel’s harshest Arab-Israeli attackers, MK Ahmad Tibi, once bristled when an Al Jazeera reporter asked whether his hometown, Taiba, would join the new Palestinian state he champions. Tibi wants a Palestinian state for others but resented a fellow Arab’s suggestion that he abandon his Israeliness!
Too many partisans treat identity as a mirror, statically reflecting their political perspective – or offering a reverse image. But identity is a diamond. Most Arab-Israelis feel some solidarity with the State of Israel, within limits; some solidarity with Palestinians, within limits; and some solidarity with the broader Arab cause, within limits. True, managing these different facets is complicated. But the diamond’s sparkle isn’t about smoothness; it comes from just the right little cuts in the stone.
Totalitarians oversimplify identity; democrats bathe in its messy brilliance.
Israel’s goal as a multicultural Jewish democracy is not to create a new nation of de-Arabified Arabs or de-Judaized Jews. Israel is an identity wonderland, embracing different identities, not sterilizing them. Yes, Israel administers four education systems for our four domestic tribes – religious Jews, secular Jews, ultra-Orthodox Jews and Arab-Israelis. That respects most people’s democratic desires. True, Israel needs to work harder on a common core curriculum, so all grow up with basic skills and a common language, but most Israelis appreciate the genuine, creative diversity of community, culture and thought resonating throughout Israel.
Irina Nevzlin, who chairs the reopened, renewed Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot, explained this idea effectively in her 2019 book The Impact of Identity: The Power of Knowing Who You Are. In emerging from Communism’s dictatorial, sanitized, antisemitic identity vacuum after the Soviet Union collapsed, she writes, “I realized that strength and resilience come from truly understanding and connecting to what makes you, you…. You are stronger when you know who you are and are connected to your ethnic heritage.”
Our Identity Wonderland is not Disneyland. Scars of the May riots in Lod, Acre and elsewhere remain visible – and hidden. But this new government can build on the positive, especially if it lowers crime, eases Arabs’ building-permit process, and continues the educational and employment progress the Likud facilitated, too, while treating every Israeli citizen respectfully.
Arab-Israelis are not the Holy Land’s only identity-jugglers. Saturday night, having finished praying in my Ashka-sephard, Sabra-oleh, neighborhood minyan, I attended an enchanting open-air concert. David D’Or, a descendant of Libyan Jews, sang at the (Ottoman) Sultan’s Pool with Avraham Tal of Algerian-Moroccan descent, Amir Benayoun of Moroccan descent, Idan Amedi of Kurdish descent, and Ehud Banai, a multigenerational Jerusalemite of Persian descent. This chorus of bare heads, baseball caps and various-sized kippot – who range politically from Left to Right – belted out traditional slihot, penitential prayers.
This was the real Israel, not the Israel of the political punchline, the toxic tweet or the simplistic slogan. It’s a complex, dimensional Israel. Here, people live brilliant diamond-like identities, integrating their Jewish or Arab and democratic, immigrant/ethnic-origin, Zionist, traditionalist, and very Israeli selves in rich and surprising ways.
Under Jerusalem’s stars, flanked by the Old City’s walls, these musical identity-magicians transformed partisans’ “vs”s into “ands.” The crowd was religious and nonreligious – not versus; Mizrachi and Ashkenazi – not versus. The songs created an old-young identity symphony, with traditional words set to modern melodies, modern songs echoing traditional tropes, and super-hip Israelis singing ancient prayers – with the entire audience joining.
This year, may we continue turning “vs”s into “ands” – with our Arab brothers and sisters, too.
The writer is a distinguished scholar of North American history at McGill University and the author of nine books on American history and three on Zionism. His book Never Alone: Prison, Politics and My People, coauthored with Natan Sharansky, was published by PublicAffairs of Hachette.
作者：MIKE WAGENHEIM / THE MEDIA LINE
2021 年 9 月 15 日 00:51
巴勒斯坦總統馬哈茂德·阿巴斯在美國紐約聯合國總部第 74 屆聯合國大會上發表講話
今年的聯合國大會今天（9 月 14 日）開幕，其年度高級別辯論會議定於下週舉行，屆時世界各地的領導人將有時間在全球舞台上討論和平、機遇和不滿。許多分析家批評聯合國這樣做：幾天、幾週甚至幾年的討論——沒有採取導致和平的具體行動。
正是在這一點上，近 70 名駐聯合國大使周一聚集在紐約的猶太遺產博物館，聆聽一個成功的故事——一個幾乎完全在海龜灣之外寫成的故事。來自以色列、阿拉伯聯合酋長國、巴林、摩洛哥和美國的大使上台講述了導致歷史性的亞伯拉罕協議正常化協議達成的戲劇性步驟，以及各自國家對進一步和平與合作的願景.
事實上，以色列外交部發言人 Lior Haiat 告訴媒體專線，他不知道世界任何地方的外交官已經與他或她的以色列外交官聯繫並就亞伯拉罕協議尋求諮詢。
“我不知道有任何類似的對話，但我在 20 年的外交中學到的一件事是，每場衝突都是不同的，試圖將一種解決方案應用於另一個問題並不總是奏效。每場衝突都有其自身的問題。去年，我們找到了一種創造新現實的方法——對於其他人來說，這可能不是解決他們衝突的方法，”海亞特說。
“我們認為花點時間標記這些協議很重要，因為我認為這樣的協議需要鼓勵。當各國政府圍繞這些非常困難的問題進行談判時，我認為我們可以取得進展，”阿聯酋駐聯合國大使 Lana Nusseibeh 告訴媒體專線。
“首先，這些亞伯拉罕協議創造了動力，我們的領導人和我們的人民應該為此努力，為建立和平而努力，也為帶來希望並結束各種極端主義和戰爭。我們地區在過去的戰爭中深受其害。現在我們需要為一種非常溫暖的和平而努力——內心的平靜，心靈的平靜。摩洛哥駐聯合國大使奧馬爾·希拉萊 (Omar Hilale) 告訴媒體專線，我們地區的下一代應該與所有人——和平、合作、和諧與繁榮共處。
美國大使琳達·托馬斯-格林菲爾德 (Linda Thomas-Greenfield) 於 2021 年 8 月 16 日在美國紐約州紐約市的聯合國就阿富汗局勢向聯合國安理會發表講話。（圖片來源：ANDREW KELLY / REUTERS）
美國駐聯合國大使琳達·托馬斯-格林菲爾德 (Linda Thomas-Greenfield) 在周一的活動中發出了充滿希望的信息，即亞伯拉罕協議模式可以在其他地方產生良好效果。
Lessons learned from Israel-Arab normalization
As United Nations General Assembly session begins, diplomats not yet imparting wisdom from the Abraham Accords.
By MIKE WAGENHEIM / THE MEDIA LINE
SEPTEMBER 15, 2021 00:51
Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas addresses the 74th session of the United Nations General Assembly at U.N. headquarters in New York City, New York, U.S.
(photo credit: REUTERS/LUCAS JACKSON)
The list of global conflicts seems interminable. Tensions in the South China Sea. Violence between Turkey and armed Kurdish groups. India and Pakistan. The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. And that’s just a sampling.
This year’s United Nations General Assembly opens today (Sept. 14), and its annual high-level debate session is scheduled for next week, when leaders from around the world are afforded time on the global stage to discuss peace, opportunities and grievances. Many analysts have criticized the UN for doing just that: discussing – for days, weeks and years – without taking concrete actions leading to peace.
It is on that note that nearly 70 ambassadors to the UN gathered on Monday at the Museum of Jewish Heritage in New York to listen to a success story – one written nearly entirely outside of Turtle Bay. Ambassadors from Israel, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Morocco and the United States took the stage to recount the dramatic steps that led to the creation of the historic Abraham Accords normalization agreement, and each of their respective nations’ vision for further peace and cooperation.
Bahrain’s Foreign Minister Abdullatif Al Zayani, Israel's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, US President Donald Trump and United Arab Emirates (UAE) Foreign Minister Abdullah bin Zayed participate in the signing of the Abraham Accords, normalizing relations between Israel and some of its Middle Eas (credit: REUTERS/TOM BRENNER)
Wednesday marks the one-year anniversary of the signing of the accords between Israel, the UAE and Bahrain on the White House lawn.
The sight of it all begs the question: What did the United Nations, often seemingly stuck in quicksand when it comes to solving difficult global conflicts, learn from large-scale Israeli-Arab/Muslim normalization, which only a short time ago was considered unthinkable? Which pieces of the template for fuller Middle East cooperation – economic benefits, uniting against a common enemy, leveraging cooperation with a global power, pooling limited resources – can be utilized by the UN in order to lessen disputes around the world? It’s a question to which apparently few have given much thought, even those who practice the art of conflict resolution.
“I would need to think about that,” said Mitch Fifield, the Australian ambassador to the UN.
“I’m not sure I have an answer to that particular question,” said Ukrainian ambassador Sergiy Kyslytsya.
In fact, Israel’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson Lior Haiat told The Media Line that he is not aware of a diplomat anywhere around the world who has reached out to his or her Israeli counterpart and sought counsel regarding the Abraham Accords.
“I don’t know of any similar dialogue, but one of those things I’ve learned in 20 years of diplomacy is that every conflict is different and trying to apply one solution to another problem doesn’t always work. Every conflict has its own issues. In the last year we’ve reached a way to create a new reality – with others it might not be the way to solve their conflicts,” Haiat said.
“I’ll add that I don’t think a forced solution is ever a long-term solution. The international community doesn’t always know or take into consideration all the aspects of a particular conflict, and are often more interested in finding a quick solution,” he said. He added that the countries involved in the Abraham Accords knew their own circumstances best, and were able to find ways to move forward out of their own interests, rather than those of the UN.
It seemed that most involved in Monday’s event felt that the spirit of the Abraham Accords should be used more as a feel-good story – an anything-is-possible inspiration – rather than as a blueprint for solving disputes.
“We thought it was important to just take a moment and mark these accords, because I think agreements like this need encouragement. And when governments get around the table and negotiate some of these really difficult issues, I think we find that progress can be made,” Lana Nusseibeh, the UAE’s ambassador to the UN, told The Media Line.
“So, that’s what the accords mean to us, and I hope on the global stage at the UN, at the high-level week, we will see countries coming together to address the most difficult challenges the international community faces today,” she said.
Haiat added that the international community should look to the accords not only for the change they’ve brought about in the Middle East, but also how it positively affects other regions.
“This is what our diplomats do best: talk. We want to spread the word about this change in the Middle East. And the first thing we are asking from other countries is to support it, talk about it, about how important this change is for the stability of our own region, which has all kinds of positive global ramifications,” Haiat said.
Another consensus conclusion among those countries sharing the stage on Monday is that peace must come from within, rather than being foisted upon warring nations by the international community.
“First of all, these Abraham Accords agreements create momentum and it’s up to our leaders and our people to work on that and to build toward establishing peace, and also for bringing hopes and for making an end to all kinds of extremism and wars. Our region has suffered a lot from the past wars. Now we need to work for a very warm peace – peace of heart, peace of mind. And that the next generation of our region deserves to live together – all the people – in peace, cooperation, harmony and prosperity,” Omar Hilale, Morocco’s ambassador to the UN, told The Media Line.
In fact, Israel, which has often faced immense pressure from the UN to make policy changes to bring about solutions to conflicts with its neighbors, noted that one only need to look at the Abraham Accords to realize that it's best when bodies like the UN just stay out of the equation altogether.
“I think that other nations around the world can learn that the only way to move forward is by a process of reconciliation between the two peoples. You cannot come from the outside and force a decision upon any nation. So, any intervention of the UN is unnecessary. It won’t help. It’s counterproductive. Mainly, that’s what the UN does,” Gilad Erdan, Israel’s ambassador to the UN and US, told The Media Line.
“Here, you have the perfect example of how our nations … we built it bottom up. Our relationships, we started to encourage and work with each other and that made it easier for the leadership to make the right decisions. And even the previous [US] administration, the UN administration, together with the Biden administration, they helped us to nurture and to work together. They didn’t try, thankfully, to force anything upon one of us. And these are also my expectations for the UN, for the secretary-general and for all member states: Don’t try to force anything on Israel,” said Erdan.
US Ambassador Linda Thomas-Greenfield addresses the United Nations Security Council regarding the situation in Afghanistan at the United Nations in New York City, New York, US, August 16, 2021. (credit: ANDREW KELLY / REUTERS)
US Ambassador to the UN Linda Thomas-Greenfield sounded a hopeful message at Monday’s event, that the Abraham Accords model could be used to good effect elsewhere.
“I am determined to explore how we can translate these agreements into progress within the UN system. Events like this point us in that right direction,” she said from the podium.
But, seemingly much like the majority of those in attendance, little thought has been given thus far, one year after a groundbreaking agreement changed the face of one of the most conflict-ridden regions in the world, to the lessons it can impart to the rest of the world.
2021 年 9 月 15 日 12:21
以色列藥物 Codivir 的小瓶
一組以色列科學家表示，一種以前以不受控制的方式用於治療 HIV 的藥物對冠狀病毒具有直接的抗病毒作用，僅在幾天內就可以將患者送回家中沒有病毒。
Code Pharma 總部位於荷蘭，但在以色列設有研發辦事處，並擁有一名以色列首席執行官，該公司最近完成了其藥物Codivir用於對抗冠狀病毒的I 期試驗。週一，將支持 II 期試驗的以色列研究團隊向赫爾辛基委員會申請了在 Barzilai 醫療中心推進的許可。
第二階段研究將涉及約 150 名患者，預計將於下個月啟動，還將在西班牙、巴西和南非進行。根據 Code Pharma 首席執行官 Zyon Ayni 的說法，目標是在大約三到六個月內完成試驗，然後已經申請了該藥物的緊急使用授權。
Code Pharma 首席執行官 Zyon Ayni（圖片來源：對方提供）
佛羅里達州確實存在 Covid-19 問題：斯科特參議員
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“在 COVID-19 大流行的第一波和第二波中，許多具有公認或已證實的抗病毒作用機制的藥物並未證明它們可以顯著延長預期壽命，”傳染病部主任 Shlomo Maayan 教授說。巴爾齊萊。他正在為 Code Pharma 提供諮詢，因為它正在推進 Codivir，但沒有收到任何經濟或其他補償。
“Codivir 具有非常好的安全性和非常令人印象深刻的抗病毒效果，無論是在實驗室條件下還是在人體 I 期臨床試驗中，”他說。“我們熱切期待使用 Codivir 進行的雙盲研究的結果。這可能是早期 COVID-19 患者抗病毒治療領域的突破。”
在國家研究倫理委員會 (CONEP) 的批准下，I 期試驗最近在巴西聖保羅的 Casa de Saúde – Vera Cruz 醫院完成。12 名 18 至 60 歲的輕度至中度冠狀病毒患者參與了這項研究。
患者每天接受兩次注射，持續 10 天。
Maayan 說，其中 5 名患者在治療期間病毒載量顯著下降。Codivir 顯著抑制了所有患者的病毒複製，早在治療開始後三天就發現了抗病毒作用。
此外，該藥物的安全性非常好。Ayni 說，治療本身沒有明顯的副作用，接受該藥物的人也沒有表現出任何通常與 COVID-19 感染相關的副作用跡象。
CODIVIR 基於源自 HIV-1 整合酶的 16 個氨基酸短肽。它最初是由希伯來大學的研究人員發現的，他們仍然與該公司有關。
“最初的想法是根除感染 HIV 的細胞，”首席執行官解釋說，並指出該藥物似乎會在臨床前試驗中誘導 HIV 細胞死亡。大約在冠狀病毒大流行開始的時候，Code Pharma 正在剛果的 HIV 患者中非正式地測試這種藥物。
Ayni 說：“那裡的一家醫院也開始對 COVID-19 患者進行治療，他們的病情完全好轉——有些在幾小時內，有些在幾天內。”
醫院隨後要求增加劑量，並在一項非官方臨床試驗中進行，醫生將接受 Codivir 的患者與未接受 Codivir 的患者分開並跟踪。所有患者的年齡都在 35 至 78 歲之間，正在重症監護室接受治療——儘管他說剛果的 ICU 看起來不像西方的 ICU，這意味著患者只接受氧氣。
“醫生給他們開了藥，看到只用了九天，就有兩名患者完全康復，其餘的人好多了，幾乎沒有病毒的踪跡。在未接受藥物治療的 15 人中，有 14 人死亡。
“我們看到在不到 24 小時內，90% 到 100% 的細胞中的病毒被完全清除，”Ayni 說，並指出結果在人類中的表現略有不同。然而，Code Pharma 清楚一件事：實驗室研究證明了一種有效的抗病毒活性。
II 期多國試驗將是雙盲的，還將評估 Codivir 在治療輕度至中度病例中的作用。
“但實驗室結果和 I 期試驗都如此令人鼓舞，看起來很有希望，”他說。
Ayni 說，由於 COVID 感染在全球範圍內持續高發，該公司已經準備在 II 期試驗完成後向多個國家提交緊急批准請求。它還準備在全球不同地點大規模生產 Codivir。
“世界需要一種針對 COVID 的抗病毒藥物。”
Israeli scientists say their antiviral drug could stop COVID-19
An Israeli antiviral drug previously used to treat HIV may be able to stop coronavirus in a matter of days.
SEPTEMBER 15, 2021 12:21
Vials of the Israeli drug Codivir
(photo credit: Courtesy)
A team of Israeli scientists say that a drug previously used in an uncontrolled fashion to treat HIV has a direct antiviral effect against coronavirus, sending patients home virus-free within only a few days.
Code Pharma, which is headquartered in the Netherlands but has its research and development office in Israel and an Israeli CEO, recently completed a Phase I trial of its drug Codivir for use against coronavirus. On Monday, the Israeli research team that will support the Phase II trial applied for permission from the Helsinki Committee to move forward at the Barzilai Medical Center.
The Phase II study, which will involve around 150 patients and is expected to launch in the next month, will also take place in Spain, Brazil and South Africa. According to Code Pharma CEO Zyon Ayni, the goal is to complete the trial within about three to six months and then already apply for emergency use authorization of the drug.
Code Pharma CEO Zyon Ayni (credit: Courtesy)
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“In the first and second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, many of the drugs with putative or proven antiviral mechanisms of action have not proven themselves to significantly prolong life expectancy,” said Prof. Shlomo Maayan, director of the Infectious Disease division at Barzilai. He is advising Code Pharma as it moves forward with Codivir but receives no financial or other compensation.
“Codivir has a very good safety profile and a very impressive antiviral effect, both in laboratory conditions and in a phase I clinical trial in humans,” he said. “We eagerly await the results of the double-blind studies using Codivir. It may be a breakthrough in the field of antiviral therapy for early COVID-19 patients.”
The Phase I trial was recently completed in Brazil at Casa de Saúde – Vera Cruz Hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, under the approval of the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP). Twelve patients between the ages of 18 and 60 with mild to moderate coronavirus participated in the study.
Seven of the volunteers were tested sequentially using a standard PCR swab test every two days from the time they began receiving the treatment, which like insulin is given subcutaneously – injection under the skin.
Patients received two injections per day for 10 days.
Maayan said that five of the patients showed a very profound decline in the viral load during the treatment. Codivir significantly suppressed viral replication in all patients with an antiviral effect noted as early as three days after the beginning of treatment.
Moreover, the safety profile of the drug was very good. There were no significant side effects from the treatment itself, Ayni said, nor did those who received the drug show any signs of side effects that are very often associated with COVID-19 infections.
Manuscripts describing these results have been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal.
CODIVIR IS based on a short 16 amino-acid peptide derived from the HIV-1 integrase. It was first discovered by researchers at the Hebrew University, who are still involved with the company.
“The initial idea was to eradicate HIV-infected cells,” the CEO explained, noting that the drug seemed to induce HIV cell death in pre-clinical trials. Around the time that the coronavirus pandemic was beginning, Code Pharma was testing the drug unofficially in HIV patients in the Congo.
“One hospital there started administering it to COVID-19 patients, too, and they got completely better – some in hours and some in days,” Ayni said.
The hospital then requested additional doses, which it administered in an unofficial clinical trial, where doctors divided and tracked patients who received Codivir and patients who did not. All of the patients were between the ages of 35 and 78 and were being treated in the intensive care unit – though he said the ICU in the Congo does not look like a Western ICU, meaning the patients were only receiving oxygen.
“The doctor gave them the medication and saw that in only nine days, two patients completely recovered and the rest got much better and almost had no trace of the virus. Of the 15 people who did not receive the medication, 14 died.
“It was very clear we were onto something, but we did not know what,” Ayni said.
So, the company decided to conduct in-vitro studies at the well-respected Virology Research Services in London, with what Maayan described as “excellent results.”
“We saw complete elimination of the virus in 90% to 100% of cells in less than 24 hours,” Ayni said, noting that the results play out slightly differently in people. However, one thing was clear to Code Pharma: The laboratory studies demonstrated a potent antiviral activity.
The lab results are what led to the Brazil trial.
The Phase II multinational trial will be double-blind and also evaluate Codivir in the treatment of mild to moderate cases.
“The idea is that if the data we generated from Phase I with no controls repeats itself, this will be a significant achievement,” Maayan said. “If the results do not repeat themselves, then it is a no-go.
“But with both the laboratory results and the Phase I trial so encouraging, it looks promising,” he said.
Due to the high levels of COVID infection continuing around the world, the company is already preparing to submit emergency approval requests to several countries once the Phase II trial is complete, Ayni said. It is also preparing for mass production of Codivir at different sites worldwide.
“The world is in need of an antiviral medication against COVID.”
2021 年 9 月 15 日 13:12
（圖片來源：MARC ISRAEL SELLEM）
甘茨在談到美國總統喬拜登的努力時對《外交政策》說：“目前美國將伊朗核計劃放回盒子裡的做法，我願意接受。”制裁，並提到以色列的 C 計劃，其中涉及軍事反應。
甘茨向《外交政策》解釋了他認為可行的 B 計劃：來自美國、歐洲、俄羅斯和中國的全面政治、經濟和外交壓力。然而，他解釋說，以色列國防軍正在準備軍事手段，以阻止伊朗獲得核武器，如果它發生的話。
反對黨領袖本傑明·內塔尼亞胡於 2021 年 7 月 12 日出現在以色列議會。（圖片來源：MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/THE JERUSALEM POST）
核協議是由時任美國總統巴拉克奧巴馬於 2015 年談判達成的。 然而，時任總統唐納德特朗普在幾年後退出。
Gantz: Israel could accept return to Iran nuke deal if US has 'plan B'
Opposition leader Benjamin Netanyahu: "They are making a dangerous mistake."
SEPTEMBER 15, 2021 13:12
Benny Gantz, leader of the Blue and White political party
(photo credit: MARC ISRAEL SELLEM)
Israel could accept a return to a US-brokered Iran nuclear deal, but they are calling on Washington to have a demonstration of power ready should negotiations turn sour, Defense Minister Benny Gantz told Foreign Policy on Tuesday.
“The current US approach of putting the Iran nuclear program back in a box, I’d accept that,” Gantz told Foreign Policy, referring to US President Joe Biden's efforts, but added that he wants the US to have a plan B with economic sanctions, and referred to Israel's plan C, which involves a military response.
Gantz explained to Foreign Policy what he would consider a viable plan B: full political, economic and diplomatic pressure by the US, Europe, Russia and China. However, he explained the IDF is preparing military means to stop Iran from getting nuclear weapons, should it come to that.
The issue of the Iran nuclear deal has been a prominent one in Israeli and international politics for almost a decade now, especially with fears that Iran could be getting close to a nuclear weapon.
Opposition leader Benjamin Netanyahu is seen at the Knesset, on July 12, 2021. (credit: MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/THE JERUSALEM POST)
Opposition leader Benjamin Netanyahu accused Prime Minister Naftali Bennett of enabling the Biden administration to return to the Iran nuclear deal. He criticized Gantz's statements about Iran in the interview.
"They are making a dangerous mistake," Netanyahu said.
The nuclear deal was negotiated by then-US president Barack Obama in 2015. However, then-president Donald Trump withdrew from it several years later.
The Biden administration is currently working on negotiations with Iran, with talks in Vienna supposedly set to resume soon.
伊朗警衛對國際原子能機構女檢查員進行性侵犯 - 報告
2021 年 9 月 14 日 21:34
2006 年 3 月 9 日，伊朗首都德黑蘭以南 322 公里（200 英里）的納坦茲鈾濃縮設施內，拉尼安士兵守衛在高射機槍上。
一名外交官告訴《華爾街日報》，自 6 月初以來，至少報告了四起單獨的騷擾事件，而另一名外交官表示，已經發生了五到七起。最近的事件是在過去幾週報導的。
伊朗原子能組織核成果展，2021 年 4 月 10 日（來源：PRESIDENT.IR VIA TASNIM NEWS AGENCY）
據《華爾街日報》報導，其他涉嫌騷擾的事件發生在 2013 年簽署 JCPOA 核協議之前的核談判開始之前。
國際特赦組織表示，當局也未能對殺害妻子或女兒的男性採取措施，法定結婚年齡為 13 歲，儘管男性可以提前獲得與女兒和孫女結婚的許可。
Eve Young 和路透社為本報告做出了貢獻。
Iranian guards sexually assaulted female IAEA inspectors - report
Iranian security guards allegedly sexually assaulted female IAEA inspectors at the Natanz nuclear facility.
SEPTEMBER 14, 2021 21:34
ranian soldiers stand guard on an anti-aircraft machine gun inside the Natanz uranium enrichment facility, 322km (200 miles) south of Iran's capital Tehran March 9, 2006.
(photo credit: REUTERS)
Iranian security guards made female International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors remove clothing and then inappropriately touched them at Iran's Natanz nuclear facility, according to The Wall Street Journal.
At least four separate incidents of harassment were reported since early June, one diplomat told The Wall Street Journal, while another diplomat said that there had been five to seven. The most recent incident was reported in the past few weeks.
"What I understand is that there was touching in different places, sensitive places and so on," said one diplomat to the newspaper.
A paper circulated by the US among IAEA members ahead of a board meeting of the agency's member states this week demanded an end to the conduct.
"Harassment of IAEA inspectors is absolutely unacceptable, and we strongly urge you to make clear in your national statement at the Board meeting that such conduct is deplorable and must end immediately, and that the Board should take appropriate action if further incidents are reported," read the paper, according to the report.
Exhibition of nuclear achievements of Iran's Atomic Energy Organization, April 10, 2021 (credit: PRESIDENT.IR VIA TASNIM NEWS AGENCY)
The IAEA confirmed to
The Wall Street Journal
that incidents had occurred at the facility, without providing details.
The UN nuclear watchdog on Tuesday described as "unacceptable" incidents in Iran involving its inspectors, in which diplomats say security staff subjected female inspectors to inappropriate searches that the United States is calling harassment.
"The Agency immediately and firmly raised this issue with Iran to explain in very clear and unequivocal terms that such security-related incidents involving Agency staff are unacceptable and must not happen again," the IAEA said.
"Iran has provided explanations related to reinforced security procedures following events at one of their facilities. As a result of this exchange between the Agency and Iran there have been no further incidents."
Iran's ambassador to the IAEA, Kazem Gharibabadi, said on Twitter: "Security measures at the nuclear facilities in Iran are, reasonably, tightened. The IAEA inspectors have gradually come up with the new rules and regulations."
“The Agency immediately and firmly raised this issue with Iran to explain in very clear and unequivocal terms that such security-related incidents involving Agency staff are unacceptable and must not happen again. Iran has provided explanations related to reinforced security procedures following events at one of their facilities,” an IAEA spokesman told the newspaper. “As a result of this exchange between the Agency and Iran there have been no further incidents.”
This isn't the first time that Iran has faced allegations of harassment against IAEA inspectors. In 2019, a female inspector was detained at the airport and Tehran had her travel documents taken from her. Iran claimed at the time that she had traces of explosives on her and later released her.
Other incidents of alleged harassment took place before nuclear negotiations began in 2013 before the JCPOA nuclear deal was signed, according to The Wall Street Journal.
In April, Iran was elected to the United Nation's Commission on the Status of Women for a four-year term along with China, Japan, Lebanon and Pakistan.
The Commission on the Status of Women is the "global champion for gender equality," according to the organization. It works to develop and uphold standards in which all women can exercise their human rights. The commission focuses on issues it deems fundamental to women's equality and attempts to promote the progress of women worldwide.
Women's rights are severely restricted in Iran, Human Rights Watch (HRW) reported, saying that they face "serious discrimination" on a variety of issues including marriage, divorce and child custody. Women have been jailed for speaking out in favor of women's rights, HRW reported.
Domestic violence, marital rape, early and forced marriage are all offenses that Iranian authorities have failed to criminalize, according to Amnesty International. These offenses and other gender-based violence against women remain widespread in the country, according to Amnesty International.
Authorities have also failed to take steps against men who kill their wives or daughters and the legal age for marriage is 13, although men can obtain permission to marry their daughters and granddaughters earlier, said Amnesty International.
“Electing the Islamic Republic of Iran to protect women’s rights is like making an arsonist into the town fire chief,” said Hillel Neuer, executive director of UN Watch, at the time. “It’s absurd — and morally reprehensible.”
Eve Young and Reuters contributed to this report.
2021 年 9 月 14 日 14:50
2017 年 4 月 7 日，在敘利亞大馬士革東部郊區 Ghouta 被反政府武裝包圍的杜馬市遭到空襲後，人們檢查損壞情況。
上週，敘利亞軍隊士兵在敘利亞阿勒頗省的 Kafr Hamra 打手勢。（信用：SANA/REUTERS）
這場由反對巴沙爾·阿薩德總統統治的起義引發的戰爭引發了世界上最大的難民危機。敘利亞的鄰國收容了 560 萬難民，而歐洲國家收容了超過 100 萬。
報告涵蓋截至 6 月底的一年，還指出西北地區的敵對行動有所增加，稱市場、住宅區和醫療設施遭到空中和地面襲擊，“經常是不分青紅皂白的，造成大量平民傷亡”。
它說，在阿勒頗以北的阿夫林鎮和拉斯艾因鎮，至少有 243 人在七次汽車炸彈襲擊中喪生或致殘，儘管總傷亡人數要高得多。
該報告批評控制伊德利卜的伊斯蘭組織 Hayat Tahrir al-Sham 對媒體和言論自由施加限制，稱其任意拘留了媒體活動家和記者，包括女性。
Syria violence worsening, not safe for refugee return, UN investigators say
"The war on Syrian civilians continues, and it is difficult for them to find security or safe haven in this war-torn country," Chair of the Commission, Paulo Pinheiro said.
SEPTEMBER 14, 2021 14:50
Men inspect damage after an airstrike on the rebel held besieged city of Douma, in the eastern Damascus suburb of Ghouta, Syria April 7, 2017.
(photo credit: REUTERS/BASSAM KHABIEH)
Syria is still unsafe for the return of refugees a decade after its conflict began, UN war crimes investigators said on Tuesday, documenting worsening violence and rights violations including arbitrary detention by government forces.
The UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria said the overall situation was increasingly bleak, noting hostilities in several areas of the fractured country, its collapsing economy, drying riverbeds and increased attacks by Islamic State militants.
"One decade in, the parties to the conflict continue to perpetrate war crimes and crimes against humanity and infringing the basic human rights of Syrians," the Chair of the Commission, Paulo Pinheiro said, releasing its 24th report.
"The war on Syrian civilians continues, and it is difficult for them to find security or safe haven in this war-torn country."
SYRIAN ARMY soldiers gesture last week in Kafr Hamra, in Syria’s Aleppo province. (credit: SANA/REUTERS)
Incidents of arbitrary and incommunicado detention by government forces continued, the report said.
"The Commission has continued to document not only torture and sexual violence in detention but also custodial deaths and enforced disappearances," a press release said.
The war, which spiraled out of an uprising against President Bashar al-Assad's rule, sparked the world's biggest refugee crisis. Syria's neighbors host 5.6 million refugees, while European countries are hosting more than one million.
Refugees in some countries have faced pressure to return.
While Assad has recovered most of Syria, significant areas remain outside his control: Turkish forces are deployed in much of the north and northwest - the last major bastion of anti-Assad rebels - and US forces are stationed in the Kurdish-controlled east and northeast.
Commissioner Hanny Megally said there had been a "return of sieges and siege-like tactics" in southwestern Syria - an area where Russian-backed government forces waged a campaign to snuff out a rebel-held pocket in the city of Deraa.
Covering the year to the end of June, the report also noted increased hostilities in the northwest, saying markets, residential areas and medical facilities had been struck from the air and ground, "often indiscriminately, causing numerous civilian casualties."
At least 243 people were killed or maimed in seven car bomb attacks in the rebel-held towns of Afrin and Ras al-Ain north of Aleppo, though the full toll was considerably higher, it said.
The report criticized the Islamist group that controls Idlib, Hayat Tahrir al-Sham, for imposing restrictions on media and freedom of expression, saying it had arbitrarily detained media activists and journalists including women.
It also criticized the unlawful internment of thousands of women and children held on suspicion of Islamic State links in camps in areas controlled by the US-backed Syrian Democratic Forces, saying they had no legal recourse.
They had "been left to fend for themselves in conditions that may amount to cruel or inhuman treatment."
2021 年 9 月 15 日 12:49
2019 年 11 月 6 日，在約旦河西岸 Gush Etzion 的 Bat Ayin 猶太定居點的一個新的 mikveh 儀式浴。
耶路撒冷酋長拉比什洛莫·阿馬爾 (Shlomo Amar) 發布的一項裁決終止了已婚和單身女性在贖罪日前一天沉浸在聖禮儀式浴中以提高她們的精神純潔感的長期習俗。
本週早些時候，阿馬爾致信耶路撒冷宗教委員會 mikvah 部門負責人大衛·巴尼諾拉比，告訴他 mikvah 董事和服務員不應該讓女性沉浸在她們經營的 mikvaot 中，除非這是讓她們沉浸的正確夜晚，根據猶太家庭純潔法。
Amar 對濫交的擔憂似乎是擔心沉浸在 mikvah 中的未婚女性會證明婚外性行為是合理的。
然而，阿馬爾禁止女性出於精神原因沉浸在贖罪日的指示受到了幾個方面的強烈批評，包括 Itim 宗教服務諮詢組織。
在給宗教服務部主任 Shimon Ma'atok 的一封信中，Itim 律師 Meira Friedman 表示，Amar 的決定是非法的，並且對習慣於沉浸在 Erev Yom Kippur 上的禮拜儀式的耶路撒冷婦女的宗教傳統有害，並指出該習俗已經代代相傳。
“雖然這個決定是在最後一刻做出的，但 Itim 將考慮採取法律行動，以確保將來不會發生這種情況。”
在 Itim 向宗教服務部發出呼籲和媒體報導後，該部決定在極端正統的社區開設兩個 mikvah，一個在 Minhat Yitzhak 街，在 Givat Komuna 社區與 Ohel Yehoshua 街的拐角處，另一個在 Zevin Steet 2 內芙·雅科夫。
來自耶路撒冷的 40 歲的 Yotvat Weil 在過去的八年裡一直去 Erev Yom Kippur 的 mikvah，並試圖在星期三和她的兩個女兒一起去，但發現她當地的 mikvah 被關閉了。
“這是令人難以置信。婦女沉浸在 mikvah 是一種習俗，至少可以追溯到 9 世紀。這是一種古老的習俗，是一種精神沉浸，與贖罪日之前的 [精神] 聯繫有關，”韋爾說。
“這是屬於女性的東西，但具有這種侵略性的拉比阿馬爾本質上是在說他是女性身體的所有者，是我的 mitzvot 和所有女性的所有者。
Women's ritual baths closed by Jerusalem chief rabbi due to 'promiscuity'
Closing women’s mikvahs due to promiscuity and not men’s was a form of illegal gender-based discrimination and violated laws regarding freedom of religion.
SEPTEMBER 15, 2021 12:49
A new mikveh ritual bath in the Jewish settlement of Bat Ayin in Gush Etzion, West Bank, November 6, 2019.
(photo credit: GERSHON ELINSON/FLASH90)
A ruling issued by Jerusalem Chief Rabbi Shlomo Amar halted a long-standing custom of women, married and single, to immerse in a mikvah ritual bath the day before Yom Kippur to heighten their sense of spiritual purity.
Earlier this week, Amar sent a letter to Rabbi David Banino, head of the Jerusalem religious council’s mikvah department, telling him that mikvah directors and attendants should not allow women to immerse in the mikvaot they operate unless it is the correct night for them to immerse, according to Jewish family purity laws.
This would exclude married women, singles, divorcees and widows who wish to immerse in a mikvah for spiritual purposes ahead of Yom Kippur, the holiest day in the Jewish calendar.
SEPHARDIC CHIEF Rabbi of Jerusalem Shlomo Amar: Time to go? (credit: Wikimedia Commons)
The motivation behind Amar’s ruling was what he described as "awful promiscuity." He explained that in current times “we have arrived at a situation so awful that things which we were embarrassed to think about in private and in inner sanctums have become a symbol of freedom and progress.”
Today, he explained, “People who are modest are considered to be mentally ill and oppressed, and people glorify in abomination.”
Amar’s concern regarding promiscuity appears to be a concern that unmarried women who immerse in the mikvah will then justify having sex outside of marriage.
Under Jewish law, married women must immerse themselves in a mikvah following the completion of their menstrual cycle, before they are permitted to have sexual relations with their husbands again.
In recent years, some religiously observant, unmarried women who wish to have sexual relations with their partners have also sought to immerse in a mikvah first, a practice the Chief Rabbinate and some local rabbinates have sought to ban.
Amar’s directive to stop women from immersing for spiritual reasons on Yom Kippur was strongly criticized from several quarters, however, including the Itim religious services advisory organization.
In a letter to Religious Services Ministry director Shimon Ma’atok, Itim attorney Meira Friedman said Amar’s decision was illegal and harmful to the religious traditions of women in Jerusalem who are accustomed to immersing in a mikvah on Erev Yom Kippur, noting that the custom has been in practice for generations.
Friedman argued that closing women’s mikvahs due to promiscuity and not men’s was a form of illegal gender-based discrimination and violated laws regarding freedom of religion.
“It is unfortunate that on the eve of Yom Kippur, a time when Jews unite in reflection and humility, the Jerusalem religious council is choosing to divide Jews,” said Itim director Rabbi Seth Farber.
“The custom to immerse in the mikvah in anticipation of Yom Kippur is well documented in religious sources and the women who wish to practice this custom should not be prevented from doing so because of unfounded fears of ‘licentiousness.’
“Though this decision was taken at the last minute, Itim will consider legal action to ensure that this doesn’t happen in the future.”
Following Itim’s appeal to the Religious Services Ministry and media reports, the ministry decided to open two mikvahs in ultra-Orthodox neighborhoods, one on Minhat Yitzhak Street, on the corner with Ohel Yehoshua Street in the Givat Komuna neighborhood, and the other at Zevin Steet 2 in Neve Yaakov.
Yotvat Weil, 40, from Jerusalem, has been going to the mikvah on Erev Yom Kippur for the last eight years, and sought to go on Wednesday as well with her two daughters but discovered that her local mikvah was shut.
The mikvah attendants said they had been told to say the mikvahs were closed due to coronavirus, despite the fact that men’s mikvahs remain open.
Weil eventually went to a private mikvah outside of Jerusalem to immerse, along with her daughters, since the ministry’s instructions to open the two mikvahs came after she had already found alternative arrangements.
“This is unbelievable. Women immersing in a mikvah is a custom dating back at least to the 9th century. This is an ancient custom, it is a spiritual immersion and one which is about [spiritual] connection before Yom Kippur,” Weil said.
“Immersion in a mikvah is personal, and here they are forcibly preventing women from doing so in this violent manner,” she continued.
“This is something which belongs to women, yet Rabbi Amar with this aggression is essentially saying he is the owner of women’s bodies and the owner of my mitzvot and those of all women.
“Women have freedom over their bodies and freedom to fulfill mitzvot for themselves," she said. "Someone who wants to lock mikvahs can make other decisions and no one stops him.”
以色列研究：第三劑疫苗產生的抗體是第二劑的 10 倍
在談論第 4 劑時，Sheba 醫院的血清學研究激發了人們的樂觀情緒，即加強注射可能提供比以前認為的更持久的保護
2021 年 9 月 9 日，以色列人在耶路撒冷 Clalit 醫療保健維護組織疫苗接種中心接種 COVID-19 疫苗。（Olivier Fitoussi/Flash90）
在以色列一家醫院進行的一項血清學研究發現，接種第三劑 COVID-19 疫苗後體內的抗體水平比接種第二劑後檢測到的抗體水平高十倍。
Kan 公共廣播公司週二報導，在特拉維夫郊外拉馬特甘 (Ramat Gan) 的捨巴醫療中心 (Sheba Medical Center) 接種疫苗的工作人員中看到的初步結果引發了人們對加強注射保持保護作用的時間的樂觀情緒。
該研究將第三劑 COVID-19 疫苗接種一周後的抗體水平與接種第二劑疫苗一周後的抗體水平進行了比較。
以色列——第一個正式提供第三劑疫苗的國家——於 8 月 1 日開始了其 COVID 助推器運動，最初將其推廣到 60 歲以上的人群。然後逐漸降低了資格年齡，最終將其擴大到12 歲及以上的所有人誰至少在五個月前接受了第二槍。
截至週三，將近 300 萬以色列人接種了第三劑。
冠狀病毒沙皇 Salman Zarka 教授於 2021 年 8 月 29 日在耶路撒冷出席關于冠狀病毒的新聞發布會。（Olivier Fitoussi/Flash90）
“鑑於病毒已經存在並將繼續存在，我們還需要為第四次注射做好準備，”扎卡在 9 月 4 日告訴菅直人。
然而，Kan 的報告稱，在來自 Sheba 的新數據中看到的抗體水平升高可能意味著只有在更長的時間後才需要注射第四劑。
本週早些時候，18 位主要科學家和兩位即將離任的 FDA 官員聲稱，目前沒有必要給普通人群接種第三劑。
這份發表在《柳葉刀》醫學雜誌上的報告得出的結論是，即使存在病毒超傳染性 Delta 變體的威脅，“在大流行的現階段，對普通人群進行加強劑量也是不合適的。”
2021 年 8 月 30 日，一名以色列男子在耶路撒冷市政廳外由耶路撒冷市政府和內政司令部組織的臨時疫苗接種中心接種了第三劑 COVID-19 疫苗。（Olivier Fitoussi/Flash90）
在包括以色列在內的一些國家因擔心傳染性更強的 Delta 變種而開始提供加強注射後，世界衛生組織呼籲暫停第三次注射，因為人們擔心向貧窮國家提供疫苗，數百萬人尚未獲得第一次注射。
Israeli research: 3rd vaccine dose produces 10 times more antibodies than 2nd
Amid talk of 4th dose, serological study at Sheba hospital stokes optimism that booster shot may offer longer-lasting protection than previously thought
By TOI STAFFToday, 9:19 am
Israelis receive a COVID-19 vaccine at a Clalit health care maintenance organisation vaccination center in Jerusalem, September 9, 2021. (Olivier Fitoussi/Flash90)
A serological study conducted at an Israeli hospital has found that antibody levels in the body after the administration of a third COVID-19 vaccine dose were ten times higher than those detected after the second dose.
The preliminary results, seen among vaccinated staff at Sheba Medical Center in Ramat Gan, outside Tel Aviv, stoked optimism as to the amount of time the booster shot retains its protection, the Kan public broadcaster reported Tuesday.
The study compared the antibody levels a week after the third COVID-19 vaccine dose was administered to its staff to their levels a week after the second dose was administered.
The hospital told the network it was treating the results with caution and would continue to observe the antibody levels over the coming months.
Israel — the first country to officially offer a third dose — began its COVID booster campaign on August 1, initially rolling it out to those over the age of 60. It then gradually dropped the eligibility age, eventually expanding it to everyone aged 12 and up who received the second shot at least five months ago.
As of Wednesday, nearly 3 million Israelis had received a third dose.
Coronavirus czar Salman Zarka has called for the country to begin making preparations to eventually administer fourth doses of the coronavirus vaccine.
Coronavirus czar Prof. Salman Zarka attends a press conference about the coronavirus in Jerusalem, on August 29, 2021. (Olivier Fitoussi/Flash90)
“Given that that the virus is here and will continue to be here, we also need to prepare for a fourth injection,” Zarka told Kan on September 4.
He did not specify when fourth vaccine shots could eventually be administered.
“Thinking about… the waning of the vaccines and the antibodies, it seems every few months — it could be once a year or five or six months — we’ll need another shot,” he told The Times of Israel last month.
The Health Ministry earlier this month also announced that the “Green Pass” — a document that allows entry into certain gatherings and public places for those who are vaccinated or have recovered from the coronavirus — will expire six months after the holder received their second or third dose, hinting that a fourth dose may be administered in six months’ time.
However, the elevated level of antibodies seen in the new data from Sheba could mean a fourth dose would only have to be administered after a longer period of time, the Kan report said.
Earlier this week, 18 leading scientists and two outgoing FDA officials claimed that there is no current need for the general population to be given third doses.
The report, published in The Lancet medical journal, concluded that even with the threat of the hyper-infectious Delta variant of the virus, “booster doses for the general population are not appropriate at this stage in the pandemic.”
An Israeli man receives a third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine at a temporary vaccination center organized by the Jerusalem Municipality and the Home Front Command, outside Jerusalem City Hall on August 30, 2021. (Olivier Fitoussi/Flash90)
After some countries, including Israel, started offering booster shots over fears about the much more contagious Delta variant, the World Health Organization called for a moratorium on third shots amid concerns about vaccine supplies to poorer nations, where millions have yet to receive their first.
“I will not stay silent when the companies and countries that control the global supply of vaccines think the world’s poor should be satisfied with leftovers,” WHO chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus told journalists last Wednesday.
Speaking from WHO’s headquarters in Geneva, Tedros urged wealthy countries and vaccine makers to prioritize getting the first shots to health workers and vulnerable populations in poorer nations over boosters.
“We do not want to see widespread use of boosters for healthy people who are fully vaccinated,” he said.
AFP contributed to this report.