外交官的國際新聞導覽及中東中亞的歷史故事 Diplomat's daily news review and history research on Middle East and Central Asia
Manage episode 302473029 series 2948782
2021 年 9 月 16 日 23:18
（圖片來源：ARND WIEGMANN / REUTERS）
“以色列准備應對氣候變化；對此毫無疑問，”環境保護部總幹事加利特·科恩 (Galit Cohen) 在今年夏天早些時候表示。7 月 31 日，科恩對第 12 頻道新聞說：“我們必須做好準備……如果我們什麼都不做，我們就必須努力減少（溫室氣體排放），以避免出現預期的後果。”
政府於 7 月 25 日宣布，到 2050 年，它的溫室氣體排放量將比 2015 年的水平減少 85%，這是限制全球變暖的國際努力的一部分。
政府隨後設定了 2030 年的臨時目標，將排放量比 2015 年的水平減少 27%，這一年全球氣候協議在巴黎達成一致。與工業化前水平相比，巴黎協議旨在將全球變暖限制在 2 攝氏度以下，最好是 1.5 攝氏度。
“我們設定了重要的目標，我們按時履行了我們的國際承諾，最重要的是，我們動員了整個政府，”環境保護部長 Tamar Zandberg（Meretz Party）在公告中說。
“以色列政府在 7 月 25 日做出了決定；這是一個歷史性的決定，”Blue and White MK Alon Tal 說。“這不是對政府正在做的事情不屑一顧；達到 90.5% 的碳排放目標是史無前例的。” 然而，像其他西方世界一樣，以色列可以做得更多，實現更高的目標，塔爾說。“[美國總統喬] 拜登承諾到 2035 年實現 100% [碳排放]。以色列甚至不在同一個球場上，”他說。
聯合國政府間氣候變化專門委員會關於氣候變化的報告於 8 月 11 日發布，並沒有提供任何偏離地球氣候變化路徑的跡象。報告發現，陸地表面將繼續變暖，比海洋表面變暖（1.4 到 1.7 倍），北極變暖的速度將繼續超過全球地表溫度——是全球變暖速度的兩倍多。
在 IPCC 報告發布之前，氣候變化繼續主導對話。8 月 9 日，美國副總統卡馬拉·哈里斯與總統艾薩克·赫爾佐格通了電話，據報導，大部分報導的談話都集中在氣候變化上，特別是水資源短缺，以及火災的頻率和強度，例如美國西部。
根據 2018 年 11 月發布的 IPCC 報告，全球變暖應限制在平均 1.5 度以內。然而，預計以色列的氣溫將高於全球平均水平。這可能會導致更極端的現象，例如夜間溫度可能比以色列白天溫度升高的速度更快，以及更頻繁、更猛烈和更持久的熱浪。
以色列氣象局 (IMS) 還發布了一份關於極端天氣事件的報告，該報告指出全國整體變暖趨勢。該國西部地區的變暖速度特別快——沿海平原、低地和內蓋夫北部。
今年早些時候，這成為 Nahariya 的一個特別相關的問題，在暴雨之後發生了嚴重的洪水。一月份的降雨量在兩週內打破了 51 年的降雨量記錄，西部和上加利利的降雨量超過 400 毫米（15.7 英寸）。一名 38 歲的男子在 1 月的 Nahariya 洪水中喪生，此前他試圖拯救被困在翻倒的汽車中的人。
在以色列可以做的一些願望清單中，Tal 表示，加入電動汽車是可以實現的一大步，除了為環境保護部提供更多人員外，立即處理 Nahariya 等地的排水問題，以及在不可避免的野火季節之前準備好更多的飛機和資源。
外交部表示，國家目標包括交通運輸碳排放量減少 96%，電力部門減少 85%，城市垃圾部門減少 92%。
據水務局稱，到 21 世紀末，降水量有可能減少 10%。降雨分佈的變化可能導致水源補給減少，同時也將面臨鹽度增加的問題。約旦河——基尼雷特湖（加利利海）的主要水源——預計整個世紀將減少 22%。
根據國際監測系統，自 1920 年代初以來，降雨量或降雨量的季節性分佈沒有顯著變化。但2000年以來，降雨分佈發生了一些變化，表現為北方平均降雨量減少，南方平均降雨量增加，暴雨量和強度增加。
以色列的海平面也繼續上升 10 毫米。每年，預計最終會影響到該國的所有海岸線。隨著海平面繼續上升，預計水位線將下降，直至到達海岸懸崖，海岸懸崖可能會受到破壞。這將對位於海岸的所有建築物和遺產地以及需要搬遷的工廠產生影響。
水中鹽度的預期增加，特別是對於 Kinneret 湖，將使水更難使用。因此，各部委預計地表水將成為一種資源，以犧牲地下水為代價。
贊德伯格於 6 月接任環境保護部負責人，一直敦促為 2018 年啟動的氣候變化準備理事會提供更多資金。
然而，獲得足夠的資金對董事會來說是一個挑戰。它在 4 月份的一份報告中要求為短期氣候變化準備項目提供 25 億新謝克爾。塔爾說，這場危機需要更多資金用於適當的人員配備和預防措施。
How our home is slowly becoming uninhabitable
CLIMATE AFFAIRS: The pressure is on Israel to make up for lost time and resources in the wake of climate change.
SEPTEMBER 16, 2021 23:18
BLANKETS COVER parts of the glacier to protect it against melting on Mount Titlis near the Alpine resort of Engelberg, Switzerland, last month.
(photo credit: ARND WIEGMANN / REUTERS)
As the fires raged on in Jerusalem in July and August this year, it was an occurrence all too familiar for the region’s residents, yet one that has become increasingly exacerbated. The smell of smoke lingering for longer in the city and the dark clouds taking over the skyline served as a reminder that nature still trumps all.
This summer in particular, however, has seen Israel finally take its opportunity to grapple with climate change, even if means baby steps to save its home.
“Israel isn’t prepared to tackle climate change; there’s no question about it,” Galit Cohen, the Environmental Protection Ministry director-general, said earlier this summer. “We have to prepare… in order to avoid the hell expected for us if we do nothing, we have to work on reducing [greenhouse emissions],” Cohen told Channel 12 News on July 31.
Cohen was pressing politicians to allocate more funding for climate action in the upcoming state budget. This year has seen a number of proposals for more funding dedicated to climate change, with hopes that a new government will move forward with a budget.
The government announced on July 25 that by 2050 it would reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 85% from 2015 levels, as part of an international push to limit global warming.
The government then set an interim target of 2030 to reduce emissions by 27% from levels in 2015, the year when global climate accords were agreed in Paris. The Paris deal aims to limit global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius, and preferably by 1.5 degrees Celsius, compared with preindustrial levels.
“We set significant goals, we met our international commitment on time and, most importantly, we mobilized the entire government,” Environmental Protection Minister Tamar Zandberg (Meretz Party) said during the announcement.
“The Israeli government made a decision on July 25; it was a historic decision,” said Blue and White MK Alon Tal. “Which is not to be dismissive of what the government is doing; to reach a goal of 90.5% in carbon emission is unprecedented.” However, Israel can do more and reach higher in its goals, like the rest of the Western world, Tal said. “[US President Joe] Biden is committed to 100% [in carbon emission] by 2035. Israel is not even in the same ballpark,” he said.
The UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on climate change was released August 11, and provided no indications of straying from Earth’s climate change path. The report finds that the land surface will continue to warm more than the ocean surface (1.4 to 1.7 times more), and the Arctic will continue to warm more than global surface temperature – at more than twice the rate of global warming.
Ahead of the IPCC report’s release, climate change continued to dominate the conversation. US Vice President Kamala Harris spoke on the phone with President Isaac Herzog on August 9, with much of the reported conversation focused on climate change, according to the readout, specifically on water scarcity, and the frequency and intensity of fires, such as those in the Western US.
With every additional increment of global warming, changes in extremes continue to become larger. For example, every additional 0.5°C of global warming causes clearly discernible increases in the intensity and frequency of hot extremes, including heat waves and heavy precipitation, as well as agricultural and ecological droughts, according to the report.
According to an IPCC report published in November 2018, global warming should be limited to an average of 1.5 degrees. However, temperatures in Israel are expected to be higher than the global average. This can cause more extreme phenomena, such as nighttime temperatures that could warm at a higher rate than daytime temperatures in Israel, as well as more frequent, harsher and more prolonged heat waves.
A troubling forecast
The Environmental Protection Ministry makes loud and clear the looming issues that are endangering Israel, and what’s at stake in very real numbers.
Since 2000, extreme heat waves in Israel have been at least 6 degrees higher than the average temperature for more than three consecutive days.
The Israel Meteorological Service (IMS) has also published a report on extreme weather events that pointed to an overall warming trend all over the country. The rate of warming is particularly higher in the country’s western regions – the Coastal Plain, lowlands and the northern Negev.
An increase in the temperature and in the strength of rainstorms will require new preparations, with regard to infrastructure, the preparedness of local authorities, and measures to increase the resilience of ecosystems. As a result of increased warming, there may be longer dry seasons and there may be droughts, urban heat islands, dry rivers, and fires.
Heavy rainfall in short periods of time also mean more flooding of lands – especially in cities – and land erosion. The danger of flooding is generally higher in cities because most of the land is not exposed, thus water cannot seep into the ground.
This became a particularly relevant issue earlier this year for Nahariya, which saw heavy flooding following torrential rains. January’s rainfall broke a 51-year record of rainfall within a two-week period, with more than 400 millimeters (15.7 inches) of rain in the Western and Upper Galilee. A 38-year-old man died in the Nahariya floods in January, after he tried to save trapped people in an overturned car.
“I’m very glad that Israel has decided to come to the table,” Tal said. “We’re trying our best, but not enough. There are certain areas [in which] we can do more.”
Among the wish list of items that Israel could do to catch up, Tal said incorporating electric vehicles is a huge step that is attainable, in addition to providing more staffing to the Environmental Protection Ministry, handling the drainage issues in places such as Nahariya immediately, as well as having more planes and resources ready ahead of the inevitable wildfire season.
The Foreign Ministry said national targets include a 96% reduction in carbon emissions from transport, an 85% reduction from the electricity sector and a 92% reduction in the municipal waste sector.
As for the forecasted changes ahead of Israel, various agencies have managed to put together a picture of how the region will continue to see challenges.
According to the Water Authority, there is a likelihood of a 10% reduction in precipitation by the end of the 21st century. The change in rainfall distribution could lead to decreased replenishment of water sources, which will also face increased salinity. The flow of the Jordan River – the main water source of Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee) – is expected to decrease by up to 22% throughout this century.
According to the IMS, there has been no significant change in rainfall or the seasonal distribution of rainfall since the early 1920s. However, since 2000, there has been some change in the rainfall distribution, characterized by a decrease in the average rainfall in the North and an increase in the average rainfall in the South, as well as an increase in the volume and intensity of rainstorms.
Israel’s sea level also continues to rise by 10 mm. per year, which is expected to ultimately affect all of the country’s coastline. As the sea level continues to rise, the water line is expected to recede until it reaches the coastal cliffs, and the coastal cliffs may see damage. This would then have an impact on all the buildings and heritage sites located on the coast, as well as factories, which would need to move.
The increase in average temperature and decrease in precipitation will affect crop quality and quantity, livestock functions, such as milk yields, and cause decreases in fish thanks to the sea warming’s potentially harmful effect on Israel’s marine ecological life.
For Israel’s residents, climatic changes also spell potential troubles in food security and for vulnerable populations. Heat waves can be harmful for the elderly, children and chronically ill patients. With climatic stress events damaging food resources, food security becomes a more looming challenge.
A projected water shortage also means more pressure on our current water sources. As more water will need to be pumped from rivers and streams, the less water those sources will have (also with the projected rainfall decrease), and this will damage ecosystems connected to those rivers and streams.
The expected increase of salinity in the water, particularly for Lake Kinneret, will make the water more difficult to use. The ministries therefore expect that surface water will become a resource, at the expense of groundwater.
Luckily, the environment is a shared issue and not one that’s become partisan within Israel, Tal said.
Zandberg, who took over as head of the Environmental Protection Ministry in June, has been urging for better funding for the Climate Change Preparedness Directorate, which was initiated in 2018.
However, securing enough funding has been a challenge for the directorate. It asked for NIS 2.5 billion in a report in April for short-term climate change preparedness projects. The crisis demands even more funding for proper staffing and preventative measures, Tal said.
“Thank heavens, climate is not a partisan issue and doesn’t exist on any side of the political divide, which means we can actually do something,” he said.
The writer is a PhD of Desert Studies from the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
2021 年 9 月 15 日 09:14
2019 年 10 月 1 日在中國北京舉行的國慶日慶祝中華人民共和國成立 70 週年的遊行中，表演者走過天安門廣場，旁邊是展示已故中國主席毛澤東的花車（圖片來源：REUTERS/JASON LEE）
士兵們在一小群記者面前，在飽受衝突蹂躪的虛構國家 Carana 上演了恐怖分子與維和人員之間的衝突。
此次演習是基於 2016 年在馬里發生的一起事件，當時中國維和人員遭到襲擊，其中一名被殺。
部隊還根據 2016 年在南蘇丹發生的另一起事件重新演繹了一個場景，當時維和人員必須保護捲入派系之間戰鬥的平民。
China shows off defense diplomacy with multinational peacekeeping drill
About 1,000 troops from China, Pakistan, Mongolia and Thailand participated in the 10-day exercise at a People's Liberation Army training base in Queshan county.
SEPTEMBER 15, 2021 09:14
Military personnel speaks on his walkie-talkie before a military helicopter from Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force during the China Helicopter Exposition in Tianjin
(photo credit: REUTERS)
China's armed forces concluded their first multinational peacekeeping exercise on Wednesday, showing off their combat prowess with drones and mine-clearing robots while seeking to project a more benign image.
As the Asian giant modernizes and beefs up its military by pumping hundreds of billions of dollars annually into its defense budget, it has also strived to assure other countries that its military is a force for good, not a threat.
About 1,000 troops from China, Pakistan, Mongolia and Thailand participated in the 10-day exercise at a People's Liberation Army training base in Queshan county in the central province of Henan, though most of the soldiers appeared to be Chinese.
The exercise, codenamed "Shared Destiny 2021," underscored China's position as a "staunch defender of world peace and international order," Senior Colonel Lu Jianxin, a Chinese military expert on peacekeeping, told reporters at the base.
Performers travel past Tiananmen Square next to a float showing late Chinese chairman Mao Zedong during the parade marking the 70th founding anniversary of People's Republic of China, on its National Day in Beijing, China October 1, 2019 (credit: REUTERS/JASON LEE)
The soldiers, in front of a small group of journalists, enacted clashes between terrorists and peacekeepers in the strife-torn fictitious country of Carana.
The exercise was based on a 2016 incident in Mali when Chinese peacekeepers were attacked and one of them was killed.
The troops also reenacted a scene based on another 2016 incident in South Sudan, when peacekeepers had to protect civilians caught up in fighting between factions.
In another scenario, drones buzzed the battlefield to spot bombs, which when found were disposed of by robots. Drones also doubled up as loudspeakers and released multi-colored leaflets to urge people to stop fighting.
The exercise was also a showcase for Chinese military hardware. The foreign troops trained with Chinese weapons and other equipment.
"The use of Chinese equipment by foreign troops can be touted as a sign of enhanced military interoperability … and also for the purpose of marketing them to foreign militaries," said Collin Koh, a defense research fellow with Singapore's Rajaratnam School of International Studies.
China has repeatedly sought to dispel worries in neighboring countries and further afield about its military intentions, even as it drills regularly near Chinese-claimed Taiwan and in the disputed South China Sea.
China takes prides in being the largest contributor of peacekeeping troops among major powers as represented by the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council.
As the second largest financial contributor, China footed 15% of the total expenses for U.N. peacekeeping operations in 2020.
Since 1990, it has sent 50,000 troops to participate in 25 peacekeeping missions globally, built or fixed 17,000 km (10,600 miles) of roads and more than 300 bridges, and removed 18,000 mined, said expert Lu.
美國將控制 1.3 億美元。埃及對人權的軍事援助
2021 年 9 月 15 日 07:37
包括一名美國官員在內的兩名熟悉此事的消息人士稱，拜登政府將扣留對埃及的價值 1.3 億美元的軍事援助，以向這個阿拉伯盟友施壓以改善其人權記錄。
但一位不願透露姓名的官員表示，部分資金，即 1.3 億美元，現在將因人權問題而被扣留，但如果埃及改善其記錄，將在未來財政年度提供。
2021 年 7 月 28 日，美國國務卿安東尼·布林肯和印度外交部長蘇布拉馬尼亞姆·賈尚卡爾在印度新德里的賈瓦哈拉爾·尼赫魯·巴萬 (JNB) 舉行聯合新聞發布會（圖片來源：路透社）
十多個人權組織在 4 月份的一封信中告訴布林肯，如果他拒絕發放資金，“美國將發出明確的信息，表明它對支持海外人權的承諾是認真的。”
塞西於 2013 年推翻了穆斯林兄弟會，監督了近年來加強對異議人士的鎮壓。他否認埃及有政治犯，並表示穩定和安全是最重要的。
喬拜登總統已承諾將人權置於其外交政策的核心位置，權利倡導者一直在推動華盛頓對塞西採取更強硬的態度，儘管在開羅發揮調解作用以幫助結束 4 月份以色列和以色列之間的敵對行動後，與埃及的關係有所改善。哈馬斯武裝分子。
US to hold $130m. of Egypt's military aid over human rights
Secretary of State Antony Blinken's planned move is a break with his predecessors' policy of overriding a congressional check on military aid to Egypt.
SEPTEMBER 15, 2021 07:37
US Egypt protests 520
(photo credit: AP)
The Biden administration will withhold $130 million worth of military aid to Egypt in order to pressure the Arab ally to improve its human rights record, two sources familiar with the matter, including a US official, said.
Secretary of State Antony Blinken's planned move is a break with his predecessors' policy of overriding a congressional check on military aid to Egypt. In the past, an exception was granted to free up $300 million in Foreign Military Financing for Abdel Fattah al-Sisi's government on that argument that it was in the interest of US national security.
But a portion of the financing, $130 million, will now be withheld on human rights concerns but will be available in future fiscal years if Egypt improves its record, the official who spoke on condition of anonymity said.
An announcement could come later this week, sources said.
A State Department spokesperson did not immediately respond to a request for comment. Politico had reported the move late on Monday.
US Secretary of State Antony Blinken and India's Minister of External Affairs Subrahmanyam Jaishankar hold a joint news conference at Jawaharlal Nehru Bhawan (JNB) in New Delhi, India July 28, 2021 (credit: REUTERS)
More than a dozen rights groups told Blinken in a letter in April that if he refused to release the funds "the United States will send a clear message that it is serious about its commitment to supporting human rights abroad."
Sisi, who ousted the Muslim Brotherhood in 2013, has overseen a crackdown on dissent that has tightened in recent years. He denies there are political prisoners in Egypt and says stability and security are paramount.
President Joe Biden has pledged to put human rights at the heart of his foreign policy and rights advocates have been pushing Washington to get tougher on Sisi, even though ties with Egypt had improved after Cairo's mediation role to help end the hostilities in April between Israel and Hamas militants.
政治事務：Emilie Moatti 開始了她的新角色，專注於外交政策和公共外交。
2021 年 9 月 16 日 23:44
其 MKs 經常前往世界各地參加會議，代表以色列並解釋其政策。
來自各個政治領域的 MK 利用此類事件來建立他們作為以色列捍衛者的明星力量，包括未來的外交官 Tzipi Hotovely 和 Danny Danon、現任 MK Sharren Haskel 和前 MK Einat Wilf。
當世界從大流行中恢復過來時，以色列議會成員不再遍布全球，但以色列議會的國際宣傳並未停止，工黨 MK Emilie Moatti 打算以她獨特的方式領導它。
現在，確保外交部正常運作並代表以色列本人將成為 Moatti 工作的一部分。
“這是代表九百萬人的巨大責任，”莫阿蒂說。“我認識安妮·伊達爾戈和瑪爾塔·格蘭德是朋友，但這是我第一次正式見到他們。我不是作為 Emilie 來的，而是作為以色列的官方代表來的。我不能生氣或笑。我知道我的話很重要。”
“以色列沒有官方的國家對外關係世界觀，”她感嘆道。“但 Yair Lapid 決定向世界開啟新的一頁。我們將加強與世界的對話，而不是敵對，關注我們的共同利益。”
即使在戰略事務部關閉後，Moatti 表示仍有太多政府辦公室處理反猶太主義和 BDS 運動。她說，所有這些努力都應由外交部處理，並為以色列發言人準備統一的公共外交政策和信息檔案。
“我從沒想過我會在 Bennett 領導下或與他結盟，但他是我的總理，”她說。“這是以色列的奇蹟政府，我們擁有議會民主制。我對首相很滿意。他發生了什麼事。當右翼上台時，除了內塔尼亞胡之外，他們會變得更好。他們突然意識到自己在哪裡，不能再胡說八道了。他們的話是有代價的。”
Moatti 對美國總統喬·拜登的政策感到滿意，並無視紐約眾議員亞歷山大·奧卡西奧·科爾特斯等邊緣人士，以及與拒絕停止銷售的以色列特許經營商違約的 Ben & Jerry 冰淇淋董事會越過 1967 年之前的邊界。
Meet the Knesset’s new foreign envoy
POLITICAL AFFAIRS: Emilie Moatti embarks on her new role focusing on foreign policy and public diplomacy.
By GIL HOFFMAN
SEPTEMBER 16, 2021 23:44
EMILIE MOATTI: We can’t be a nation that dwells alone and simultaneously a light unto the nations.
(photo credit: FLASH90)
Before the corona era began, the Knesset played a critical role in Israel’s public diplomacy.
Its MKs frequently traveled around the world to conferences, where they represented Israel and explained its policies.
MKs from across the political spectrum used such events to build their star power as defenders of Israel, including future diplomats Tzipi Hotovely and Danny Danon, current MK Sharren Haskel, and former MK Einat Wilf.
Knesset members are no longer crisscrossing the globe while the world recovers from the pandemic, but the Knesset’s international outreach has not stopped, and Labor MK Emilie Moatti intends to lead it, in her unique way.
Moatti was formally appointed on Sunday to head the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee’s Subcommittee on Foreign Policy and Public Diplomacy. The subcommittee will deal with Israel’s foreign relations with countries, international institutions, and organizations; monitor its public diplomacy efforts; and provide parliamentary oversight for cabinet ministries that deal with such issues, most notably the Foreign Ministry.
She is also the head of the Knesset’s delegation to the European Council, and the chair of the Friendship caucuses with France and Belgium.
The oldest of six children of Tunisian descent raised in a religious home in Netanya, Moatti worked and studied in France before returning to Israel and advising politicians and parties. She served as spokeswoman for Reuven Rivlin when he was elected president, advised the Hatnua Party of Tzipi Livni, and her company worked with the Association for Civil Rights in Israel, the Geneva Initiative, the French embassy in Israel, and a controversial three months advising the Joint List and its Balad Party.
A mother of two daughters, she met her husband, veteran diplomat Daniel Shek, when he was ambassador to France. Her husband’s father, Ze’ev Shek, was one of the founders of the Foreign Ministry, served as ambassador to Rome, and was the personal secretary of Moshe Sharett, Israel’s first foreign minister.
Now it will be part of Moatti’s job to make sure the Foreign Ministry is run properly and to represent Israel herself.
In an interview with The Jerusalem Post this week, Moatti said she is excited and humbled to embark on the task. In her first trip abroad in her role, she will meet with her Italian counterpart Marta Grande, and Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo.
“It is a tremendous responsibility representing nine million people,” Moatti said. “I have known Anne Hidalgo and Marta Grande as friends, but this is my first time meeting them officially. I am not coming as Emilie but as an official representative of Israel. I can’t get angry or laugh. I know my words matter.”
Ahead of her appointment, Moatti met with Foreign Ministry Director-General Alon Ushpiz, Foreign Minister Yair Lapid’s diplomatic adviser Yair Zivan, and current and former ambassadors. She drafted a document on Israeli diplomacy for the decade ahead that deals with how to tell the story of Israel and improve the Foreign Ministry.
“Israel has no official national worldview of foreign relations,” she lamented. “But Yair Lapid decided to open a new page with the world. Instead of being adversarial, we will be increasing dialogue with the world focusing on our mutual interests.”
Even after the closure of the Strategic Affairs Ministry, Moatti said there were still too many government offices that deal with the fight against antisemitism and the BDS movement. She said all such efforts should be handled by the Foreign Ministry, with a united public diplomacy policy and archive of information ready for Israel’s spokespeople.
“It used to be that when the foreign press wanted someone to speak for Israel, there was an authorized list,” she said. “Now any donkey on Youtube speaks for the country and talks without knowledge or nuance. They need to be given knowledge by official diplomatic and security sources. There is a smart way for a country to portray itself to the world.”
From Moatti’s point of view, former prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu wrongly portrayed Israel as a “nation that dwells alone” that must constantly defend itself and justify its existence.
“We can’t be a nation that dwells alone and simultaneously a light unto the nations,” she said. “We are strong, and our existence is no longer in doubt. We shouldn’t broadcast victimhood. We should go back to routine diplomacy. Not every meeting needs a big press conference afterward. This is a government of responsible adults.”
Moatti praised Lapid for presenting a plan for the economic development of the Gaza Strip in return for stopping terror. She said Israel should draft the world to implement Lapid’s plan, which she said was similar to what Likud politician Israel Katz had proposed in the past.
Despite Prime Minister Naftali Bennett’s worldview being different from hers, Moatti said she had no problem speaking for him and explaining his policies around the world.
“I never thought I’d be in a coalition under Bennett or with him, but he is my prime minister,” she said. “This is a miracle government of Israel, and we have a parliamentary democracy. I am satisfied with the prime minister. Something happened to him. When right-wingers come to power, other than Netanyahu, they change for the better. They realize all of a sudden where they are, and that they can’t speak nonsense anymore. There is a price for their words.”
When Bennett walks to his seat in the Knesset plenum and passes Moatti’s front-row seat, she says “Hello Mr. Prime Minister,” respecting his role.
Moatti is convinced that after the world becomes more vaccinated, parliamentary diplomacy will come back. She is looking forward to a Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee visit to the United States next summer.
She is pleased that the current government is making an effort to restore its objectively bipartisan relationship with the US, after she said Netanyahu’s government was “extraordinarily in favor of Donald Trump,” which she said “divided us from US Jews.”
Moatti is pleased with the policies of US President Joe Biden, and disregards those on the fringes like New York Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, and the board of Ben & Jerry’s ice cream that broke a contract with its Israeli franchisee who refused to stop selling over the pre-1967 border.
“Boycotts don’t serve anyone, and won’t impact Israeli policies to the Palestinians,” she said. “My worldview doesn’t depend on what an American legislator thinks. Those who like us like us. There is no point in wasting time on fringes who don’t like us. Those on the fringes will continue to believe what they believe. Those who are antisemitic won’t change, but there aren’t a lot of them. Most of the world is indifferent.”
Asked about Lapid’s treatment of Poland following the passage of its new Holocaust restitution law, Moatti said Israel must consider its deep commitment to the Jewish people when deciding how to implement its policies.
“National interests are not just economic ties and votes at the UN,” she said. “If they don’t understand our narrative and what we really care about, maybe they aren’t so supportive. If they were friends, we could tell them the truth. The times when we looked away and accepted antisemitic policies are gone.”
By contrast, she praised France, whose citizenship she had to relinquish when she joined the Knesset four months ago. She said French President Emmanuel Macron was right to set aside divisive issues and focus on matters that unite, just as Israel’s government set out to do at the outset.
Moatti said her subcommittee would be a safe space to evaluate the Foreign Ministry. If there will be criticism, it will be constructive and positive. She said the Foreign Ministry was changing for the better, but still had a long way to go and could be overseen with “dialogue and sechel (wisdom).”
“Statesmanship is back,” she said. “I am a small screw in an eternal nation and it cannot be taken lightly. Our values open doors, not close them. This generation was not raised on hate, so they can speak at eye level. We have a lot to learn and a lot to teach.”
巴勒斯坦權力機構決定自 2017 年以來首次於 12 月在西岸和加沙地帶舉行市政選舉。
2021 年 9 月 16 日 21:38
（圖片來源：IBRAHEEM ABU MUSTAFA/REUTERS）
巴勒斯坦權力機構決定於 12 月在西岸和加沙地帶舉行市政選舉，這是自 2017 年以來的首次。
巴勒斯坦權力機構政府宣布，第一階段選舉將於 12 月 11 日在西岸和哈馬斯統治的加沙地帶的 388 個市鎮和村委會舉行。選舉的第二階段將在稍後舉行。
巴勒斯坦權力機構主席馬哈茂德·阿巴斯取消了原定於 5 月 22 日和 7 月 30 日舉行的巴勒斯坦權力機構議會和總統選舉。原定於 8 月下旬舉行的巴解組織立法機構巴勒斯坦全國委員會的選舉也被無限期推遲。
美國國務卿安東尼·布林肯在拉馬拉會見巴勒斯坦民族權力機構主席馬哈茂德·阿巴斯（圖片來源：MAJDI MOHAMMED/POOL VIA REUTERS）
即將舉行的選舉的選民登記將在 10 月 3 日至 7 日期間進行，而候選人將能夠在 10 月 26 日至 11 月 4 日期間提交候選人資格。競選活動將於 11 月 27 日開始，持續到 12 月 9 日，也就是投票前兩天。
即將舉行的選舉將是巴勒斯坦權力機構 1994 年成立以來的第四次選舉。
據該委員會稱，上屆市政選舉的參與比例達到了 53.9%，與 2012 年選舉的 53.8% 的比例非常接近。
2012 年的選舉也是在沒有哈馬斯參與的情況下舉行的。哈馬斯一直抵制巴勒斯坦選舉，直到 2005 年其候選人取得重大成就。
Palestinians to hold municipal elections in December
The Palestinian Authority has decided to hold municipal elections in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in December for the first time since 2017.
SEPTEMBER 16, 2021 21:38
HAMAS SUPPORTERS in Gaza take part in a protest against Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas’s decision to postpone parliamentary elections, last week.
(photo credit: IBRAHEEM ABU MUSTAFA/REUTERS)
The Palestinian Authority has decided to hold municipal elections in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in December, for the first time since 2017.
The first phase of the elections will be held on December 11 for 388 municipalities and village councils in the West Bank and the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip, the PA government announced. The second phase of the elections will be held at a later date.
However, it was not clear on Thursday whether Hamas would allow the elections to take place in the Gaza Strip.
In June, the PA government dissolved the elected municipal and village councils after their term expired and turned them into caretaker committees under the supervision of the Ministry of Local Government until new elections are held before the end of the year.
Elections for the PA Parliament and presidency, which were supposed to take place on May 22 and July 30, respectively, were called off by PA President Mahmoud Abbas. Elections for the PLO’s legislative body, the Palestinian National Council, which were scheduled for late August, were also indefinitely postponed.
On Wednesday, the Palestinian Central Elections Commission discussed the PA government’s decision to hold the municipal elections.
US Secretary of State Antony Blinken meets with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas in Ramallah (credit: MAJDI MOHAMMED/POOL VIA REUTERS)
The head of the commission, Hanna Nasser said that he sent a letter to PA Prime Minister Mohammad Shtayyeh informing him that holding elections in the Gaza Strip “requires political approval” from Hamas.
Voter registration for the upcoming elections will take place between October 3 and 7, while candidates will be able to present their candidacy from October 26 to November 4. Electoral campaigning will begin on November 27 and last until December 9, two days before the vote.
The upcoming elections will be the fourth since the establishment of the PA in 1994.
In 2017, Hamas refused to allow the elections to take place in the Gaza Strip on the grounds that it had not been consulted about the decision to hold the vote. Hamas also protested a ruling by the Palestinian Supreme Court ruled that the Hamas-controlled courts in the Gaza Strip did not have jurisdiction to rule on electoral matters.
According to the commission, the percentage of participation in the last municipal elections reached 53.9%, which is very close to the percentage of the 2012 elections of 53.8%.
The 2012 elections were also held without the participation of Hamas. Hamas had boycotted Palestinian elections until 2005, when its candidates scored major achievements.
出生於維也納的 Ephraim Einhorn 在一生的秘密任務和自我宣傳的幫助下發展了台北社區，在贖罪日前幾個小時去世
通過JORDYN HAIME今天，晚上 7:31
拉比 Ephraim Einhorn 與台灣猶太社區成員在 2017 年的 99 歲生日派對上。（Zoy Chang 提供）
以法蓮·艾因霍恩 (Ephraim Einhorn) 是一名拉比和商人，在其職業生涯包括為受壓迫的猶太人執行秘密任務後，他領導了台灣剛剛起步的猶太社區，現已去世。
艾因霍恩於週三早上在台北去世，就在贖罪日開始前幾個小時，他是在長期患病和數週間歇性住院之後。三天前，他已滿 103 歲。
艾因霍恩是台灣第一位常駐拉比，也是 30 年來唯一一位為目前約有 700 至 800 名猶太人的社區服務的拉比。他還是一位教師、外交官、商人、學者和父親，其個性顯得尤為突出。
“他有時對人不耐煩，可能會令人生畏。但與此同時，你會感覺到在那層下面有很多善良和同情，”台灣猶太社區團體前主席唐夏皮羅說，他在 1980 年代初第一次見到艾因霍恩。“所以他是一個非常複雜的人。我想我從來沒有遇到過像他這樣親近的人。”
他於 1918 年出生於維也納，在移居英國之前，他曾在歐洲的幾所猶太學校就讀。（他留在奧地利的父母被納粹殺害。）根據他的複述，他不是通過常規申請獲得錄取，而是通過他成熟的知識和對他拉比父親鼓勵他的諺語的非凡回憶給拉比留下深刻印象為了紀念他年輕的時候。
在獲得拉比任命和已解散的倫敦猶太學院的哲學博士學位後，艾因霍恩開始與世界猶太人大會合作，首先是在英國，後來在美國，在那裡他同時作為拉比領導了幾個會眾1940 年代後期到 1950 年代。
他在世界猶太人大會 (WJC) 的職位包括“經常秘密訪問北非和中東國家，試圖幫助面臨迫害的猶太少數族裔社區”，美國台北美國商會表示，該公司向艾因霍恩致敬在 2016 年。
根據 WJC 檔案，在 1951 年對伊拉克的一次訪問中，艾因霍恩假扮成一名新教部長，調查一群據稱因猶太復國主義者而遭受酷刑的伊拉克猶太人。艾因霍恩向底特律當地報紙吹噓他的使命，當時他在那裡擔任拉比，儘管他沒有被授權公開討論它。
WJC 高級官員莫里斯·珀爾茨威格 (Maurice Perlzweig) 當時表示，他“熱衷於宣傳”。在接下來的幾年裡，艾因霍恩仍然參與該組織，但佩爾茨威格寫信給其他官員說，該組織將不再支持他頻繁的國際旅行，因為“如果他被放任，有無限可能的惡作劇”。
到接下來的十年，艾因霍恩開始從事商業活動，這些活動將帶他前往遙遠的地方，否則通常很難到達。他於 1968 年創立了世界專利貿易公司，並在他有親戚的布拉格鐵幕後開設了辦事處。但根據當時猶太電訊社的一份報告，到 1973 年，他因蘇聯領導人所說的“與國家利益不相容”但沒有公開詳細說明的活動而被捷克斯洛伐克驅逐出境。
1975 年，艾因霍恩作為科威特貿易代表團的財務顧問抵達台北。已經將近 60 歲的艾因霍恩有著令人印象深刻的履歷。他會說七種語言（雖然他從未學過中文），見了人，他遞給新熟人一摞名片：海外共和黨主席、華沙世貿中心副總裁、華沙世貿中心名譽代表。波蘭商會等等。
從左到右：艾因霍恩、時任台北市長馬英九和台灣駐以色列代表楊潤東，攝於 2000 年代初期。（禮貌：以法蓮·艾因霍恩）
“他在過去不是很受歡迎，人們對在阿拉伯國家工作的人有點懷疑，”前長期社區成員 Fiona Chitayat 說。
“他與一些前東歐國家的關係非常密切，他親自幫助我們在那裡的外交官，”曾在台灣外交部工作的倫納德·趙(Leonard Chao)說。在 1980 年代末和 1990 年代初，Einhorn 幫助台灣與波蘭、捷克共和國和匈牙利等國家建立了早期聯繫。
艾因霍恩一向是中心舞台，他於 1979 年在總統酒店開設了自己的會眾，後來又在麗茲酒店開設了自己的會眾。在 2000 年左右與台灣猶太社區聯手後，當 Chabad Rabbi Shlomi Tabib 於 2011 年抵達並提出合作時，他選擇將他的會眾分開。
艾因霍恩帶領台灣猶太人敬拜了四十多年，即使參加禮拜的人數在 2000 年代減少到許多祈禱所需的 10 人以下，而且他的健康狀況最近開始下降。
“我是拉比、沙馬什和財務主管。我支付所有賬單，”艾因霍恩在 2007 年告訴 JTA。“總得有人來做。”
台灣猶太社區活動吸引了來自當地社區的參與者，甚至包括今年春天的現場逾越節家宴，這是世界上唯一受制裁的公共家宴之一，因為當時台灣對 COVID-19 進行了很好的控制。艾因霍恩在場。
台灣猶太社區 2021 年普珥節派對的合影，那裡不需要戴口罩。在左前方可以看到坐在輪椅上的拉比 Ephraim Einhorn。(阿奇張)
“我們必須非常感謝 [Einhorn] 保留了在台灣繼續存在的猶太人生活元素，”夏皮羅說。“如果沒有他在查巴德之前的存在，幾十年之後，事情就會大不相同。”
“博士。在我看來，艾因霍恩是過去 50 年來讓猶太社區保持一致的一件事，隨著台灣猶太社區進入一個新時代，許多人都會錯過它，”美國商人杰弗裡施瓦茨說。自 1970 年代抵達以來一直參與社區活動，並將於今年冬天在台北開設一個新的猶太社區中心。
“有些人買衣服，有些女士買包。他買書。這是他唯一花錢買的東西，”與艾因霍恩關係密切的以色列社區成員約拉姆·阿羅尼 (Yoram Ahrony) 說。
研究員喬納森·戈德斯坦 (Jonathan Goldstein) 將艾因霍恩描述為社區講故事的人，稱他為“台北的馬吉德”。
2010 年，宗教學者 Paul Farrelly 與 Einhorn 進行的一次採訪顯示了他的開放哲學和對教學的熱情。
他將被安葬在以色列的佩塔提克瓦 (Petah Tikvah)，並由他的長期伴侶 Eugenia Chien 倖存下來；他與露絲·溫伯格 (Ruth Weinberg) 結婚後育有兩個女兒達芙娜 (Daphna) 和沙龍 (Sharone)，居住在美國；孫子和曾孫。
Taiwan’s longtime rabbi, whose life brimmed with global intrigue, dies at 103
Vienna-born Ephraim Einhorn, who developed Taipei community after a lifetime of clandestine missions and a helping of self-publicity, passes away hours before Yom Kippur
By JORDYN HAIMEToday, 7:31 pm
Rabbi Ephraim Einhorn with members of the Taiwan Jewish Community group at his 99th birthday party in 2017. (Courtesy of Zoy Chang)
Ephraim Einhorn, a rabbi and businessman who helmed Taiwan’s fledgling Jewish community after a career that included clandestine missions on behalf of oppressed Jews, has died.
Einhorn’s death on Wednesday morning in Taipei, just hours before the beginning of Yom Kippur, came after an extended illness and weeks of intermittent hospitalizations. He had turned 103 three days earlier.
Einhorn was Taiwan’s first resident rabbi and, for 30 years, the only one to serve the community that now includes an estimated 700 to 800 Jews. He was also a teacher, diplomat, businessman, scholar and father whose personality loomed large.
“He was sometimes impatient with people and could be intimidating. But at the same time you felt underneath that layer there was a great deal of kindness and empathy,” said Don Shapiro, a former president of the Taiwan Jewish Community group, who first met Einhorn in the early 1980s. “So he was a very complex individual. I don’t think I’ve ever met anyone else even closely like him.”
Einhorn’s life spanned a century of upheaval and renewal for the Jewish people.
Born in Vienna in 1918, he attended several yeshivas across Europe before moving to the United Kingdom. (His parents, who remained in Austria, were murdered by the Nazis.) According to his retelling, he gained admission not by applying in the regular manner, but by impressing rabbis with his mature knowledge and remarkable recall of proverbs his rabbi father encouraged him to memorize when he was young.
After earning both rabbinic ordination and a doctorate in philosophy from a London yeshiva that is now defunct, Einhorn began working with the World Jewish Congress, first in England, and later in the United States, where he simultaneously led several congregations as a rabbi in the late 1940s through the 1950s.
Missions to North Africa, Middle East
His position with the World Jewish Congress (WJC) included “often-clandestine missions to countries in North Africa and the Middle East to try to help Jewish minority communities facing persecution,” according to AmCham Taipei, an American business group in Taiwan that honored Einhorn in 2016.
one mission to Iraq in 1951, according to WJC archives, Einhorn posed as a Protestant minister to investigate a group of Iraqi Jews who had allegedly been tortured under the suspicion of being Zionists. Einhorn boasted about the mission to local papers in Detroit, where he was serving as a rabbi at the time, even though he was not authorized to discuss it publicly.
He had a “passion for publicity,” a top WJC official, Maurice Perlzweig, said at the time. Einhorn remained involved in the organization in the following years, but Perlzweig wrote to other officials that the organization would no longer support his frequent international travels, as there was “an infinite possibility of mischief if he were let loose.”
By the next decade, Einhorn began pursuing business activities that would take him to far-flung, often otherwise hard-to-access locations. He founded the World Patent Trading Corporation in 1968 and opened an office behind the Iron Curtain in Prague, where he had relatives. But by 1973, he was expelled from Czechoslovakia for activities that Soviet leaders said were “incompatible with the interests of the State” but did not detail publicly, according to a Jewish Telegraphic Agency report from the time.
In 1975, Einhorn arrived in Taipei as a financial adviser on a Kuwaiti trade delegation. Already almost 60 years old, Einhorn had an impressive resume. He spoke seven languages (though he never learned Chinese), and upon meeting people, he handed new acquaintances a stack of roughly a dozen business cards: chairman of Republicans Abroad in Taiwan, vice president of the World Trade Center Warsaw, honorary representative of the Poland Chamber of Commerce, and on and on.
From left to right: Einhorn, then-Taipei mayor Ma Ying-jeou and Taiwan’s representative to Israel R.T. Yang, in the early 2000s. (Courtesy: Ephraim Einhorn)
Claiming center stage
When he began officiating bar mitzvahs and holding holiday services, some within the Jewish community were justifiably skeptical, as he didn’t tell people much about his past. Some wondered if he was working for Mossad or the Central Intelligence Agency, according to people who were part of the community at the time.
“He wasn’t very popular in the old days and people were a bit suspect about people working with Arab countries,” said Fiona Chitayat, a former longtime community member.
She added, “All I know is that he had unbelievable connections in Taiwan.”
Often, Einhorn used those connections to help people. He bailed fellow Jews out of jail, helped them resolve visa issues and once even helped arrange a special medical flight with the assistance of contacts he had met in his business and political ventures in Taiwan and beyond its borders.
“He was very closely related to some formerly Eastern European countries, and he personally went out of his way to help our diplomats there,” said Leonard Chao, who had previously worked for Taiwan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Einhorn helped Taiwan establish early connections with countries like Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary, among others, in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
Always one to claim center stage, Einhorn opened his own congregation in 1979 at the President Hotel, and later at the Ritz Hotel. After joining forces with the Taiwan Jewish Community around 2000, he chose to keep his congregation separate when Chabad Rabbi Shlomi Tabib arrived in 2011 and offered to work together.
Einhorn led Taiwan’s Jews in worship for more than four decades, even as the number attending services waned to fewer than the 10 required for many prayers for several years in the 2000s, and even as his health began to decline more recently.
“I am the rabbi, the shamash and the treasurer. And I pay all the bills,” Einhorn told JTA in 2007. “Somebody’s got to do it.”
Though he was trained as an Orthodox rabbi and worked in Orthodox synagogues in North America, Einhorn maintained a congregation that was open to all — including non-Jews who were interested in converting or even just observing.
Taiwan Jewish Community events drew attendees from across the local community and even included an in-person Passover seder this spring, one of the only sanctioned communal seders in the world because COVID-19 was well controlled in Taiwan at the time. Einhorn was present.
A group photo at the Jewish Community of Taiwan’s 2021 Purim party, where no masks were required. Rabbi Ephraim Einhorn, in a wheelchair, can be seen at the front left. (Archi Chang)
In 2019, as leading holidays and weekly services independently became more difficult for Einhorn, the community invited a cantor, Leon Fenster, who had previously spent time as a religious leader in Beijing, to assist him and help lead the community. Fenster will now take over for him.
“We have to be very grateful to [Einhorn] for having preserved the elements of Jewish life that have continued in Taiwan,” Shapiro said. “Without his presence here before Chabad, and over quite a few decades, things would have turned out very differently.”
The ‘maggid’ of Taipei
The community’s loss was still fresh in the hours after his death, when local Jews came together for Yom Kippur services, the first High Holiday without him in decades.
“Dr. Einhorn, in my opinion, was the one thing that gave consistency to the Jewish community over the past 50 years and will be missed by many as the Jewish Community of Taiwan moves into a new era,” said Jeffrey Schwartz, an American businessman who has been involved with the community since his arrival in the 1970s and will open a new Jewish community center in Taipei this winter.
Einhorn especially loved to learn and teach. His door was always open to people who had philosophical or religious questions, and his vast library — which Einhorn claimed was the biggest collection of Jewish books in Asia — was always on loan.
“Some people buy clothes, some ladies buy bags. He buys books. It was the only thing he spent his money on,” said Yoram Ahrony, an Israeli community member who has been close with Einhorn for almost 40 years.
Researcher Jonathan Goldstein described Einhorn as a community storyteller, calling him “the maggid of Taipei.”
An interview from 2010 that religious scholar Paul Farrelly conducted with Einhorn shows his philosophy of openness, and passion for learning by teaching.
“Everybody has something to say, to make a contribution. Everybody has a point of view,” Einhorn said. “To know what you don’t know is the beginning of wisdom… [the] most wonderful thing in the world is to say, tell me, I want to learn.”
He will be buried in Petah Tikvah, Israel, and is survived by his longtime companion Eugenia Chien; two daughters from his marriage to Ruth Weinberg, Daphna and Sharone, living in the US; grandchildren and great-grandchildren.