2021.09.28 國際新聞導讀-塔利班無法取得聯合國發言權與承認、國際刑事法院檢察官將調查塔利班與ISIS-K行為而略過美軍作為、亞塞拜然與亞美尼亞戰爭一年紀念、輝瑞將研發口服預防COVID-19藥物

16:22
 
分享
 

Manage episode 303280229 series 2948782
由Player FM以及我们的用户群所搜索的蘇育平 Yuping SU — 版权由出版商所拥有,而不是Player FM,音频直接从出版商的伺服器串流. 点击订阅按钮以查看Player FM更新,或粘贴收取点链接到其他播客应用程序里。

2021.09.28 國際新聞導讀-塔利班無法取得聯合國發言權與承認、國際刑事法院檢察官將調查塔利班與ISIS-K行為而略過美軍作為、亞塞拜然與亞美尼亞戰爭一年紀念、輝瑞將研發口服預防COVID-19藥物

由於阿富汗撤軍,塔利班可能從巴基斯坦獲得核武器-博爾頓

唐納德特朗普的前國家安全顧問表示,伊斯蘭主義者對巴基斯坦的潛在收購可能會提供核武器。

通過耶路撒冷郵報STAFF

2021 年 9 月 27 日 12:44

國家安全顧問約翰博爾頓在大衛王的新聞發布會上

(圖片來源:MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/耶路撒冷郵報)

廣告

美國前國家安全顧問約翰博爾頓週日在WABC 770電台表示,美國總統喬拜登廣受批評的從阿富汗撤軍可能導致該國新的伊斯蘭統治者塔利班從巴基斯坦獲得核武器。

曾在時任總統唐納德特朗普擔任國家安全顧問的博爾頓表示,如果伊斯蘭叛亂分子獲得這些核武器,有可能從巴基斯坦獲得這些核武器。

他批評拜登退出該國,這讓塔利班迅速接管,使其再次處於伊斯蘭統治之下。

自從擔任特朗普的國家安全顧問以來,博爾頓除了批評他的前任老闆之外,還成為美國外交政策的直言不諱的批評者。他還就美國對中東,尤其是伊朗的政策發表了自己的看法,並表示支持以色列為自身安全利益採取行動的權利。

特別是,他強烈支持對敵對政權,特別是伊朗和朝鮮進行先發製人的打擊。

在蘇格蘭附近看到的皇家海軍伏擊潛艇(圖片來源:對方提供)

然而,博爾頓也有很多值得稱讚的地方,尤其是在與澳大利亞的核潛艇交易方面

他解釋說,這筆交易是美國對中國做出更廣泛反應的一個例子。這並不意味著華盛頓正在向澳大利亞提供核導彈,而只是核潛艇。

“這些就是我們所說的獵殺潛艇,”博爾頓向 WABC 770 解釋說,這允許美國通過澳大利亞觀察中國,因為它建立了一支重要的海軍力量,理論上可以允許它追捕台灣或進入印度洋。

“這是我們在印度洋和太平洋向前邁出的一大步,”他說:“這是向中國發出的一個真實信號,表明我們決心不讓他們肆意妄為。”

Taliban could get nukes from Pakistan due to Afghan withdrawal - Bolton

Donald Trump's former national security advisor said a potential Islamist takeover of Pakistan could supply nuclear weapons.

By JERUSALEM POST STAFF

SEPTEMBER 27, 2021 12:44

US President Joe Biden's widely-criticized military withdrawal from Afghanistan could lead to the Taliban, the country's new Islamist rulers, obtaining nuclear weapons from Pakistan, former US national security advisor John Bolton said Sunday on the WABC 770 radio station.

Bolton, who served as national security advisor under then-President Donald Trump, said it was possible that these nuclear weapons could be obtained from Pakistan should Islamist insurgents get ahold of them.

He criticized Biden's withdrawal from the country, which allowed the Taliban to rapidly take over, bringing it once again under Islamist rule.

Since serving as Trump's national security advisor, Bolton has become a vocal critic of American foreign policy, in addition to being critical of his former boss. He has also been vocal in his views of US policies regarding the Middle East, especially Iran, and has expressed his support of Israel's right to act in its own security interests.

In particular, he has voiced strong support for preemptive strikes against hostile regimes, specifically Iran and North Korea.

Royal Navy ambush submarine seen near Scotland (credit: Courtesy)

Bolton also had plenty to compliment Biden for, however, specifically regarding the nuclear submarine deal with Australia.

The deal, he explained, was an example of a broader US response to China. This does not mean that Washington is giving Australia nuclear missiles, just nuclear submarines.

"These are what we call hunter-killer submarines," Bolton explained to WABC 770, saying that it allows the US through Australia to watch China as it builds up a significant naval force that could, in theory, allow it to go after Taiwan or enter the Indian Ocean.

“It’s a huge step forward for us in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean," he said: "It’s a real signal to China that we are determined not to let them just run wild.”

納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫戰爭:阿塞拜疆最後一次沖突亞美尼亞一年後

戰爭的後果,包括地緣政治的權力轉移和展示的無人機戰爭的危險,直到今天仍然可以感受到。

通過AARON REICH

2021 年 9 月 27 日 14:04

阿塞拜疆國防部發布的一段視頻中的靜態圖像顯示,阿塞拜疆武裝部隊成員在亞美尼亞和阿塞拜疆之間在納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫領土上的不明地點發生衝突時發射大砲,這張靜態圖像來自 2020 年 9 月 28 日發布的鏡頭

(圖片來源:阿塞拜疆國防部/路透社提供的資料)

廣告

2021 年 9 月 27 日是亞美尼亞和阿塞拜疆之間因有爭議的納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫地區爆發衝突的一年,這場衝突持續了一個多月,嚴重的地緣政治影響仍在繼續展開。

這場衝突的根源在於兩個核心小組地區鄰國之間長期存在的邊界爭端。納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫地區在亞美尼亞控制之下,但阿塞拜疆聲稱擁有主權。儘管阿塞拜疆的主權主張得到國際承認,但該地區實際上由亞美尼亞支持的獨立國家阿爾扎赫(也稱為納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫共和國)管轄。

兩國之前曾在該地區發生過戰爭,1988 年至 1994 年間爆發了長達七年的戰爭,之後停火結束。然而,兩國之間不斷升溫的緊張局勢始終居高不下。

2020年9月27日,兩人再次爆發戰鬥。不久,宣布戒嚴,雙方開始動員軍隊。

戰爭本身有兩個顯著因素:地緣政治的複雜性和無人機戰爭的廣泛使用。

2016 年 4 月 8 日,在納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫邊界附近看到亞美尼亞大砲(圖片來源:REUTERS)

阿塞拜疆軍隊大量使用無人機,而亞美尼亞則更加重視大砲。這使得阿塞拜疆人能夠對亞美尼亞的坦克、防禦工事、大砲和人員造成嚴重破壞。

使用無人機還使阿塞拜疆人在偵察方面具有優勢,使他們在戰勝亞美尼亞軍隊時具有更大的戰術優勢。

雙方還利用虛假宣傳活動和集束彈藥——大多數國家都禁止但雙方都禁止使用——包括針對平民地區。

2020 年 12 月 10 日,阿塞拜疆巴庫的煙花標誌著納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫衝突的結束。(圖片來源:Maxim Churusov/TASS via Reuters)

就地緣政治的複雜性而言,這場衝突涉及許多其他地區和全球大國。具體來說,阿塞拜疆得到了土耳其的大力支持,而亞美尼亞得到了俄羅斯的大力支持,更不用說據稱使用外國僱傭軍和民兵組織了。

以色列因其參與而受到特別批評。儘管這個猶太國家與兩國關係密切,但它因向阿塞拜疆軍隊提供軍事裝備和無人機而受到批評。

Itai Anghel 對第 12 頻道 Uvda 計劃的報導以及 SIPRI 的國際軍售報告說明了以色列對阿塞拜疆的軍售在過去十年中的重要性。

報告稱,以色列是過去五年阿塞拜疆武器進口的 69% 的來源,Anghel 透露了像 Harop 這樣的以色列無人機在去年阿塞拜疆和亞美尼亞戰士之間的戰爭中發揮了重要作用。

據信阿塞拜疆還使用了以色列航空製造的Orbiter 1K無人機,美國的無人機數據手冊稱該無人機於 2011 年出售給該國。它被稱為“遊蕩彈藥”,這意味著它的設計更多就像巡航導彈撞擊目標並在撞擊時自毀。一些媒體稱它們為“神風無人機”或“自殺無人機”。

由於虛假信息的努力,目前尚不清楚雙方有多少傷亡,但許多人估計他們只有數千人,而亞美尼亞的傷亡人數更多。儘管如此,雙方的平民都受到了影響,許多平民在平民領土被大砲和無人機襲擊後流離失所。

HICRAN QULIYEVA 週六站在她位於阿塞拜疆佔賈的家門前,她在納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫的戰鬥中被火箭彈擊中。(信用:路透社)

最終,隨著領土易手,戰爭以俄羅斯促成的停火結束。

這場戰爭在很大程度上被認為是阿塞拜疆的勝利。阿塞拜疆人設法解放了自 1990 年代以來一直在亞美尼亞人手中的大片領土。戰爭結束後,阿塞拜疆爆發了廣泛的慶祝活動,而亞美尼亞的反應則遠沒有那麼積極。

阿塞拜疆在巴庫街頭舉行閱兵式,土耳其總統雷吉普·埃爾多安出席,慶祝其在納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫衝突中對亞美尼亞的“勝利”,2020 年 12 月 10 日

然而,在地緣政治上,這場戰爭可能讓阿塞拜疆在戰場上獲勝,但讓俄羅斯控制了停火,從而控制了具有戰略意義的拉欽走廊,這反過來又增強了莫斯科自己在該地區的存在。

除了地緣政治影響之外,這場戰爭還展示了無人機戰爭的相關性。阿塞拜疆是一個能源豐富的國家,因此其優越的軍事預算使其比亞美尼亞具有顯著優勢。

然而,這並不僅僅擴展到無人機戰爭。正如英國智庫國際戰略研究所所指出的那樣,其他因素也可能發揮了作用,例如一支更專業化的阿塞拜疆軍隊更能適應現代戰爭。

總體而言,納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫戰爭是第一批真正展示無人機戰爭和現代戰術如何改變戰場格局的現代衝突之一。隨著無人機在戰場上的地位越來越突出,尤其是在中東,這可能是這場戰爭未來最重要的影響。

Nagorno-Karabakh War: One year since Armenia, Azerbaijan's last conflict

The ramifications of the war, including geopolitical shifts of power and the dangers of drone warfare on display, continue to be felt to this day.

By AARON REICH

SEPTEMBER 27, 2021 14:04

A still image from a video released by the Azerbaijan's Defence Ministry shows members of Azeri armed forces firing artillery during clashes between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the territory of Nagorno-Karabakh in an unidentified location, in this still image from footage released September 28, 2020

(photo credit: DEFENCE MINISTRY OF AZERBAIJAN/HANDOUT VIA REUTERS)

Advertisement

September 27, 2021, marks a year since the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan broke out over the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region, a conflict lasting a little over a month with severe geopolitical ramifications that continue to unfold.

The conflict is rooted in longstanding border disputes between the two Caucus-region neighbors. The Nagorno-Karabakh region was under Armenian control but claimed by Azerbaijan. Though the Azeri claim was recognized internationally, the region was de facto governed by the Armenian-backed breakaway state called Artsakh, also known as the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh.

The two nations have fought before over the region, with a seven-year war breaking out between 1988 and 1994 before it was ended by a ceasefire. However, simmering tensions always remained high between the two countries.

On September 27, 2020, fighting erupted again between the two. Soon, martial law was declared and both sides began mobilizing their armies.

The war itself was characterized by two notable factors: geopolitical complexity and the widespread use of drone warfare.

Armenian artillery is seen near Nagorno-Karabakh's boundary, April 8, 2016 (credit: REUTERS)

Drones were heavily used by the Azeri forces, compared to a comparatively greater emphasis on artillery by Armenia. This allowed the Azeris to inflict severe damage on Armenian tanks, defenses, artillery and personnel.

Using drones also gave the Azeris an edge in reconnaissance, allowing them a greater tactical advantage in outmaneuvering Armenian forces.

Both sides also utilized disinformation campaigns and cluster munitions - something banned by most countries but not by the two parties in question - including against civilian areas.

In terms of geopolitical complexity, the conflict saw the involvement of many other regional and global powers. Specifically, Azerbaijan saw heavy support from Turkey, while Armenia saw considerable support from Russia, not to mention the alleged use of foreign mercenaries and militia groups.

ISRAEL CAME under particular criticism for its involvement. Although the Jewish state has strong ties with both nations, it was criticized for supplying military equipment and drones to the Azeri army.

Reports by Itai Anghel on Channel 12’s Uvda program, as well as an international arms sales report by SIPRI, illustrate how important Israeli arms sales to Azerbaijan have been over the last decade.

Israel was the source of 69% percent of Azerbaijan’s arms imports over the last five years, the report said, and Anghel revealed the large role that Israeli drones like the Harop played in the war between Azerbaijan and Armenian fighters last year.

Azerbaijan was also believed to have utilized the Orbiter 1K, an Israeli drone made by Aeronautics which the Drone Databook in the US asserts was sold to the country in 2011. It is what is called a “loitering munition,” which means it is designed more like a cruise missile to slam into a target and self-destruct on impact. Some media call them “kamikaze drones” or “suicide drones.”

Due to disinformation efforts, it is unclear how many casualties were suffered by both sides, though it is estimated by many that they were in the low thousands, with Armenia suffering more casualties. Nonetheless, civilians on both sides suffered, with many having been displaced after civilian territories were struck by artillery and drones.

HICRAN QULIYEVA stands in front of her house in Ganja, Azerbaijan, on Saturday, after it was hit by a rocket during the fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh. (credit: REUTERS)

Ultimately, the war ended via a Russia-brokered ceasefire as the territory changed hands.

The war was considered largely a victory for Azerbaijan. The Azeri managed to liberate considerable territory that had been in Armenian hands since the 1990s. The end of the war saw widespread celebrations break out in Azerbaijan, while reactions in Armenia have been considerably less positive.

Azerbaijan held a military parade on the streets of Baku, with the attendance of Turkey President Recip Erdogan, to celebrate its "victory" against Armenia in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, December 10, 2020

Geopolitically, however, the war may have seen Azerbaijan win on the battlefield, but gave Russia control of the ceasefire and, as a result, control of the strategically important Lachin corridor, which in turn boosts Moscow's own presence in the region.

Beyond geopolitical implications, the war also showcased the relevance of drone warfare. Azerbaijan is an energy-rich nation, and as a result, its superior military budget gave it a significant advantage over Armenia.

However, this does not extend to just drone warfare. As noted by British think-tank the International Institute for Strategic Studies, other factors may have played a role as well, such as a more professionalized Azeri army better adapted to modern warfare.

Overall, the Nagorno-Karabakh War was one of the first modern conflicts to truly showcase how drone warfare and modern tactics are changing the landscape of the battlefield. And as drones gain more prominence on the battlefield, especially in the Middle East, this may be the war's most significant implication going forward.

Seth J. Frantzman contributed to this report.

沒有阿富汗代表將在聯合國大會上發言

被塔利班罷免的阿富汗政府大使古拉姆·伊薩克扎伊撤回了參加會議的名字。

通過路透

2021 年 9 月 27 日 16:39

在被塔利班驅逐的政府大使(原定於週一發表講話)撤回他的名字後,沒有阿富汗代表將在紐約舉行的年度高級別聯合國大會上發言。

此舉是在塔利班上個月奪取政權後爭奪阿富汗在紐約的聯合國席位的競爭中提出的。

上週,塔利班外交部長阿米爾汗穆塔奇要求在聯合國世界領導人聚會上發表講話,並提名該伊斯蘭組織駐多哈發言人蘇海爾沙欣為阿富汗駐聯合國大使。

Ghulam Isaczai 是現任聯合國大使,他代表被塔利班推翻的阿富汗政府,並要求更新他的認證。外交官說,他原定於週一在聯合國高級別會議的最後一天發表講話,但周日晚些時候退出。

Isaczai 沒有立即回應置評請求。

9 月 7 日,一名塔利班成員用槍指著喀布爾巴基斯坦大使館附近的阿富汗抗議者。(圖片來源:STRINGER/FILE/REUTERS)

在 2 月的軍事政變推翻民選政府後,緬甸的聯合國席位也出現了競爭對手的要求。沒有緬甸代表將在大會高級別會議上發言。

聯合國認證問題由一個九人委員會處理,其成員包括美國、中國和俄羅斯。它傳統上在 10 月或 11 月開會。

根據大會規則,在全權證書委員會就阿富汗和緬甸問題做出決定之前,Isaczai 和代表被驅逐政府的緬甸聯合國特使 Kyaw Moe Tun 將留在席位。

No Afghan representatives will address the UN General Assembly

Ghulam Isaczai, the ambassador for the Afghanistan government ousted by the Taliban, withdrew his name from attending the conference.

By REUTERS

SEPTEMBER 27, 2021 16:39

No representative from Afghanistan will address the annual high-level UN General Assembly in New York after the ambassador for the government ousted by the Taliban - who was due to speak on Monday - withdrew his name.

The move comes amid competing claims for Afghanistan's UN seat in New York after the Taliban seized power last month.

Taliban Foreign Minister Amir Khan Muttaqi last week asked to address the gathering of world leaders at the United Nations and nominated the Islamist group's Doha-based spokesman Suhail Shaheen as Afghanistan's UN ambassador.

Ghulam Isaczai is the current UN ambassador, who represents Afghanistan's government ousted by the Taliban, and has also asked to renew his accreditation. He was scheduled to address the final day of the high-level UN gathering on Monday, but withdrew late on Sunday, diplomats said.

Isaczai did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

A TALIBAN member points his gun at Afghan protesters, near the Pakistan embassy in Kabul, September 7. (credit: STRINGER/FILE/REUTERS)

Rival claims have also been made for Myanmar's UN seat after a military coup in February ousted the elected government. No representative from Myanmar will address the high-level General Assembly meeting.

UN accreditation issues are dealt with by a nine-member committee, whose members include the United States, China and Russia. It traditionally meets in October or November.

Until a decision is made by the credentials committee on both Afghanistan and Myanmar, Isaczai and Myanmar's UN envoy representing the ousted government, Kyaw Moe Tun, will remain in the seats, according to the General Assembly rules.

戰爭罪檢察官將美軍排除在新的阿富汗調查之外

國際刑事法院檢察官表示,他正在“降低”對美軍和阿富汗軍隊的調查的優先級,轉而關注塔利班和伊斯蘭國-K

通過路透

2021 年 9 月 27 日 17:10

國際刑事法院檢察官週一表示,他正在尋求批准恢復對阿富汗的戰爭罪調查,重點是塔利班和伊斯蘭國呼羅珊 (ISIS-K) 民兵的行動。

一份聲明說,鑑於伊斯蘭塔利班運動上個月閃電般地控制阿富汗以來的事態發展,正在向法院法官提出這一要求。

檢察官此前還調查了美軍和阿富汗政府軍涉嫌犯罪。但檢察官卡里姆汗在他九年任期的六個月後表示,由於缺乏資源,他們現在將“優先考慮”調查的這一要素,轉而關注“法院管轄範圍內犯罪的規模和性質” .

在去年展開全面調查之前,國際刑事法院已經花了 15 年時間調查阿富汗的戰爭罪指控。

但該調查被阿富汗政府擱置,該政府表示正在調查這些罪行。位於海牙的國際刑事法院是最後的法庭,只有在成員國不能或不願意起訴戰爭罪、危害人類罪或種族滅絕罪時才進行干預。

汗說,國際公認的阿富汗政府垮台並被塔利班取代,代表了“情況的重大變化”。

他在聲明中說:“在仔細審查此事後,我得出的結論是,此時,阿富汗境內不再有真正有效的國內調查的前景……”。

9 月 7 日,一名塔利班成員用槍指著喀布爾巴基斯坦大使館附近的阿富汗抗議者。(圖片來源:STRINGER/FILE/REUTERS)

艱苦的戰鬥

法院認定有合理依據認為 2003 年至 2014 年期間犯下了戰爭罪,其中包括塔利班涉嫌大規模殺害平民,以及阿富汗當局涉嫌對囚犯實施酷刑,在較小程度上,美國軍隊和美國中央情報局。

但美國不是國際刑事法院的當事方,並因調查美軍作用而對檢察官辦公室實施制裁。轉移調查的重點可能有助於修復法院與華盛頓的關係。

法官現在將審查請求。

如果獲得批准,調查將面臨收集證據的艱苦戰鬥,因為塔利班統治者似乎不太可能像塔利班上一次執政時期於 2001 年結束以來的政府那樣合作。

無法立即聯繫到喀布爾的塔利班政府置評。

“早期跡象表明,他們在刑事司法和其他重要考慮事項上的政策不太可能與 2002 年以來採用的政策一致,”汗在提交給法院的文件中說。

War crimes prosecutor leaves US forces out of new Afghan probe bid

The prosecutor for the International Criminal Court said he was "deprioritizing" the investigation into US forces and Afghan troops in favor of focusing on the Taliban and ISIS-K

By REUTERS

SEPTEMBER 27, 2021 17:10

The prosecutor of the International Criminal Court on Monday said he was seeking approval to resume a war crimes investigation into Afghanistan, focusing on the actions of the Taliban and the Islamic State Khorasan (ISIS-K) militia.

A statement said the request was being made to the court's judges in light of developments since the Islamist Taliban movement seized control of Afghanistan in a lightning advance last month.

Prosecutors had previously also looked into suspected crimes by US forces and Afghan government troops. But prosecutor Karim Khan, six months into his nine-year tenure, said they would now "deprioritize" that element of the probe due to lack of resources, and instead focus on "the scale and nature of crimes within the jurisdiction of the court".

The ICC had already spent 15 years looking into alleged war crimes in Afghanistan before opening a full investigation last year.

But that probe was put on hold by the Afghan government, which said it was investigating the crimes itself. The Hague-based ICC is a court of last resort, intervening only when a member country is unable or unwilling to prosecute war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide.

Khan said the fall of the internationally recognized Afghan government and its replacement by the Taliban represented a "significant change of circumstances".

"After reviewing matters carefully, I have reached the conclusion that, at this time, there is no longer the prospect of genuine and effective domestic investigations … within Afghanistan," his statement said.

A TALIBAN member points his gun at Afghan protesters, near the Pakistan embassy in Kabul, September 7. (credit: STRINGER/FILE/REUTERS)

UPHILL BATTLE

The court had found there was a reasonable basis to believe war crimes had been committed between 2003 and 2014, among them suspected mass killings of civilians by the Taliban, as well as suspected torture of prisoners by Afghan authorities and, to a lesser extent, by US forces and the US CIA.

But the United States is not a party to the ICC, and imposed sanctions against the office of the prosecutor for investigating the role of US forces. Shifting the focus of the probe could help mend the court's relationship with Washington.

Judges will now review the request.

If approved, the investigation will face an uphill battle to gather evidence, as the Taliban rulers appear unlikely to cooperate in the same way as the governments in place since the Taliban's last period in power ended in 2001.

The Taliban administration in Kabul could not immediately be reached for comment.

"Early indications suggest that their policies on matters related to criminal justice and other material considerations are unlikely to conform to those adopted since 2002," Khan said in his submission to the court.

輝瑞開始研究預防 COVID-19 的口服藥物

製藥公司一直在競相開發一種易於給藥的藥丸來預防 COVID-19。

通過路透

2021 年 9 月 27 日 17:00

輝瑞公司週一表示,已開始一項大型研究,測試其研究性口服抗病毒藥物,以預防接觸過該病毒的人感染 COVID-19。

這家製藥商及其競爭對手,包括總部位於美國的默克公司和瑞士製藥公司羅氏控股公司,一直在競相開發一種易於給藥的 COVID-19 抗病毒藥丸。

這項中後期研究將在多達 2,660 名 18 歲及以上的健康成年參與者中測試輝瑞的藥物 PF-07321332,這些參與者與確診有症狀的 COVID-19 感染者住在同一個家庭。

在試驗中,PF-07321332 旨在阻斷冠狀病毒繁殖所需的一種關鍵酶的活性,將與低劑量的利托那韋一起給藥,利托那韋是一種廣泛用於聯合治療 HIV 感染的老藥。

迄今為止,吉利德科學公司的靜脈注射藥物瑞德西韋是美國唯一獲批的 COVID-19 抗病毒治療藥物。

輝瑞(信用:美聯社)

輝瑞還開始在非住院、有症狀的成年患者中進行 PF-07321332 的另一項研究。

默克和合作夥伴 Ridgeback Biotherapeutics 最近啟動了一項後期試驗,用於預防COVID-19感染的實驗藥物莫奈拉韋。

Molnupiravir 還在非住院患者的後期試驗中進行研究,以確定它是否能降低住院或死亡的風險。

Pfizer begins study of oral drug for prevention of COVID-19

Pharmaceutical companies have been racing to develop an easy to administer pill to prevent COVID-19.

By REUTERS

SEPTEMBER 27, 2021 17:00

Pfizer Inc said on Monday it has started a large study testing its investigational oral antiviral drug for the prevention of COVID-19 infection among those who have been exposed to the virus.

The drugmaker and its rivals, including US-based Merck & Co Inc and Swiss pharmaceutical Roche Holding AG , have been racing to develop an easy-to-administer antiviral pill for COVID-19.

The mid-to-late-stage study will test Pfizer's drug, PF-07321332, in up to 2,660 healthy adult participants aged 18 and older who live in the same household as an individual with a confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 infection.

In the trial, PF-07321332, designed to block the activity of a key enzyme needed for the coronavirus to multiply, will be administered along with a low dose of ritonavir, an older medication widely used in combination treatments for HIV infection.

To date, Gilead Sciences Inc's intravenous drug remdesivir is the only approved antiviral treatment for COVID-19 in the United States.

Pfizer (credit: AP)

Pfizer has also started another study of PF-07321332 in non-hospitalized, symptomatic adult patients.

Merck and partner Ridgeback Biotherapeutics recently launched a late-stage trial of their experimental drug molnupiravir for prevention of the COVID-19 infection.

Molnupiravir is also being studied in a late-stage trial in non-hospitalized patients to see if it reduces the risk of hospitalization or death.

468集单集