外交官的國際新聞導覽及中東中亞的歷史故事 Diplomat's daily news review and history research on Middle East and Central Asia
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約旦總理比舍爾·哈蘇奈（左）於 2021 年 9 月 30 日星期四在黎巴嫩貝魯特市中心的政府大樓與黎巴嫩總理納吉布·米卡蒂舉行的聯合新聞發布會上發表講話。（美聯社照片 / Bilal Hussein）
Jordan says it is working to hasten gas deliveries to Lebanon
By APToday, 3:12 pm
Jordanian Prime Minister Bisher Khasawneh, left, speaks during a joint press conference with his Lebanese counterpart Najib Mikati, at the Government House in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Thursday, Sept. 30, 2021. (AP Photo/Bilal Hussein)
BEIRUT (AP) — Jordan says it is discussing ways to expedite Egyptian natural gas shipments via its territory and Syria to Lebanon, which is dealing with a grueling energy crisis.
Prime Minister Bisher Khasawneh arrives in Beirut today, the first foreign official to visit Lebanon’s new prime minister who took office earlier this month. Khasawneh says Jordan is committed to support Lebanon’s stability.
“We will not hold back our capabilities, we’ll respond with all we can for our brothers in Lebanon,” Khasawneh says in a press conference with Lebanon’s Prime Minister Najib Mikati. “We discussed ways to expedite Lebanon receiving Egyptian gas to help some of the energy challenges and electricity sector.”
He says there are efforts to provide Lebanon with some electricity from Jordan. He offered no details and said detailed discussions will follow.
通過拉扎爾·伯曼 今天，下午 5:07 下午7:07 更新
外交部長亞伊爾·拉皮德於 2021 年 9 月 30 日在麥納麥的宮殿會見巴林國王哈米德·本·伊薩·阿勒哈利法。 (Shlomi Amsallem/GPO)
拉皮德 在會議上說：“國王的領導和鼓舞促成了真正的合作，這次會議為我們關係的未來 指明了方向。”
這是 王儲 首次與以色列官員公開會面。
拉皮德當天的第一次會面是與他的巴林同行阿卜杜拉蒂夫·扎亞尼 (Abdullatif Al Zayani)，他於 6 月在羅馬首次會面。他們討論了進一步發展雙邊關係的方法，特別是在安全、經濟和公民社會方面。
外交部長亞伊爾·拉皮德於 2021 年 9 月 30 日在麥納麥的宮殿會見巴林王儲薩勒曼·本·哈馬德·阿勒哈利法。 (Shlomi Amsallem/GPO)
2021 年 9 月 30 日，外交部長 Yair Lapid 在巴林麥納麥與他的巴林外長 Abdullatif Al Zayani 舉行新聞發布會。（Shlomi Amsallem/GPO）
拉皮德在停機坪上被 al-Zayani 接見。
2021 年 9 月 30 日，巴林麥納麥機場，一名巴林警衛站在外交部長亞伊爾·拉皮德 (Yair Lapid) 的飛機旁邊。 (Lazar Berman/Times of Israel)
自 6 月成為外交部長以來，拉皮德還訪問了阿拉伯聯合酋長國和摩洛哥，這兩個國家在過去一年中與以色列實現了關係正常化。
本月早些時候，長期外交官 Eitan Na'eh 被任命為以色列駐麥納麥大使。巴林駐以色列大使哈立德·優素福·賈拉赫馬在以色列議會會見拉皮德，並向外交部長提交了他的任命，同一天，Na'eh 被提名為阿拉伯聯合酋長國的特使，等待他的確認。證書。
Lapid holds landmark meetings with Bahrain’s king, crown prince
Foreign minister opens Manama visit with private discussion with his counterpart, signs series of framework agreements
By LAZAR BERMAN Today, 5:07 pmUpdated at 7:07 pm
Foreign Minister Yair Lapid meets with Bahraini King Hamid bin Issa al Khalifa at his palace in Manama on September 30, 2021. (Shlomi Amsallem/GPO)
MANAMA, Bahrain — Foreign Minister Yair Lapid met with Bahraini King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa at the royal palace in Bahrain Thursday afternoon, the first public meeting between the king and an Israeli official.
“The leadership and inspiration of the king has led to real cooperation, and this meeting sets the course for the future of our relations,” Lapid said at the meeting.
The sit-down with the king came after Lapid met with Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa, the prime minister and crown prince of Bahrain, at his palace in Manama.
“Thank you for the opportunity to be here today, and to take this step together in building our relations,” said Lapid, “in a model of coexistence and cooperation between cultures and between faiths.”
It was the crown prince’s first public meeting with an Israeli official.
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Lapid’s first meeting of the day was with his Bahraini counterpart, Abdullatif Al Zayani, whom he had met for the first time in Rome in June. They discussed ways of developing bilateral ties further, especially in security, economic, and civil society.
Foreign Minister Yair Lapid meets with Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa, crown prince of Bahrain, at his palace in Manama on September 30, 2021. (Shlomi Amsallem/GPO)
Speaking at a press conference alongside Lapid after their meeting, Zayani stressed Bahrain’s desire to “broaden and deepen cooperation across a range of sectors,” and says that Bahrain has chosen “peace and dialogue as a strategic option.”
“Your visit builds on the considerable progress we have made over the last year, and underlines our joint desire to spread peace and stability across the Middle East,” he said, reaffirming “Bahrain’s genuine commitment to building warm peace and cooperation with Israel.”
Zayani then turned to the Palestinian issue, emphasizing the “crucial importance” of a two-state solution that reflects “the rights, interests and aspirations of all parties.”
“Bahrain continues to call on all sides and the international community to achieve this goal,” he said.
Lapid called for deepening “economic, security, diplomatic, and civilian” ties.
“We will do everything to turn the partnership between Bahrain and Israel into a harmony, of cultures and religions,” Lapid said at the press conference. “And primarily, a harmony between people.”
“We are both tough peoples,” said the foreign minister. “We made life flourish in the heart of the desert.”
Foreign Minister Yair Lapid holds a press conference with his Bahraini counterpart, Abdullatif Al Zayani in Manama, Bahrain, on September 30, 2021. (Shlomi Amsallem/GPO)
Alluding to the shared concern over the Iranian threat, Lapid continued: “Our opportunities are shared. Our threats are also shared, and they aren’t far from here.”
Lapid said the global battle today was between “a culture of life, against a culture of death and destruction,” returning to a familiar theme of his.
“Together with our friends in the Gulf, we are leading a brave coalition of moderates,” he said. “A coalition that is looking forward and creating a prosperous future of stability and tolerance.”
Asked by a Bahraini journalist about Israel’s commitment to a two-state solution, Lapid said he thought it was unfeasible for now but that he is “a devoted supporter of the two-state solution. I think it’s the right solution for the people of Israel and for the Palestinian people as well.”
He said that he supports improving the standard of living of the Palestinians in the meantime, and “doing no harm.”
Lapid landed in Manama on Thursday morning for the first ministerial visit to the island kingdom since bilateral relations were formally established last year.
He also signed framework agreements on water, environment and sports, among other areas, and was set to open Israel’s embassy in Manama.
Lapid was received on the tarmac by al-Zayani.
A Bahraini guard stands next to Foreign Minister Yair Lapid’s plane at the airport in Manama, Bahrain, September 30, 2021. (Lazar Berman/Times of Israel)
Lapid is the first Israeli foreign minister to visit Bahrain. In 1994, Environmental Affairs Minister Yossi Sarid traveled to the kingdom to participate in regional talks and meet with Bahrain’s foreign minister.
Since becoming foreign minister in June, Lapid has also visited the United Arab Emirates and Morocco, two countries that Israel has normalized relations with over the past year.
The first commercial flight between Manama and Tel Aviv also took off for Israel Thursday morning shortly after Lapid landed in Bahrain. Passengers include the heads of Gulf Air and a Jewish chef named Alex, who owns a restaurant in Bahrain and is flying to Isael to see his mother and two sisters.
The foreign minister is accompanied on his trip by Foreign Ministry Director General Alon Ushpiz and Deputy Director General for Middle Eastern Affairs Oded Yossef.
Prime Minister Naftali Bennett met on Sunday in New York with both Zayani and UAE Foreign Minister Khalifa al-Marar on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly. Bennett told Zayani that he was looking forward to meeting with Bahrain’s King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa at some point in the future.
Prime Minister Naftali Bennett (C) meets with UAE Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Khalifa al-Marar, (R) and Bahraini Foreign Minister Abdullatif Al Zayani (L) at his hotel in New York on Sunday evening. (Avi Ohayon/GPO)
Earlier this month, longtime diplomat Eitan Na’eh was tapped to serve as Israel’s ambassador in Manama. The nomination of Na’eh — who is still serving as an envoy to the United Arab Emirates pending his confirmation — came on the same day that Bahraini Ambassador to Israel Khaled Yousef al-Jalahmah met Lapid in the Knesset and presented the foreign minister with his credentials.
Two weeks later, Jalahma officially presented his credentials to President Isaac Herzog, a day before the one-year anniversary of the signing of the Abraham Accords, which established relations between Israel and several Arab countries, among them Bahrain.
Times of Israel staff contributed to this report.
作者：SAMYA KULLAB今天，晚上 7:49
2021 年 9 月 30 日，塔利班成員在喀布爾的一輛皮卡車上巡邏。（Bulent Kilic/法新社）
與此同時，在首都喀布爾，塔利班開槍驅散要求平等權利的婦女集會，而紅十字國際聯合會 (IFRC) 地區負責人警告說，阿富汗正滑入一場嚴重的“重大人道主義危機”。即將到來的冬天和嚴重的財政短缺。
塔利班總理哈桑·阿洪德 (Hasan Akhund) 在此之前發布了塔利班官員最近的公開聲明，暗示了改善組織和元帥戰士的計劃。它說，居住在私人住宅中的屬於激進組織國防、內政和情報機構的塔利班成員需要“向全國各地的軍事基地報告”。
阿富汗軍隊在 8 月的閃電戰期間放棄了大部分陣地或向塔利班投降，使塔利班戰士也可以接管軍事基地。
據一位不願透露姓名的目擊者稱，其他參加 Kart-e-Char 社區抗議活動的婦女後來被告知要回家，因為她擔心塔利班會報復。塔利班官員 Mawlawi Nasratullah 後來告訴記者，婦女沒有要求集會許可。
2021 年 9 月 30 日，在喀布爾一所學校外的示威活動中，一名女抗議者與一名塔利班成員發生扭打。（Bulent Kilic/法新社）
自接管以來，塔利班暴力驅散婦女集會，要求不要剝奪她們過去 20 年在阿富汗獲得的權利。
當他們最後一次統治這個國家是在 1990 年代，塔利班強加了他們對伊斯蘭教法或伊斯蘭教法的嚴厲解釋，將婦女驅逐到自己的家中，並剝奪了她們受教育、工作和公共生活的權利。
紅十字與紅新月運動國際聯合會呼籲提供 3600 萬瑞士法郎（3800 萬美元），以繼續資助阿富汗 16 個省的衛生診所、緊急救援和其他服務。
週三，聯合國發言人 Stephane Dujarric 要求捐助者為一項 6.06 億美元的緊急呼籲快速籌集資金，該呼籲僅獲得 22% 的資金，以在今年剩餘時間內幫助 1100 萬阿富汗人。
自 8 月中旬塔利班接管以來，世界銀行和國際貨幣基金組織已暫停向喀布爾付款，而美國則凍結了阿富汗中央銀行在美國賬戶中持有的數十億美元資產。根據世界銀行的一份報告，外國援助以前佔阿富汗公共支出的近 75%。
馬修在結束對該國為期五天的訪問時說，醫療保健的削減導致 2,500 家醫療機構不再運作，超過 20,000 名醫療人員，其中 7,000 名女性不再領取工資。
2021 年 9 月 30 日，一名賣檸檬的小販在坎大哈等待顧客。（Javed Tanveer/法新社）
Taliban order their fighters to leave Afghan homes they seized
Islamist insurgents fire shots in the air to break up small rally held by women in Kabul calling for equal access to education
By SAMYA KULLABToday, 7:49 pm
Members of the Taliban patrol on a pickup truck in Kabul, on September 30, 2021. (Bulent Kilic/AFP)
KABUL, Afghanistan (AP) — The Taliban on Thursday ordered their fighters to leave private homes that they had taken over during last month’s blitz when the group seized control of Afghanistan, an apparent effort to impose order among Taliban ranks.
Meanwhile, in the capital of Kabul, the Taliban fired shots to disperse a women’s rally demanding equal rights, while the regional chief for the International Federation of the Red Cross (IFRC) warned that Afghanistan was sliding into a deep “major humanitarian crisis” with the coming winter and severe financial shortfalls.
The order by Taliban Prime Minister Hasan Akhund followed recent public statements by Taliban officials hinting at plans to improve organization and marshal fighters. It said that Taliban members belonging to the militant group’s defense, interior and intelligence agencies who are living in private homes need to “report back to military bases” across the country.
In recent weeks, the Taliban abandoned their traditional, civilian dress and donned military fatigues to project an air of authority. Bilal Karimi, a Taliban security official, confirmed the directive to The Associated Press.
The Afghan army abandoned most of its positions or surrendered to the Taliban during the August blitz, allowing Taliban fighters to take over military bases as well.
In Kabul on Thursday, the Taliban fired shots to disperse a small rally of six women outside a local school, demanding equal rights to education. They confiscated posters held by the women that read: “Do not burn our books!”
Other women coming to join the protest in the Kart-e-Char neighborhood were later told to go home, according to a witness who spoke on condition of anonymity, fearing Taliban reprisal. Mawlawi Nasratullah, a Taliban official, later told reporters that women had not asked for permission to rally.
A woman protestor scuffles with a member of the Taliban during a demonstration outside a school in Kabul, on September 30, 2021. (Bulent Kilic/AFP)
Since their takeover, the Taliban have violently dispersed rallies by women demanding that the rights they had gained in the past 20 years in Afghanistan not be taken away.
When they last ruled the country in the 1990s, the Taliban had imposed their harsh interpretation of Islamic law or Sharia, banishing women to their homes and denying them the right to education, work and a public life.
At a press conference in Kabul, Alexander Matheou, IFRC’s regional director, predicted “extremely difficult few months” ahead as temperatures drop, compounding food shortages from drought and poverty. Cuts to health services put many vulnerable Afghans, particularly in rural areas, at risk, he added.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is appealing for 36 million Swiss Francs ($38 million) to continue funding health clinics, emergency relief, and other services across Afghanistan’s 16 provinces.
On Wednesday, United Nations spokesman Stephane Dujarric asked donors to fast-track funding for a $606 million flash appeal that is only 22 percent funded, to help 11 million Afghans for the remainder of the year.
“There needs to be some solution to the financial flows into Afghanistan to ensure that at least salaries can be paid, and that essential supplies, power and water being two of them, can be procured,” Matheou said.
Since the Taliban takeover in mid-August, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have paused disbursements to Kabul, while the United States froze billons of dollars in assets held in American accounts by the Afghan Central Bank. Foreign aid previously accounted for nearly 75% of Afghanistan’s public expenditure, according to a World Bank report.
Cuts to healthcare have resulted in 2,500 health facilities no longer working, and over 20,000 health staff, 7,000 of them women, no longer being paid, said Matheou as he concluded a five-day visit to the country.
The international community is divided over the issue of resuming aid to Afghanistan, as the world waits to see whether the Taliban will again impose their harsh rule.
A vendor selling lemons waits for customers in Kandahar, on September 30, 2021. (Javed Tanveer/AFP)
China, however, has delivered winter supplies to Afghanistan and will soon start flying in food and other supplies as a “friendly neighbor,” the Chinese foreign ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying said on Thursday. The shipment arrived on Wednesday night.
China, which shares a narrow border with Afghanistan, has mocked the chaotic end to the US presence in the country, and said that Washington was to blame for the intensified hardships now facing the impoverished country under Taliban rule. Beijing has kept its embassy in Kabul open and established diplomatic ties with the Taliban.
Matheou said that the diplomatic missions that have remained in Kabul after the Taliban takeover have taken a pragmatic approach “to the reality as it stands now” on a Taliban-run Afghanistan. The IFRC envoy also met with representatives from Qatar, Pakistan, Turkey and Russia in Kabul.
通過AFP2021 年 9 月 29 日，凌晨 2:00
說明：這張伊朗軍隊於 2021 年 1 月 19 日發布的照片顯示了在軍事演習中移動的坦克。（伊朗軍隊通過美聯社）
去年 9 月，阿塞拜疆和亞美尼亞之間在有爭議的納戈爾諾 - 卡拉巴赫地區爆發了戰鬥，在六週內奪走了約 6,000 人的生命。
自 2016 年以來，亞美尼亞一直指責阿塞拜疆向亞美尼亞軍隊部署以色列製造的神風無人機。一名阿塞拜疆官員承認在去年的戰鬥中使用了以色列製造的攻擊無人機，包括遊蕩彈藥。
伊朗和阿塞拜疆共享約 700 公里（430 英里）的邊界，兩國關係良好。
據估計，伊朗阿塞拜疆語社區約有 1000 萬成員。
Iran holds military drill near Azerbaijan border due to ‘Zionist presence’ there
Tehran dismisses Azerbaijan’s concerns and protests over surprise military maneuvers close to frontier, says it is a ‘question of sovereignty’
By AFP29 September 2021, 2:00 am
Illustrative: This photo released January 19, 2021, by the Iranian Army, shows tanks moving during a military drill. (Iranian Army via AP)
TEHRAN, Iran — Tehran on Tuesday invoked its “sovereignty” to dismiss Azerbaijan’s concerns over Iranian military exercises near their shared border.
“The drills carried out by our country in the northwest border areas… are a question of sovereignty,” Iranian foreign ministry spokesman Saeed Khatibzadeh said in a statement on the ministry website.
Tehran “will take all measures it judges necessary for its national security”, he said, adding, “Iran will not tolerate the presence of the Zionist regime near our borders” — an allusion to Azerbaijan’s relations with Israel.
Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev had criticized Tehran over the drills, calling them “a very surprising event.”
“Every country can carry out any military drill on its own territory. It’s their sovereign right. But why now, and why on our border?” he said in an interview with Turkish news agency Anadolu published on Monday.
No further details were available on the military exercises.
Fighting broke out between Azerbaijan and Armenia in September last year over the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region, claiming some 6,000 lives over six weeks.
A secular, Muslim-majority state, Azerbaijan has long had warm relations with Jerusalem. Baku has bought billions of dollars of weapons from Israel and provided the Jewish state with oil.
The arms deals have sparked controversy and diplomatic flareups between Israel and Armenia, Azerbaijan’s neighbor and rival.
Armenia has since 2016 accused Azerbaijan of deploying Israeli-made kamikaze drones against Armenian forces. An Azerbaijani official acknowledged using Israeli-made attack drones, including loitering munitions during fighting last year.
Iran and Azerbaijan share a border of around 700 kilometers (430 miles) and enjoy good relations.
According to some estimates, there are around 10 million members of Iran’s Azeri-speaking community.
Times of Israel Staff contributed to this report
2021 年 9 月 30 日 22:20
這張照片拍攝於 2021 年 3 月 15 日。
（圖片來源：IRGC/WANA/Handout via REUTERS）
週日，伊朗伊斯蘭革命衛隊的一處設施發生火災，造成兩人死亡、一人受傷。週四，總部位於特拉維夫的 ImageSat International - ISI 是一家衛星圖像商業服務商 - 估計該設施不僅僅是任何軍事基地 - 它是一個秘密導彈基地。
路透社的 Tzvi Joffre 為本報告做出了貢獻。
Fire in Iran occurred at secret IRGC missile base - Israeli report
A Tel Aviv-based servicer for satellite images estimates that the facility was not just any military compound - it was a secret missile base.
SEPTEMBER 30, 2021 22:20
Iranian missiles are seen at an underground of the new "missile cite" of Iran's Revolutionary Guards naval unit at an undisclosed location in Iran, in this picture obtained on March 15, 2021.
(photo credit: IRGC/WANA/HANDOUT VIA REUTERS)
A fire erupted in an IRGC facility in Iran on Sunday leaving two dead and one injured. On Thursday, Tel Aviv-based ImageSat International - ISI, a commercial servicer for satellite images - estimated that the facility was not just any military compound - it was a secret missile base.
It is still unclear why the fire erupted on Sunday.
A series of explosions and fires have hit industrial sites across Iran, including a number of petrochemical plants, in recent months and over the past year.
Iranian officials have referred to most of the cases as incidents or accidents, although some reports have claimed that at least some of them involved foul play.
The aging infrastructure in Iran has also been blamed for at least some of the incidents. Frequent blackouts have plagued Iran recently amid a heatwave.
Tzvi Joffre, Reuters contributed to this report.
接種 COVID-19 和流感疫苗是安全的——研究
該研究發現，在使用三種流感疫苗和輝瑞或阿斯利康的 COVID-19 疫苗進行的測試中，報告的副作用通常是輕度至中度的。
2021 年 10 月 1 日 00:13
1 月 29 日，在美國紐約市曼哈頓的冠狀病毒病 (COVID-19) 大流行期間，一名醫護人員在 SOMOS Community Care 運營的彈出式疫苗接種點拿著一瓶 Moderna COVID-19 疫苗， 2021。
週四的一項英國研究發現，人們同時接種 COVID-19 疫苗和流感疫苗是安全的，並且不會對兩者產生的免疫反應產生負面影響。
隨著 COVID-19 限制的放鬆和社會疏遠措施的放鬆，英國和其他北半球國家正準備迎接一個艱難的冬天，以及流感病例激增的可能性。
這項由布里斯托爾大學領導的研究發現，在使用三種流感疫苗和輝瑞或阿斯利康的 COVID-19 疫苗進行的測試中，報告的副作用通常是輕度到中度的。
首席調查員拉杰卡·拉扎魯斯 (Rajeka Lazarus) 說：“這是非常積極的一步，這可能意味著需要兩種疫苗的人的預約次數會減少。”
“這項研究的結果已提交給疫苗接種和免疫聯合委員會 (JCVI) 供他們考慮，並將幫助政策制定者規劃這些重要疫苗接種計劃的未來。”
2021 年 8 月 25 日，在塞爾維亞貝爾格萊德的貝爾格萊德博覽會疫苗接種中心，人們接種了第三劑國藥集團針對冠狀病毒病 (COVID-19) 的疫苗。（來源：REUTERS/ZORANA JEVTIC）
該研究涉及英格蘭和威爾士 12 個地點的 679 名志願者，並作為預印本發布，完整結果將發表在《柳葉刀》上。
Safe to receive both COVID-19 and flu vaccines - study
The study found that reported side effects were usually mild to moderate in tests with three flu vaccines and either Pfizer or AstraZeneca's COVID-19 shot.
OCTOBER 1, 2021 00:13
A healthcare worker holds a vial of the Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine at a pop-up vaccination site operated by SOMOS Community Care during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Manhattan in New York City, New York, U.S., January 29, 2021.
(photo credit: REUTERS/MIKE SEGAR)
It is safe for people to receive a COVID-19 vaccine and a flu shot at the same time and it does not negatively impact the immune response produced by either, a British study found on Thursday.
Britain and other northern hemisphere countries are bracing for a tough winter and the possibility of a surge in flu cases as COVID-19 restrictions are eased and social distancing measures relaxed.
Booster COVID-19 shots are being given to elderly and vulnerable people and to health workers in Britain, while Prime Minister Boris Johnson's government has also promised the biggest flu vaccination program in history this year.
The study, led by the University of Bristol, found that reported side effects were usually mild to moderate in tests with three flu vaccines and either Pfizer or AstraZeneca's COVID-19 shot.
"This is a really positive step which could mean fewer appointments for those who require both vaccines," chief investigator Rajeka Lazarus said.
"The results of this study have been presented to the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) for their consideration and will aid policymakers in planning the future of these important vaccination programs."
People receive a third dose of the Sinopharm vaccine against the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at the Belgrade Fair vaccination center in Belgrade, Serbia, August 25, 2021. (credit: REUTERS/ZORANA JEVTIC)
Shots were given on the same day, in opposite arms.
One group had a COVID shot and a flu jab in a first visit, with a placebo given in a second visit, and another had a COVID-19 shot and a placebo given on the same day, followed by a flu vaccine on the second day.
The study found 97% of participants said they would be willing to have two vaccines at the same appointment in the future.
The study involved 679 volunteers at 12 sites across England and Wales, and was released as a pre-print, with full results due to be published in the Lancet.