2021.10.08 國際新聞導讀-敘利亞難民在土耳其與土國青年發生衝突鬥毆、美國政府向以色列施壓要其與中國保持距離、伊朗傳言與美國海軍發生衝突但美國否認、約旦將供電給黎巴嫩、庫德族表示美軍將繼續留在敘利亞、伊朗與亞塞拜然之不愉快、以色列呼籲為打疫苗者有重症風險應打疫苗

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2021.10.08 國際新聞導讀-敘利亞難民在土耳其與土國青年發生衝突鬥毆、美國政府向以色列施壓要其與中國保持距離、伊朗傳言與美國海軍發生衝突但美國否認、約旦將供電給黎巴嫩、庫德族表示美軍將繼續留在敘利亞、伊朗與亞塞拜然之不愉快、以色列呼籲為打疫苗者有重症風險應打疫苗

轉角國際 udn Global

8 小時 ·

#陳琬喻

當難民成了土耳其的新移民 】

「要敲鑼打鼓地歡送敘利亞移民返回祖國!」2021年8月,土耳其首都安卡拉金山區發生大規模土耳其人與敘利亞人間的衝突,多名土耳其年輕人因看不慣區域內的敘利亞人逐漸握有經濟實力而砸敘利亞人開的商店。一名土耳其年輕人在鬥毆中不幸身亡,加劇土敘緊張關係。下方圖為暴亂發生當下,手持武器攻擊敘利亞難民社區,意圖破窗打劫的土耳其暴動者。

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土耳其的「難民恐懼症」始於2011年的敘利亞內戰,當時大批敘利亞難民移入土耳其。土耳其人一開始對於難民持歡迎的態度,但隨著難民數量激增,摩擦也開始增加。這也可以從此次阿富汗難民潮中看出端倪,逃亡到土耳其的阿富汗人已經引起當地社會反彈。

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事實上,造成土耳其人與敘利亞移民間衝突的導火線,是土耳其每下愈況的經濟問題。土耳其居高不下的失業率與通貨膨脹率,讓土耳其人民承受相當大的經濟壓力,政府接收過多的敘利亞人又相對增加了財政支出,在自顧不暇的情況下,還要分散資源照顧敘利亞移民,造成社會反彈。然而,難民在當地常年也承受著歧視、身份不受承認、遭剝削等問題。

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到底土耳其與敘利亞難民之間,曾有過哪些愛恨情仇?這一波向土耳其求助的阿富汗難民,又會受到哪些影響?而當「讓難民成為新移民」的議題逐漸成為各國政策討論的內容之際,土耳其的經驗又可以帶來哪些啟發呢?

拜登政府向以色列施壓以打擊中國

國防官員呼籲貝內特領導新的小組審查北京在以色列的投資,因為政府沒有在鐵路招標中停滯不前。

作者:雅科夫·卡茨拉哈夫·哈爾科夫

2021 年 10 月 7 日 23:36

上週,納夫塔利·貝內特總理和美國總統喬·拜登在橢圓形辦公室聊天。

(照片來源:喬納森·恩斯特/路透社)

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拜登政府官員本周訪問華盛頓時,與國家安全顧問埃亞爾·胡拉塔(Eyal Hulata)就中國對以色列主要基礎設施和高科技投資構成的威脅進行了交談。

美國官員鼓勵以色列建立更健全的外國投資審查制度。

鑑於中國對以色列基礎設施和技術的眾多投標,以色列高級國防官員還建議總理納夫塔利·貝內特設立一個新的委員會來監督在以色列的外國投資。

官員們建議由總理領導的新委員會將取代隸屬於財政部的現有委員會,但該委員會是自願的,不涵蓋中國投資的核心領域。

利伯曼在 2021 年 9 月 2 日星期四的以色列議會會議上提交了 2021-2022 年預算。(圖片來源:MARC ISRAEL SELLEM)

總理辦公室尚未就此事做出決定,但該建議提出之際,政府繼續推遲宣佈建設特拉維夫輕軌新綠線和紫線的中標者。負責公共交通系統設計和建設的政府資助公司 NTA 大都會公共交通系統一直在拖延做出最終決定。

本週早些時候,以色列最大的公交公司 Egged 宣布了 4 月份購買 200 輛電動公交車的招標中標者。獲勝的三家公司都將提供中國製造的巴士。

建議成立新委員會的官員包括以色列國防軍和辛貝特(以色列安全局)的高級官員,他們擔心中國繼續滲透以色列經濟可能帶來的兩種後果。

第一個擔憂是,如果中國繼續贏得招標並建設基礎設施,耶路撒冷與華盛頓的關係將惡化,並導致與以色列最重要的盟友關係緊張。第二個擔憂是,中國可能會利用這些基礎設施在以色列境內和針對以色列進行間諜活動。

特拉維夫輕軌招標的獲勝者原定於 6 月公佈。

爭奪這筆價值數十億美元的交易的大多數團體都包括中國公司。雖然政府正式表示尚未開封審查投標,但一位知情人士表示,政府聯繫了其中一個團體,詢問為什麼其價格比其他團體低得多。

其中之一包括中國鐵建公司。其子公司之一中國土木工程建設總公司於 2014 年以約 2 億美元的成本在北部挖掘了吉隆隧道,作為卡梅爾隧道項目的分包商,耗資約 1.5 億美元。在 2010 年和過去幾年中,一直致力於特拉維夫輕軌紅線的建設,總投資達 5 億美元。

喬拜登總統於 6 月發布行政命令,禁止這些公司因涉嫌與中國國防工業有聯繫而接受任何美國投資。

政府官員表示擔心,如果中國人被排除在投標之外,可能會導致與北京的重大危機,並導致中國與以色列斷絕經濟關係。另一方面,如果中國確實中標,這一消息可能會導致與拜登政府的關係緊張,由於繼續尋求與伊朗達成核協議以及白宮宣布有意開設領事館,拜登政府在未來幾個月可能會變得緊張。東耶路撒冷的巴勒斯坦人。

國防官員提議的委員會將隸屬於國家安全委員會,今天由 Hulata 領導,Bennett 於 7 月任命了 Hulata。胡拉塔本周作為一個大型跨機構代表團的一部分在華盛頓與拜登的國家安全顧問傑克沙利文領導的美國同行舉行了會談。

如果獲得批准,該委員會將取代 2019 年設立的一位前總理本雅明·內塔尼亞胡(Benjamin Netanyahu),負責審查外國投資。該委員會包括財政部、國防部和國家安全委員會的高級代表,以及外交部、經濟部和國家經濟委員會的觀察員。

委員會建議的轉介來自各個監管機構。

總理辦公室拒絕就此事發表評論。

在回應詢問時,NTA 週四表示,將“很快”在對不同投標進行審查後宣布對招標的決定。它說,此次招標“是以色列有史以來規模最大、最複雜的招標之一”。

研究中以關係的 SIGNAL(中以全球網絡和學術領導力)執行董事 Carice Witte 說:“重新考慮審查委員會,將關鍵發展和可能影響的新因素考慮在內是非常明智的。以色列的長期國家安全。”

“一個成熟的委員會可以防止像我們現在在輕軌方面遇到的延誤一樣,”她說,並補充說,輕軌延誤是由於政府辦公室沒有正確了解相關問題。

貝內特反對過去在擔任總理之前限制來自中國的投資的嘗試。

Biden administration ups pressure on Israel to crack down on China

Defense officials call on Bennett to head new panel to screen Beijing’s investments in Israel as gov’t stalls on rail tenders.

By YAAKOV KATZ, LAHAV HARKOV

OCTOBER 7, 2021 23:36

PRIME MINISTER Naftali Bennett and US President Joe Biden chat in the Oval Office last week.

(photo credit: JONATHAN ERNST / REUTERS)

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Biden administration officials spoke with National Security Advisor Eyal Hulata about the threats posed by Chinese investments in major infrastructure and hi-tech in Israel when he visited Washington this week.

The American officials encouraged Israel to establish a more robust screening system for foreign investments.

Senior Israeli defense officials have also recommended that Prime Minister Naftali Bennett establish a new committee to oversee foreign investments in Israel, in light of China’s numerous bids on Israeli infrastructure and technology.

The new committee, which the officials have suggested be led by the prime minister, would replace an existing committee that falls under the Finance Ministry, but is voluntary and does not cover core areas in which China invests.

Liberman presents the budget for 2021-2022 at a Knesset meeting on Thursday, September 2, 2021. (credit: MARC ISRAEL SELLEM)

The Prime Minister’s Office has yet to make a decision on the matter, but the recommendation comes as the government continues to stall on announcing the winner of the tender to build the Tel Aviv Light Rail’s new Green and Purple Lines. The NTA Metropolitan Mass Transit System, the government-funded company responsible for the design and construction of the transit system, has been dragging its feet in making a final decision.

Earlier this week, Egged, Israel’s largest transit company, announced the winners of a tender to buy 200 electric buses in April. All three companies that won would be supplying buses made in China.

The officials who have recommended the establishment of the new committee include top officers in the IDF and the Shin Bet (Israel Security Agency) who are concerned over two possible consequences of the continued Chinese penetration of Israel’s economy.

The first concern is that if China continues to win tenders and build infrastructure, Jerusalem’s ties with Washington will fray and lead to tension with Israel’s most important ally. The second concern is that China could use the infrastructure for espionage activities inside and against Israel.

The winner of the Tel Aviv Light Rail tender was originally scheduled to be announced in June.

Most of the groups competing for the multibillion-dollar deal include Chinese companies. While the government officially says it has not opened the envelopes to review the bids, a source with knowledge of the matter said the government contacted one of the groups to ask why its price was so much lower than the others.

One of them includes the China Railway Construction Company. One of its subsidiaries, the China Civil Engineering Construction Corp., dug the Gilon Tunnel in the North in 2014 at a cost of about $200 million, worked as a subcontractor on the Carmel Tunnel project for about $150m. in 2010 and for the last couple of years has been working on the Tel Aviv Light Rail’s Red Line to the tune of $500m.

President Joe Biden issued an executive order in June banning these companies from receiving any US investment due to suspected ties to the Chinese defense industry.

Government officials have voiced concern that if the Chinese are nixed from the tender it could lead to a major crisis with Beijing and see China cut economic relations with Israel. On the other hand, if China does win the tender, the news could strain relations with the Biden administration, which could turn tense in the coming months amid a continued pursuit of a nuclear deal with Iran and the White House’s declared intention to open a consulate for Palestinians in east Jerusalem.

The committee proposed by the defense officials would sit under the National Security Council, headed today by Hulata, who Bennett appointed to the role in July. Hulata was in Washington this week as part of a large interagency delegation that held talks with US counterparts led by Biden’s National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan.

The committee, if approved, would replace the one former prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu established in 2019 to vet foreign investments. That committee includes senior representatives from the Treasury, Defense Ministry and National Security Council, as well as observers from the Foreign Ministry, Economics Ministry and the National Economic Council.

Referral for a recommendation from the committee comes from various regulatory bodies.

The Prime Minister’s Office declined to comment on the matter.

In response to a query, the NTA on Thursday said a decision on the tender would be announced “soon” and after the different bids are reviewed. The tender “was one of the largest and most complex ever done in Israel,” it said.

Carice Witte, executive director of SIGNAL (Sino-Israel Global Network & Academic Leadership), which studies China-Israel ties, said: “It is very smart to rethink the review committee, to take into consideration critical developments and new factors that could impact Israel’s long-term national security.”

“A well-fashioned committee could prevent delays like the one we’re experiencing now with the light rail,” she said, adding that the delay on the light rail is due to government offices not being properly versed in the relevant issues.

Bennett opposed past attempts to restrict investments from China before he was prime minister.

拜登特使與巴勒斯坦權力機構談論放棄“殺戮報酬”

負責以色列和巴勒斯坦事務的副助理國務卿 Hady Amr 與以色列和巴勒斯坦官員討論了“向因恐怖主義行為而被監禁的個人支付的款項”。

通過LAHAV哈爾科夫

2021 年 10 月 7 日 21:23

2007 年 10 月 1 日,以色列南部 Ketziot 監獄的巴勒斯坦囚犯等待釋放

(圖片來源:RONEN ZVULUN / REUTERS)

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負責以色列和巴勒斯坦事務的副助理國務卿哈迪·阿姆爾(Hady Amr)本週在該地區的會議上討論了終止巴勒斯坦權力機構每月向被定罪的恐怖分子及其家人支付的款項

根據美國駐耶路撒冷大使館的一份聲明,阿姆爾與以色列和巴勒斯坦官員討論了“安全、人權和法治、經濟發展、向因恐怖主義行為而被監禁的個人的付款、能源、水和加沙人道主義救濟” .

一位外交消息人士指出,阿姆爾鼓勵巴勒斯坦人終止向恐怖分子提供津貼,批評者將其戲稱為“殺戮的報酬”。

美國負責以色列和巴勒斯坦事務的副助理國務卿哈迪·阿姆爾。(信用:維基共享資源)

巴勒斯坦權力機構每月向被定罪的恐怖分子和在實施恐怖行為時遇害者的家屬支付一筆款項。活著的恐怖分子根據他們的刑期獲得更多,這意味著犯罪的嚴重程度越高——以色列人被殺和受傷的越多——他們每個月收到的就越多。

以色列國防部國家反恐融資局報告說,巴勒斯坦權力機構在 2020 年支付了 5.97 億新謝克爾(1.85 億美元)。

美國大使館表示,阿姆爾的“訪問進一步尋求為巴勒斯坦人民做出切實改善的方法,以期維護通過談判達成的兩國解決方案的願景”。

聲明稱,他在耶路撒冷、拉馬拉、伯利恆和特拉維夫的會議“推進了我們為以色列人和巴勒斯坦人實現平等的安全、自由、機會和尊嚴的目標”。

外交消息人士稱,在他關於經濟發展的討論中,阿姆爾強調了伯利恆的旅遊業增長。

大使館說,“Amr 發現他與巴勒斯坦民間社會的會晤重點關注人權的重要性,以及提供希望、機會和政治視野的必要性,尤其是對年輕人而言。他們還討論了活動家和記者在言論自由和和平示威方面面臨的挑戰。”

Biden envoy talked with PA about dropping ‘pay for slay’

Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Israel and Palestinian Affairs Hady Amr discussed "payments to individuals imprisoned for acts of terrorism" with Israeli and Palestinian officials.

By LAHAV HARKOV

OCTOBER 7, 2021 21:23

Palestinian prisoners wait to be released from Ketziot prison, southern Israel, October 1, 2007

(photo credit: RONEN ZVULUN / REUTERS)

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Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Israel and Palestinian Affairs Hady Amr discussed ending the Palestinian Authority’s monthly payments to convicted terrorists and their families in his meetings in the region this week.

Amr discussed “security, human rights and the rule of law, economic development, payments to individuals imprisoned for acts of terrorism, energy, water and humanitarian relief in Gaza” with Israeli and Palestinian officials, according to a statement from the US Embassy in Jerusalem.

A diplomatic source specified that Amr encouraged the Palestinians to end stipends to terrorists, which critics have nicknamed “pay for slay.”

US Deputy Assistant Secretary for Israeli and Palestinian Affairs Hady Amr. (credit: Wikimedia Commons)

The Palestinian Authority pays convicted terrorists and the families of those killed while committing acts of terror a monthly sum. The living terrorists receive more depending on their prison sentence, meaning that the greater the severity of the crime – the more Israelis killed and wounded – the more they receive each month.

Israel’s National Bureau for Counter-Terror Financing in the Defense Ministry reported that the PA paid NIS 597 million ($185 million) in 2020.

Amr’s “visit further sought ways to make tangible improvements for the Palestinian people with a view to preserving the vision of a negotiated two-state solution,” the US embassy stated.

His meetings in Jerusalem, Ramallah, Bethlehem and Tel Aviv “advanced our goals for achieving equal measures of security, freedom, opportunity, and dignity for Israelis and Palestinians,” the statement reads.

Within his discussions of economic development, Amr emphasized increasing tourism in Bethlehem, the diplomatic source said.

The embassy said that “Amr found his meetings with Palestinian civil society focused on the importance of human rights, as well as the need to provide hope, opportunity, and a political horizon, especially for young people. They also discussed the challenges activists and journalists are facing with freedom of expression and peaceful demonstration.”

美國船隻在波斯灣被伊斯蘭革命衛隊快艇攔截 - 報告

美國海軍發言人表示,他不知道過去兩天與伊朗有任何不安全的互動。

通過耶路撒冷郵報STAFF

2021 年 10 月 7 日 19:49

2010 年 4 月 22 日,伊朗船隻在波斯灣和伊朗南部霍爾木茲海峽參加海軍戰爭演習。 伊朗革命衛隊成功部署了一艘能夠摧毀敵艦的新型快艇,因為戰爭演習於週四在對全球至關重要的水道開始石油供應, 伊朗

(圖片來源:REUTERS/FARS NEWS)

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伊朗塔斯尼姆新聞周四報導,一艘美國船隻在波斯灣被伊斯蘭革命衛隊(IRGC)的快艇攔截。

據美聯社報導,美國海軍駐巴林第 5 艦隊的發言人、指揮官蒂莫西·霍金斯 (Timothy Hawkins) 表示,過去兩天他不知道與伊朗有任何不安全的互動。

伊朗電視台播放了從其中一艘快艇拍攝的視頻,顯示一艘懸掛美國國旗的船隻,船上有人員,似乎有一艘快艇在追趕它。可以聽到一個用波斯語說的聲音,“繼續追他們。” 美聯社報導稱,目前尚不清楚這次遭遇是何時發生的。

5 月,美國海岸警衛隊向多艘快速駛近的伊斯蘭革命衛隊快艇鳴槍示警,其中兩艘快艇危險地靠近美國海軍艦艇。

美國海岸警衛隊(來源:TONY HISGETT)

2015 年,作為伊朗核協議的一部分,作為取消對該國經濟制裁的交換,伊朗大幅限制其鈾濃縮活動。2018年,時任美國總統唐納德特朗普單方面退出該協議。

自 6 月以來,在維也納就續簽伊朗協議並讓美國重新加入該協議的談判一直停滯不前,沒有確定恢復的新日期。特朗普的退出和隨後的談判停滯加劇了該地區的緊張局勢。

US vessel intercepted by IRGC speedboats in Persian Gulf - report

A spokesman for the US Navy said that he was unaware of any unsafe interaction with Iran in the last two days.

By JERUSALEM POST STAFF

OCTOBER 7, 2021 19:49

Iranian boats take part in naval war game in the Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz southern Iran April 22, 2010. Iran's Revolutionary Guards successfully deployed a new speed boat capable of destroying enemy ships as war games began on Thursday in a waterway crucial for global oil supplies, Iran

(photo credit: REUTERS/FARS NEWS)

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A US vessel has been intercepted by speedboats belonging to the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) in the Persian Gulf, the Iranian Tasnim News reported on Thursday.

A spokesman for the US Navy's Bahrain-based 5th Fleet, Commander Timothy Hawkins, said he was unaware of any unsafe interaction with Iran in the last two days, according to AP.

A video filmed from one of the speedboats was shown on Iranian TV, showing a vessel flying the US flag, with personnel on board, with what appears to be a speedboat chasing it. A voice can be heard saying in Farsi, "Keep chasing them." It is not known when the encounter took place, the AP report said.

In May, the US Coast Guard fired warning shots at a number of fast-approaching IRGC speedboats, when two reached dangerously close to US Navy vessels.

US Coast Guard (credit: TONY HISGETT)

In 2015, in exchange for lifting economic sanctions in the country, Iran drastically limited its enrichment of uranium, as part of the Iran nuclear deal. In 2018, then-US President Donald Trump unilaterally withdrew from the deal.

Talks in Vienna on renewing the Iran deal and bringing the US back into it have been stalled since June, with no new date set to resume. Trump's withdrawal and subsequent stalling of the talks have increased tensions in the region.

約旦計劃在年底前為黎巴嫩供電

根據上個月宣布的一項協議,埃及將通過一條穿過約旦和敘利亞的管道向黎巴嫩供應天然氣,以幫助提高黎巴嫩的電力輸出。

通過路透

2021 年 10 月 7 日 16:29

2011 年 10 月 3 日,遊客在黎巴嫩南部港口城市西頓的海上城堡散步。

(圖片來源:路透社/ALI HASHISHO)

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約旦能源部長周四表示,約旦希望在年底前開始向黎巴嫩供電,因為黎巴嫩政府正試圖解決該國金融危機中嚴重的能源短缺問題。

Hala Zawati 告訴天空新聞阿拉伯,黎巴嫩正在為該項目尋求世界銀行融資,這是美國支持解決黎巴嫩能源危機的努力的一部分。

根據上個月宣布的一項協議,埃及將通過一條穿過約旦和敘利亞的管道向黎巴嫩供應天然氣,以幫助提高黎巴嫩的電力輸出。

正如黎巴嫩總統在 8 月份概述的那樣,該計劃還涉及使用埃及天然氣在約旦發電,然後通過敘利亞電網輸送到黎巴嫩。

上個月訪問黎巴嫩的美國參議員表示,他們正在尋求解決美國製裁敘利亞的複雜因素的方法。

伊朗外交部長侯賽因·阿米爾-阿卜杜拉希安週四在貝魯特表示,伊朗準備在 18 個月內在黎巴嫩建造兩座發電廠,一座在貝魯特,另一座在該國南部。

伊朗支持全副武裝的黎巴嫩什葉派真主黨組織,該組織被美國視為恐怖組織。

“我們完全準備好利用伊朗伊斯蘭共和國的技術專長完成這個項目,並從伊朗和黎巴嫩的聯合投資中受益,”他通過阿拉伯語翻譯說。

Jordan aims to supply Lebanon with electricity by end of the year

Under an agreement announced last month, Egypt will supply natural gas to Lebanon via a pipeline that passes through Jordan and Syria to help boost Lebanon's electricity output.

By REUTERS

OCTOBER 7, 2021 16:29

Tourists walk at the sea castle of the port-city of Sidon, southern Lebanon October 3, 2011.

(photo credit: REUTERS/ALI HASHISHO)

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Jordan hopes to start supplying Lebanon with electricity by the end of the year, its energy minister said on Thursday, as the Lebanese government tries to tackle its crippling energy shortages amid the country's financial meltdown.

Hala Zawati told Sky News Arabia that Lebanon was seeking World Bank financing for the project, part of efforts backed by the United States to address Lebanon's energy crisis.

Under an agreement announced last month, Egypt will supply natural gas to Lebanon via a pipeline that passes through Jordan and Syria to help boost Lebanon's electricity output.

The plan, as outlined by the Lebanese presidency in August, also involves using Egyptian gas to generate electricity in Jordan for transmission to Lebanon via the Syrian power grid.

US senators visiting Lebanon last month said they were seeking ways to address the complicating factor of US sanctions on Syria.

‘A CHALLENGE requiring the use of innovative advanced technologies is extreme changes in the character of electricity consumption during the day.’ (credit: REUTERS)

Iranian Foreign Minister Hossein Amir-Abdollahian said in Beirut on Thursday that Iran was ready to build two power plants in Lebanon, one in Beirut and the other in the south of the country, over a period of 18 months.

Iran backs the heavily armed, Lebanese Shi'ite group Hezbollah, deemed a terrorist group by the United States.

"We are completely ready to accomplish this project using the Islamic Republic of Iran's technical expertise, and benefiting from joint Iranian-Lebanese investment," he said, speaking via an Arabic translator.

He did not say who the investors could be.

庫爾德高級政治家稱美國將留在敘利亞

“他們說他們將留在敘利亞,不會撤退——他們將繼續與伊斯蘭國作戰,”艾哈邁德說。“在特朗普和阿富汗撤軍期間他們不清楚之前。”

通過路透

2021 年 10 月 7 日 18:41

2021 年 3 月 7 日,人們站在庫爾德斯坦國旗旁邊,等待教皇方濟各在伊拉克埃爾比勒的弗朗索哈里裡體育場舉行彌撒。

(圖片來源:路透社/YARA NARDI)

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敘利亞一名主要庫爾德政治家週四表示,美國將繼續留在敘利亞摧毀伊斯蘭國,建設基礎設施,並在經歷了 10 多年的內戰後繼續參與尋求政治解決方案。

庫爾德人居住在橫跨敘利亞、亞美尼亞、伊拉克、伊朗和土耳其邊界的山區,在 2011 年開始的內戰期間在敘利亞東北部建立了自治。

巴沙爾·阿薩德總統得到了俄羅斯和伊朗的支持,而敘利亞庫爾德人民保護部隊則得到了美國的支持。但在 2019 年,當時的總統唐納德特朗普將大部分美軍撤出敘利亞,以便土耳其能夠對庫爾德人發動進攻。

西方從阿富汗的混亂撤軍引發了整個中東地區的擔憂,即特朗普的繼任者喬拜登可能會放棄該地區的盟友,因為華盛頓認為中國是主要的戰略挑戰。

但伊利哈姆艾哈邁德 - 敘利亞民主委員會執行委員會主席,YPG 的政治機構 - 表示,美國已經對庫爾德人做出了明確的承諾。

2019 年 1 月 21 日,在敘利亞大馬士革上空看到導彈射擊。(圖片來源:SANA/HANDOUT VIA REUTERS)

“他們承諾將不惜一切代價摧毀伊斯蘭國,並努力在敘利亞東北部建設基礎設施,”他在華盛頓與白宮、國務院和五角大樓代表會晤後告訴路透社。

“他們說他們將留在敘利亞,不會撤退——他們將繼續與伊斯蘭國作戰,”艾哈邁德說。“之前他們在特朗普領導下和阿富汗撤軍期間都不清楚,但這次他們把一切都說清楚了。”

敘利亞的少數庫爾德人受到阿薩德的泛阿拉伯執政黨復興黨的歧視,他們管理著一個文職政府,管理曾經從大馬士革統治的數百萬敘利亞人的事務。

艾哈邁德說,庫爾德人已要求美國人幫助重新開放敘利亞和伊拉克之間的 Al-Yaarubiyah 過境點以獲得國際援助,並在幫助政治解決方面發揮作用。

艾哈邁德上個月在莫斯科會見了俄羅斯外交部長謝爾蓋拉夫羅夫,他說庫爾德人也一直在與俄羅斯人——“敘利亞的主要參與者”——進行對話,並準備與伊朗對話。

庫爾德人已與大馬士革進行了交談,試圖尋求政治解決方案。

艾哈邁德有多樂觀?

“我們認為短期內不會發生太多事情……我們希望美國人能夠為敘利亞政治解決發揮更積極的作用——他們應該這樣做。”

United States to stay in Syria, top Kurdish politician says

"They said they are going to stay in Syria and will not withdraw - they will keep fighting Islamic State," Ahmed said. "Before they were unclear under Trump and during the Afghan withdrawal."

By REUTERS

OCTOBER 7, 2021 18:41

People stand next to a Kurdistan flag as they wait for Pope Francis to hold a mass at Franso Hariri Stadium in Erbil, Iraq, March 7, 2021.

(photo credit: REUTERS/YARA NARDI)

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A leading Syrian Kurdish politician said on Thursday the United States will stay on in Syria to destroy Islamic State, build infrastructure and remain a player in the search for a political settlement after more than 10 years of civil war.

The Kurds, who live in the mountainous region straddling the borders of Syria, Armenia, Iraq, Iran and Turkey, carved out self-rule across northeast Syria during the civil war that began in 2011.

President Bashar al-Assad was supported by Russia and Iran while the Syrian Kurdish YPG militia was backed by the United States. But in 2019 then-President Donald Trump pulled most US forces out of Syria to enable a Turkish offensive against the Kurds.

The chaotic Western withdrawal from Afghanistan stoked concern across the Middle East that Trump's successor Joe Biden might abandon allies across the region as Washington perceived China to be the main strategic challenge.

But Ilham Ahmed - president of the executive committee of the Syrian Democratic Council, the political arm of the YPG - said the United States had given a clear commitment to the Kurds.

Missile fire is seen over Damascus, Syria January 21, 2019. (credit: SANA/HANDOUT VIA REUTERS)

"They promised to do whatever it takes to destroy Islamic State and work to build infrastructure in North Eastern Syria," he told Reuters after meetings in Washington with White House, State Department and Pentagon representatives.

"They said they are going to stay in Syria and will not withdraw - they will keep fighting Islamic State," Ahmed said. "Before they were unclear under Trump and during the Afghan withdrawal, but this time they made everything clear."

Syria's minority Kurds, who were discriminated against by Assad's pan-Arabist ruling Baath party, run a civilian administration that governs the affairs of several million Syrians once ruled from Damascus.

The Kurds have asked the Americans to help re-open the Al-Yaarubiyah border crossing between Syria and Iraq for international aid, and to play a role in helping a political settlement, Ahmed said.

Ahmed, who met Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov in Moscow last month, said the Kurds had also been speaking to the Russians - "the main player in Syria" - and was ready for dialog with Iran too.

The Kurds have spoken to Damascus in an attempt to find a political settlement.

How optimistic is Ahmed?

"We don't see much happening in the short term… We are hoping the Americans will play a more active role for a Syrian political settlement - they should do."

伊朗希望促使俄羅斯陷入高加索緊張局勢-分析

伊朗希望俄羅斯知道,它對以色列-阿塞拜疆關係的存在以及土耳其開闢陸路走廊的舉措感到擔憂。

作者:SETH J. FRANZMAN

2021 年 10 月 7 日 13:15

伊朗外交部長穆罕默德賈瓦德扎里夫和俄羅斯外交部長謝爾蓋拉夫羅夫於 2021 年 4 月 13 日在伊朗德黑蘭舉行的簽字儀式上。

(圖片來源:伊朗外交部/WANA(西亞新聞社)/通過路透社提供的資料)

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伊朗很擔心。它認為土耳其和阿塞拜疆之間以及阿塞拜疆和以色列之間的新興聯盟可能會切斷它與俄羅斯的陸路。它擔心土耳其和阿塞拜疆隨後將直接與中國合作並將伊朗推到一邊,在德黑蘭已經很弱的時候削弱它的經濟。

現在伊朗想問問俄羅斯人是否意識到在他們自己的後院發生了什麼。這是 Fars News 對俄羅斯政策的分析的主題,這可能反映了伊朗統治者如何看待這一挑戰。文章問道,土耳其在高加索地區對俄羅斯有什麼計劃。“俄羅斯歷來在高加索地區扮演著非常重要的角色,而這一角色可能會受到土耳其為該地區帶來地緣政治變化的努力的影響。”

當伊朗說“地緣政治”時,它往往暗示以色列的參與以及土耳其推動擴大與巴庫的關係。“高加索地區無疑是俄羅斯國家安全的主要地區之一,”文章稱。

但它指出,“俄羅斯的首要任務往往是防止西方和美國對該地區的影響,尤其是在里海和高加索地區。在 21 世紀的第一個十年裡,美國人以保護里海地區為藉口,做出了巨大的努力。” 伊朗希望美國被撤職,並希望俄羅斯同意。這就是為什麼德黑蘭很高興看到美國離開阿富汗並看到美國的影響力下降。

“安卡拉和巴庫擾亂該地區地緣政治秩序的新舉措在某種程度上可能會扭轉局勢,對俄羅斯不利;然而,俄羅斯目前似乎正在評估局勢。” 伊朗希望俄羅斯知道,它應該警惕只與土耳其在 S-400 交易等問題上合作,而且現在是莫斯科也關心伊朗的時候了。簡而言之,隨著安卡拉變得更具挑釁性,伊朗希望俄羅斯停止與土耳其劃分一切。

俄羅斯外交部長謝爾蓋·拉夫羅夫和伊朗外長侯賽因·阿米爾-阿卜杜拉希安在莫斯科舉行聯合新聞發布會(圖片來源:Kirill Kudryavtsev/Pool via REUTERS)

德黑蘭明白,莫斯科以 S-400 為目的,將土耳其從西方手中撬開。但這符合土耳其的利益。“多年來,俄羅斯人做出了巨大努力,使土耳其盡可能遠離西方戰線。向土耳其出售 S-400 導彈防禦系統是該戰略的一部分。” 伊朗知道“俄羅斯人繼續對向土耳其出售更新的軍事裝備表現出興趣。” 伊朗想知道:那我們呢?

伊朗辯稱,俄羅斯和土耳其在敘利亞和利比亞問題上意見不一致。“土耳其還與北約成員國,尤其是美國,擁有廣泛的安全和情報通信網絡,華盛頓將其用作收集該地區重要數據的平台。例如,土耳其繼續在該地區部署部分美國雷達系統,以應對該地區任何類型的彈道導彈發射。”

伊朗指出,土耳其在因塞爾利克基地仍有美軍。伊朗法爾斯新聞稱,“甚至美國的核武器似乎仍在基地的具體基地中”。“所有這些跡象足以讓我們相信,土耳其對美國和北約的依賴是可以通過一些政治分歧來消除的。”

主要問題是,儘管如此,俄羅斯人是否可以允許安卡拉冒險進入高加索地區,文章問道。“土耳其在高加索和里海地區的影響可能是挑戰莫斯科在該地區權力的完美例子。蘇聯解體後,俄羅斯人在贏得地區國家信任方面取得了長足的進步,同時也取得了一定的成功。”

文章認為,俄羅斯能夠在各種問題上讓亞美尼亞站在自己一邊,但在烏克蘭和格魯吉亞的一些其他問題上卻失敗了。“2014 年烏克蘭發生的事件在某種程度上改變了這一方向。例如,阿塞拜疆共和國開始擴大與土耳其的軍事關係,正如預期的那樣,在最近的納戈爾諾 - 卡拉巴赫戰役中能夠獲得土耳其的軍事支持,”它說。

“格魯吉亞也更加認真地加強與西方的聯繫。現在,土耳其在該地區的存在可能是削弱俄羅斯在該地區存在的又一章。”

這顯然是伊朗的阿喀琉斯之踵。“在當前形勢下,俄羅斯人面臨的最重要威脅是土耳其作為北約成員國在該地區南部走廊的存在擴大。事實上,如果土耳其通過亞美尼亞全面吞併阿塞拜疆共和國的計劃得以實施,可以預期俄羅斯將通過亞美尼亞的陸地邊界與伊朗發生問題。這將把伊朗與俄羅斯的關係限制在里海和中亞,並將阻礙伊朗與俄羅斯的互動。”

伊朗現在公開承認,它在這裡面臨著真正的挑戰。“亞美尼亞作為一個歷史上依賴俄羅斯在該地區支持的國家,將陷入困境。這些事態發展的結合將使該地區的俄羅斯人束手無策。此外,土耳其在各種情況下的行為將更加難以預測。”

伊朗很擔心。“在利比亞和敘利亞的失敗和失敗之後,土耳其強烈希望至少在高加索地區取得最小的成就。這一與阿塞拜疆共和國的陸路連接的成就可以實現[土耳其總統雷傑普·塔伊普]埃爾多安的計劃,即在不經過伊朗的情況下與中國建立陸路連接。”

文章認為,俄羅斯可能會採取行動限制土耳其在該地區的行動。“與此同時,伊朗可以在俄羅斯人的決策中發揮重要作用。伊朗外長對莫斯科的訪問可以被認為是朝著同一方向邁出的一步。” 伊朗現在表示,他們派往莫斯科的代表團警告俄羅斯人土耳其的行動以及“恐怖分子的存在以及該地區猶太復國主義政權反對和平、穩定與安全的運動”。

伊朗稱這非常敏感。它希望俄羅斯知道它對以色列-阿塞拜疆關係的存在以及土耳其開闢陸地走廊的舉動感到擔憂。“毫無疑問,俄羅斯也在認真關注該地區的事態發展,對土耳其在高加索地區動向的懷疑在克里姆林宮早已形成。”

也許。但伊朗在此傳達的信息是,時間可能不會站在自己這邊。感覺俄羅斯無視自己的擔憂,更喜歡土耳其。伊朗接下來會做什麼?這是德黑蘭現在所處的十字路口。

Iran wants to goad Russia into Caucasus tensions - analysis

Iran wants Russia to know that it is concerned by both the presence of Israel-Azerbaijan relations as well as Turkey’s moves to open up a land corridor.

By SETH J. FRANTZMAN

OCTOBER 7, 2021 13:15

Iran's Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif and Russia's Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov are seen during a signing ceremony, in Tehran, Iran, April 13, 2021.

(photo credit: IRAN'S FOREIGN MINISTRY/WANA (WEST ASIA NEWS AGENCY)/HANDOUT VIA REUTERS)

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Iran is worried. It sees an emerging alliance between Turkey and Azerbaijan as well as between Azerbaijan and Israel as potentially cutting it off from a land route to Russia. It is concerned that Turkey and Azerbaijan will then work directly with China and push Iran aside, weakening it economically at a time when Tehran is already weak.

Now Iran wants to ask the Russians if they realize what is happening in their own backyard. That was the subject of a Fars News analysis on Russia’s policies that likely reflects how Iran’s rulers see the challenge. What plans does Turkey have for Russia in the Caucasus, the article asks. “Russia has traditionally played a very important role in the Caucasus region, and this role can be influenced by Turkey's efforts to bring about geopolitical change in the region.”

When Iran says “geopolitical” it tends to hint at Israeli involvement and also Turkey’s push for expanding ties with Baku. “The Caucasus region is undoubtedly one of the main areas of Russian national security,” the article says.

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But it notes that “Russia's priority has often been to prevent Western and American influence in the region, especially in the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus. In the first decade of the 21st century, the Americans made great efforts to be present in the Caspian region under the pretext of securing this region.” Iran wanted the US to be removed and it hoped Russia would agree. That is why Tehran was happy to see America leave Afghanistan and see US influence rolled back.

“New moves by Ankara and Baku to disrupt the geopolitical order in the region could, to some extent, turn the tide to the detriment of the Russians; however, it seems that Russia is currently assessing the situation.” Iran wants Russia to know that it should be wary of only working with Turkey on issues like the S-400 deals and that it is time Moscow care about Iran as well. In short, Iran wants Russia to stop compartmentalizing everything with Turkey as Ankara grows more provocative.

Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov and his Iranian counterpart Hossein Amir-Abdollahian hold a joint news conference, in Moscow (credit: Kirill Kudryavtsev/Pool via REUTERS)

TEHRAN UNDERSTANDS that Moscow has traded the S-400s for prying Turkey away from the West. But this suits Turkey’s interests. “The Russians have made great efforts over the years to keep Turkey as far away from the Western front as possible. The sale of the S-400 missile defense system to Turkey was part of this strategy.” Iran knows that the “Russians continue to show interest in selling newer military equipment to Turkey.” Iran is wondering: What about us?

Iran argues that Russia and Turkey do not agree on Syria and Libya. “Turkey also has an extensive network of security and intelligence communications with NATO members, particularly the United States, which Washington uses as a platform for gathering important data on the region. Turkey, for example, continues to deploy part of the US radar system in the region to counter any type of ballistic missile launch in the region.”

Iran notes that Turkey still has US troops at the Incerlik base. “It even seems that US nuclear weapons are still in the concrete bases of the base,” Iran’s Fars news says. “All these signs are enough to make us believe that Turkey's dependence on the United States and NATO is something that can be eliminated with just a few political differences.”

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The main question is whether, despite all this, the Russians can allow Ankara to venture into the Caucasus, the article asks. “Turkey's influence in the Caucasus and the Caspian region could be a perfect example of challenging Moscow's power in the region. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russians have made great strides in gaining the trust of the countries of the region, and in the meantime they have been somewhat successful.”

The article argues that Russia was able to get Armenia on its side on various issues, but has failed in Ukraine and Georgia on some other issues. “The events in Ukraine in 2014 change this direction somewhat. For example, the Republic of Azerbaijan moved towards expanding military relations with Turkey and, as expected, was able to gain Turkish military support in the recent battle of Nagorno-Karabakh,” it said.

“Georgia has also moved more seriously to strengthen its ties with the West. Now a more serious Turkish presence in the region could be another chapter in weakening Russia's presence in the region.”

THIS IS Iran’s Achilles heel, apparently. “The most important threat facing the Russians in the current situation is the expansion of Turkey's presence as a NATO member in the southern corridor of the region. In fact, if Turkey's plan to fully annex itself to the Republic of Azerbaijan via Armenia is implemented, it can be expected that Russia will have problems with Iran through Armenia's land border. This would limit Iran's relationship with Russia to the Caspian Sea as well as to Central Asia, and would impede Iran-Russia interaction.”

Iran openly admits now that it faces a real challenge here. “Armenia, as a country that has historically relied on Russian support in the region, will be in trouble. The combination of these developments will close the hands of the Russians in the region. In addition, Turkey's behavior in various cases will be much more unpredictable.”

Iran is worried. “After its defeats and failures in the Libyan and Syrian cases, Turkey has a strong desire to at least achieve a minimal achievement in the Caucasus region. This achievement, which is the land connection with the Republic of Azerbaijan, can implement [Turkey President Recep Tayyip] Erdogan's plans to establish a land connection with the communication corridors with China without passing through Iran.”

The article argues that Russia may move to restrict Turkey's movement in the region. “In the meantime, Iran can play an important role in the decision-making of the Russians. The visit of the Iranian Foreign Minister to Moscow can be considered a move in the same direction.” Iran now says the delegation they sent to Moscow warned the Russians about Turkey’s actions and also “the presence of terrorists and to the movements of the Zionist regime in the region against peace and stability and security.”

Iran says this is very sensitive. It wants Russia to know that it is concerned by both the presence of Israel-Azerbaijan relations as well as Turkey’s moves to open up a land corridor. “Undoubtedly, Russia is also seriously monitoring the developments in the region, and doubts about Turkey's movements in the Caucasus have long been formed in the Kremlin.”

Perhaps. But Iran is messaging here how concerned it is that time may not be on its side. It feels that Russia is ignoring its concerns and prefers Turkey. What will Iran do next? This is the crossroads where Tehran now finds itself.

COVID:50% 的患者拒絕接受抗體藥物治療,許多患者未接種疫苗

接受了 Regeneron 抗體雞尾酒治療的冠狀病毒患者中有一半拒絕了。大多數人沒有接種疫苗。

作者:羅塞拉·特卡特

2021 年 10 月 7 日 21:08

一瓶再生元單克隆抗體放在醫療台上,註冊護士傑西卡·克魯姆維德 (Jessica Krumwiede) 試圖找到一條靜脈將其註射給凱茜·哈丁 (Cathy Hardin),凱茜·哈丁 (Cathy Hardin) 在薩拉索塔緊急紀念館 (Sarasota Memorial Urgent) 的冠狀病毒病 (COVID-19) 檢測呈陽性之前已接種疫苗薩拉索塔護理中心

(圖片來源:路透社/香農·斯台普頓)

衛生部的數據顯示,迄今為止,有一半的冠狀病毒患者接受了抗體雞尾酒 Regeneron以防止他們的健康惡化,但他們拒絕了這些藥物。

大多數拒絕接受治療的人都沒有接種疫苗。一位醫療保健提供者報告說,近 80% 的此類患者拒絕治療。

截至週三,已有 209 名患者接受了該藥物,209 名患者拒絕接受。

自 9 月 23 日以來,Regeneron 已被用於感染該病毒的以色列患者,這些患者被認為有出現嚴重症狀的高風險。

這些患者包括患有肥胖症、心肺疾病或未接種疫苗的患者在美國佛羅里達州薩拉索塔的薩拉索塔紀念緊急護理中心,註冊護士傑西卡·克魯姆維德 (Jessica Krumwiede) 試圖為凱茜·哈丁 (Cathy Hardin) 尋找靜脈注射再生元單克隆抗體,凱茜·哈丁 (Cathy Hardin) 在冠狀病毒病 (COVID-19) 檢測呈陽性之前已接種疫苗, 2021 年 9 月 23 日。(來源:REUTERS/SHANNON STAPLETON)

這種由不同抗體混合而成的雞尾酒於 11 月被美國食品和藥物管理局授權緊急使用。

根據 Regeneron 的數據,如果在感染的早期階段進行治療,高危人群的住院率和死亡率將減少 70%。

該藥提供給在醫療保健提供者的監督下在家接受治療的患者。

雖然衛生部和兩個最大的醫療保健提供者 Clalit Health Services 和 Maccabi Healthcare Services 沒有記錄接受或拒絕藥物的患者的疫苗接種情況,但 Meuhedet 健康維護組織的數據顯示,拒絕治療的傾向在以下人群中尤為普遍。未接種疫苗的個人。

截至週一,Meuhedet 已向 20 名患者註射了這種藥物,其中 8 名接種了疫苗,12 名未接種疫苗,而 32 人拒絕了。

根據 Meuhedet 的記錄,接受治療的接種患者中有 53% 接受了治療,而在未接種疫苗的患者中,只有 21% 接受了治療。

目前,以色列 475 名重症患者中的大多數和 ECMO 機器上的 58 名幾乎所有患者都未接種疫苗。

COVID: 50% of patients offered antibody drug refuse, many unvaccinated

Half of the coronavirus patients who were offered the antibody cocktail Regeneron refused it. The majority were unvaccinated.

By ROSSELLA TERCATIN

OCTOBER 7, 2021 21:08

A vial of Regeneron monoclonal antibody sits on a medical table as registered nurse Jessica Krumwiede attempts to find a vein to administer it to Cathy Hardin, who was vaccinated prior to testing positive for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), at the Sarasota Memorial Urgent Care Center in Sarasota

(photo credit: REUTERS/SHANNON STAPLETON)

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Half of the coronavirus patients who were offered the antibody cocktail Regeneron to prevent their health from deteriorating have so far refused the drugs, Health Ministry data have shown.

The majority of those who declined the treatment were unvaccinated. One healthcare provider reported nearly 80% of such patients refusing the treatment.

As of Wednesday, 209 patients had received the drug, and 209 had declined to accept it.

Regeneron has been administered to Israeli patients infected with the virus who are considered at high risk of developing severe symptoms since September 23.

These patients include those who suffer from obesity, heart and lung diseases or have not been vaccinated.

Registered nurse Jessica Krumwiede attempts to find a vein to administer the Regeneron monoclonal antibody to Cathy Hardin, who was vaccinated prior to testing positive for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), at the Sarasota Memorial Urgent Care Center in Sarasota, Florida, US, September 23, 2021. (credit: REUTERS/SHANNON STAPLETON)

The cocktail, a combination of different antibodies, was authorized in November for emergency use by the US Food and Drug Administration.

According to Regeneron’s data, if administered in the early stage of infection, the treatment reduces hospitalization and death in high-risk individuals by 70%.

The medicine is given to patients who are treated at home under the supervision of their healthcare providers.

While the Health Ministry and the two largest healthcare providers, Clalit Health Services and Maccabi Healthcare Services, do not record the vaccination status of patients who accept or refuse the drug, data from Meuhedet Health Maintenance Organization show the tendency to refuse treatment was especially prevalent among unvaccinated individuals.

As of Monday, Meuhedet had administered the drug to 20 patients, eight of whom were vaccinated and 12 unvaccinated, while 32 individuals refused.

According to Meuhedet’s records, 53% of the inoculated patients who were offered the treatment accepted, while among the unvaccinated, only 21% did.

Currently, the majority of the 475 serious patients in Israel and almost all of the 58 on ECMO machines are unvaccinated.

不可能的豬肉不應該是猶太潔食 - 意見

“我們應該很高興技術在素牛肉和素豬肉之間產生了有意義的區別——但如果存在區別,那麼對豬肉的禁令也必須如此。”

作者:大衛·茲維·卡爾曼/JTA

2021 年 10 月 7 日 05:06

Reubecca 是一種以豬肉為主的 Reuben 三明治。

(照片來源:麗貝卡·金/JTA 提供)

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東正教聯盟不會將 Impossible Pork 認證為猶太潔食,這與通常做出的關於認證猶太食品的決定的方式不同。但作為研究猶太教與技術長期關係的人,我認為這無疑是正確的舉措。

自從 OU 一個世紀前首次開始認證產品以來,Kosher 監管一直頑固地專注於客觀的事實調查:食物之所以是 kosher 是因為它的成分和製作方式(偶爾還有誰製作的),基本上就是這樣。為了獲得這些信息,現代猶太監管機構建立了極其複雜的全球業務,以跟踪複雜且不斷變化的供應鏈。這些系統通常對與食品加工本身沒有直接關係的幾乎所有事情都無動於衷,包括工廠的工作條件是否可以接受,成分是否可持續採購,或者經過認證的產品是否會殺死您(儘管有時會洩露政治信息 反正)。

因此,當 OU——世界上最大的猶太潔食產品認證機構——拒絕對下一代肉類替代品 Impossible Pork 進行認證時,這是不尋常的,儘管該產品中的每一種成分都是猶太潔食。OU 解釋說,它無法認證一種自稱是豬肉的產品。

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東正教聯盟的拉比 Menachem Genack(左)和拉比 Moshe ElefantHOWARD BLAS

儘管飢餓的猶太人和我自己對烹飪的強烈好奇心提出了相反的抗議,但我相信 OU 做出了正確的決定。儘管該決定似乎是狹隘的,但取消猶太潔食認證的舉動實際上可能會成為 21 世紀最重要的猶太法律決定之一。這似乎是談論大豆蛋白漿的誇張方式,但我真的認為事實並非如此。OU 的舉動是朝著技術創新立場邁出的第一步,該立場迫切需要變得更加普遍。

要了解原因,我們需要了解新技術對法律制度的影響。法律需要具體才能有效,因此構建良好的法律通常會根據特定對象、系統和行為方式的具體細節精心定制。當一項新技術出現並取代舊技術時——即使新技術與舊技術做的完全一樣——它可以使舊法律變得無關緊要,除非立法者進行更新干預。當舊技術已經存在很長時間並且法律與它交織在一起時,干預尤其重要。例如,監管加密貨幣至關重要,因為許多金融法規都假設交易完全通過國家發行的貨幣進行,而這些貨幣主要存儲在銀行中。

但是,如果立法者的工作是在新舊科技之間創造連續性,那麼許多擁有“快速行動和打破常規”文化的現代科技公司似乎往往一心想要將它們分開。新技術的製造商喜歡稱事物為“史無前例”,因為它會引起炒作,但將新技術與舊技術分開也是一種很好的方式,可以使自己免於對這些技術的行為方式承擔道德和法律責任。

這種新技術動態也體現在猶太法律中。贖罪日禁止皮鞋的規則——因為它們被認為是一種放縱——如何適用於舒適的合成鞋時代?當現代襯衫沒有觸發 tzitzit 的聖經要求的四個角時,必須穿 tzitzit(儀式流蘇)嗎?在更大的範圍內,安息日電梯、

猶太燈以及以色列 Tzomet 研究所開發的一系列技術都採用新技術來規避現有規則,同時遵守法律的條文(如果不是精神)。

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有時猶太人允許這些規則被侵蝕,因為賭注不夠高,但是當一項新技術威脅到破壞猶太傳統時,拉比們往往會做出適當的回應。

最好的例子是禁止在安息日打開或關閉電力。幾千年來,安息日的經歷是由聖經禁止生火所塑造的。隨著上世紀之交電力的出現,該禁令有可能變得無關緊要。東正教拉比的回應是圍繞電就是火或其他一些公認的禁令所涵蓋的論點進行合併。電實際上不是火併不重要;這個論點之所以成立,是因為領導層和俗人都明白,電力即將取代火,火能做的一切都將變得如此等等。今天,對電力的限制是安息日體驗的基石,如此重要以至於許多細心的猶太人很難想像沒有它的安息日。

Impossible Pork 是 21 世紀的電嗎?有一個很好的例子可以證明它是。圍繞肉類生產的倫理和環境問題推動了植物性肉類替代品的興起。他們的成功取決於他們是如此美味,以至於他們擺脫了具有生態意識的消費者的精品領域,並承擔了與肉類相同的文化角色。漢堡王提供了一個 Impossible Whopper 表明這種情況已經發生,主要肉類生產商已大量投資以發展植物性替代品來替代他們自己的產品。

應該慶祝這些發展——但不是削弱肉類的特殊文化意義,它的替代品只是起到了增光作用。

肉在猶太教中也具有特殊意義。上帝是動物祭祀的忠實粉絲,許多節日仍然涉及肉的儀式或文化使用——因為肉很重要,重要的是肉不是豬肉。禁令的古代以色列起源是模糊的,這無關緊要;現代守規矩的猶太人(和穆斯林)仍然將禁止豬產品視為文化試金石,這就足夠了。我們應該高興的是,技術已經在素牛肉和素豬肉之間產生了有意義的區別——但如果存在區別,那麼對豬肉的禁令也必須如此。

OU 的裁決還不是一項成熟的政策,即所有的假肉都應該像真肉一樣對待;猶太餐廳仍然可以提供以植物為基礎的“芝士漢堡”,而不必擔心其執照會被吊銷。但是,即使它的本意不是很深刻,OU 的決定也是一個例子,說明所有監管機構,包括宗教和政府機構,都可以如何反擊當前新技術的衝擊繼續造成的文化束縛。在這個前所未有的時代,在過去和現在之間創造連續性有助於將社會建立在其過去的智慧和規範中。

Impossible Pork shouldn't be kosher - opinion

"We should be glad that technology has created a meaningful difference between veggie beef and veggie pork — but if the distinction is there, the ban on the pork must be, too."

By DAVID ZVI KALMAN/JTA

OCTOBER 7, 2021 05:06

The Reubecca is a pork-heavy take on a Reuben sandwich.

(photo credit: COURTESY OF REBECCA KING/JTA)

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The Orthodox Union won’t certify Impossible Pork as kosher, representing a break from the way that decisions about certifying kosher food are normally made. But as someone who studies Judaism’s long relationship with technology, I would argue that it is undoubtedly the right move.

Since the OU first started certifying products a century ago, kosher supervision has always remained doggedly focused on objective fact-finding: Food is kosher because of what’s in it and how it’s made (and, occasionally, who makes it) and that’s basically it. To get this information, modern kosher supervision agencies have built out fantastically complex global operations that keep track of complicated and constantly shifting supply chains. These systems are often incurious about almost everything not directly related to the food processing itself, including whether factory working conditions are acceptable, whether the ingredients are sustainably sourced, or whether the certified product will kill you (though politics sometimes leaks in anyway).

So it was unusual when the OU — the largest certifier of kosher products in the world — denied certification to Impossible Pork, a next-gen meat substitute, despite the fact that every ingredient in the product is kosher. The OU explained that it could not certify a product that described itself as pork.

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Rabbi Menachem Genack (left) and Rabbi Moshe Elefant of the Orthodox UnionHOWARD BLAS

Despite protestations to the contrary from hungry Jews and my own deep culinary curiosity, I believe that the OU made the right call. Though it seems that the decision was narrowly decided, the move to withhold kosher certification may in fact turn out to be one of the most important Jewish legal decisions of the 21st century. This may seem like a hyperbolic way of talking about soy protein slurry, but I really think it isn’t. The OU’s move is a first, tentative step towards a stance on technological innovation that desperately needs to become more common.

To understand why, we need to understand the effect of new technologies on legal regimes. Law needs to be specific to be effective, and so well-constructed law is often carefully tailored to the nitty-gritty details of specific objects, systems and ways of behaving. When a new technology comes along and replaces the old — even if the new tech does exactly the same thing as the old — it can make the old law irrelevant unless lawmakers intervene with an update. Interventions are especially important when the old technology has been around for a long time and law has grown intertwined with it. Regulating cryptocurrency, for example, is crucial precisely because so many financial regulations assume that transactions take place exclusively through state-issued currency that is mostly stored in banks.

But if the job of lawmakers is to create continuities between old and new tech, many modern tech firms, with their “move fast and break things” culture, often seem hellbent on tearing them apart. The makers of new technology like to call things “unprecedented” because it generates hype, but disconnecting new technologies from old ones is also a good way of shielding themselves from ethical and legal responsibility for how those technologies behave.

This new tech dynamic plays out in Jewish law, too. How should the rule forbidding leather shoes on Yom Kippur — because they were considered an indulgence — apply in an era of comfortable synthetic shoes? Must one wear tzitzit (ritual fringes) at all when modern shirts don’t have the four corners that triggered the Biblical requirement of tzitzit? On a larger scale, the Shabbat elevator, the Kosher Lamp, as well as a host of technologies developed by Israel’s Tzomet Institute, all employ new technologies to circumvent existing rules while keeping within the letter, if not the spirit, of the law.

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Sometimes Jews have allowed these rules to be eroded because the stakes didn’t feel high enough, but when a new technology threatens to undermine Jewish tradition, the rabbis have tended to respond appropriately.

The best example of this is the ban on turning electricity on or off on Shabbat. For millennia, the experience of Shabbat was shaped by the Biblical prohibition on lighting fires; with the advent of electricity at the turn of the last century, that ban threatened to become irrelevant. Orthodox rabbis responded by coalescing around the argument that electricity is fire, or was covered by some other well-established prohibition. That electricity is not actually fire didn’t matter; the argument carried because it was understood by leadership and laity alike that electricity was coming to replace fire, to do everything fire could do and more. Today, the restrictions on electricity are a cornerstone of the Shabbat experience, so fundamental that it is hard for many observant Jews to imagine Shabbat without it.

Is Impossible Pork the 21st century version of electricity? There’s a good case to be made that it is. The rise of plant-based meat substitutes has been spurred by ethical and environmental concerns around meat production. Their success depends on their being so delicious that they escape from the boutique realm of eco-conscious consumers and take on the same cultural role as meat. That Burger King offers an Impossible Whopper signals that this is already happening, as does the fact that major meat producers have invested heavily in the growth of plant-based alternatives to their own products.

These developments should be celebrated—but rather than diminishing meat’s special cultural meaning, its substitutes have only served to burnish it.

Meat has a special significance in Judaism, too. God is a big fan of animal sacrifices, and many holidays still involve the ritual or cultural use of meat — and inasmuch as meat matters, it matters that the meat isn’t pork. It’s irrelevant that the Ancient Israelite origins of the ban are obscure; it’s enough that modern observant Jews (and Muslims) still treat the ban on pig products as a cultural touchstone. We should be glad that technology has created a meaningful difference between veggie beef and veggie pork — but if the distinction is there, the ban on the pork must be, too.

The OU’s ruling does not yet amount to a full-fledged policy that all fake meat should be treated like real meat; a kosher restaurant can still serve plant-based “cheeseburgers” without fear that its license will be revoked. But even if it was not intended to be profound, the OU’s decision is an example of how all regulators, both religious and governmental, can fight back against the cultural unmooring that the present onslaught of new technology continues to cause. In this unprecedented age, creating continuity between the past and the present serves to ground society in the wisdom and norms of its own past.

衛生部考慮要求新接種疫苗避免鍛煉

由於少數心肌炎病例,衛生部可能會要求新接種疫苗的人一周內避免運動。

作者:瑪雅·賈夫·霍夫曼

2021 年 10 月 7 日 14:33

輝瑞 COVID-19 疫苗的說明性照片。

(圖片來源:MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/耶路撒冷郵報)

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耶路撒冷郵報獲悉,由於在一小部分接種疫苗的人群中檢測到心肌炎病例,接種輝瑞冠狀病毒疫苗的個人可能會被要求在接種每一劑疫苗後一周內避免劇烈運動和其他體力活動。

在為衛生部流行病控制和冠狀病毒疫苗諮詢委員會準備的幻燈片中,衛生部流行病學司的一些衛生官員建議個人“在接種第二劑疫苗一周內避免劇烈活動”。 mRNA COVID-19 疫苗。”

休閒散步、伸展運動、站立工作和做家務都是可以接受的。

如果被接受,在接種疫苗後提供給接種疫苗的人的指南將被更新。

該建議是在周三晚間發表的一項研究之後提出的,該研究表明,一劑輝瑞疫苗會增加心臟炎症的風險——然而,病例通常是輕微的,而且大多數是年輕男性。

“我們建議每個人,尤其是 30 歲以下的青少年和年輕男性,在第一次和第二次接種後的一周內避免劇烈活動,例如劇烈運動,”幻燈片上說。

它將高強度運動定義為循環訓練、劇烈的重量訓練、短跑和長距離游泳。

官員們表示,擔心失去體能的高功能運動員可以考慮“降低他們的運動水平”到低強度。

疫苗專家組的一名成員告訴《華盛頓郵報》,雖然此事將在下次會議上討論,但目前大多數委員會成員都反對。

Health Ministry to consider asking newly vaccinated to avoid working out

The Health Ministry may ask newly vaccinated people to avoid exercise for a week due to a small number of myocarditis cases.

By MAAYAN JAFFE-HOFFMAN

OCTOBER 7, 2021 14:33

An illustrative photo of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine.

(photo credit: MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/THE JERUSALEM POST)

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Individuals vaccinated with the Pfizer coronavirus vaccine may be asked to avoid strenuous exercise and other physical activity for one week after receiving each dose due to cases of myocarditis that were detected in a small percentage of vaccinated people, The Jerusalem Post has learned.

In a slide deck prepared for the Health Ministry’s advisory committee for epidemic control and coronavirus vaccines, which the Post reviewed, some health officials in the Epidemiology Division of the Health Ministry are recommending that individuals “avoid strenuous activity for one week after their second dose of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines.”

Casual walking, stretching, working while standing and housework would all be acceptable.

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If accepted, the guidelines that are given to vaccinated people after getting the jab would be updated.

The recommendation comes on the heels of a study published late Wednesday night showing that one dose of the Pfizer vaccine increased the risk of heart inflammation – however, cases were usually mild and the majority were among young males.

“We recommend that everyone, in particular adolescents and young men aged under 30 avoid strenuous activity, such as intense exercise, for one week after the first and second doses,” the slide deck said.

It defined high-intensity exercise as circuit training, vigorous forms of weight training, sprinting and swimming longer distances.

The officials said that high-functioning athletes that would be concerned about losing their conditioning could consider “downgrading their level of exercise” to a low intensity.

A member of the vaccine panel told the Post that although the matter would be discussed at the next meeting, most committee members are currently opposed to it.

巴勒斯坦人對法院允許猶太人在聖殿山祈禱的裁決感到憤怒

在以色列法院裁定支持猶太人在聖殿山祈禱後,巴勒斯坦團體警告局勢升級。

通過TZVI JOFFRE

2021 年 10 月 7 日 19:33

猶太男子本週在聖殿山祈禱。

(照片來源:JEREMY SHARON)

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巴勒斯坦人表示憤怒,並警告週四的事態升級,因為周三法院裁決暗示支持允許猶太遊客在聖殿山上安靜祈禱,這是對過去一年半以來相對不受干擾的做法的首次正式承認。 .

週三,耶路撒冷地方法院審理了 Aryeh Lipo 的上訴,他是聖殿山的一名猶太遊客,在一名警察命令他在贖罪日訪問期間停止祈禱後,他已被移走並遠離建築群 15 天。

Bilha Yahalom法官在觀看了事件的錄音後裁定,上訴人的行為沒有違反聖殿山上的法律或警察的指示,因為他是在沒有人群的情況下安靜地以一種不可見或不可見的方式祈禱。該裁決還指出,以色列警方對 Lipo 和許多其他人一樣,每天都在聖殿山祈禱沒有異議。

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儘管警方提出了相反的說法,但法官還駁回了 Lipo 以安靜的祈禱構成任何危險或犯下任何違法行為的觀點。

雖然高等法院過去曾裁定猶太人確實有在聖殿山上祈禱的合法權利,但警方以安全考慮為由全面禁止猶太人祈禱。

該網站的猶太遊客在進入時會被告知祈禱和宗教物品,如祈禱書或祈禱披肩,或禁止進入該建築群,儘管自 2019 年底以來,猶太遊客已經能夠在該網站的某些部分安靜地祈禱不受干擾。

Betzalmo 非政府組織首席執行官 Shai Glick 對周三的裁決表示歡迎,稱這是第一次“明確聲明”猶太人有充分的權利在聖殿山上祈禱。“我相信從現在開始,以色列警方會理解並內化這一點,祈禱將繼續正常進行,”格利克說。

代表 Lipo 的右翼 Honenu 法律援助組織的律師 Moshe Polsky 也對周三的決定表示歡迎,稱它使過去一年在聖殿山上已經實行的做法合法化,並允許猶太人在該地點祈禱。

“令人難以置信的是,在允許聖殿山上的穆斯林做任何事情——祈禱、要求、踢足球和暴動而警察不阻止的情況下,不應該允許聖殿山地區的猶太人甚至默默地喃喃自語和祈禱——並且猶太人應該在聖地感覺像陌生人,”波爾斯基說。

法院的裁決引起了約旦人和巴勒斯坦人的憤怒,並警告稱此類舉動可能會加劇該地區的局勢。

據約旦佩特拉通訊社報導,約旦外交部發言人海瑟姆·阿布·阿爾富爾稱這一決定“無效”,稱其不具有法律效力,因為國際法不承認以色列對東耶路撒冷的權力。

阿爾富爾補充說,該裁決是“公然違反國際合法性”,並超越了阿克薩清真寺的現狀。發言人強調,約旦經營的 Waqf 部門是負責管理該網站事務的唯一機構。

週四,哈馬斯運動稱這一裁決是“明確的宣戰”和“對神聖的阿克薩清真寺的公然侵略”。

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“耶路撒冷之劍之戰不是,也不會是耶路撒冷名義下對抗的最後一章,承諾和實現的抵抗證實,它已準備好並準備好擊退侵略和捍衛權利,”警告說。哈馬斯。

該運動呼籲巴勒斯坦人和阿拉伯以色列人加強他們在清真寺的存在,並“形成反對占領的堡壘”。哈馬斯還呼籲阿拉伯和穆斯林國家“承擔起保衛清真寺的作用”,並補充說清真寺及其廣場正在“等待解放的征服者群眾,而不是等待害怕進入的印刷工人群眾”。在佔領的保護下。”

巴勒斯坦伊斯蘭聖戰運動 (PIJ) 也對這一決定表示憤慨,稱其“無效,是對阿克薩清真寺的神聖性和穆斯林對它的純粹權利的攻擊”。

PIJ 警告以色列該決定的後果,並強調巴勒斯坦人將“以全力、堅定和無情的決心面對任何傷害阿克薩的企圖”。

巴勒斯坦耶路撒冷總督阿德南·蓋斯警告說,允許安靜祈禱的決定開創了一個危險的先例,並聲稱這一決定是為了準備建造第三聖殿而劃分建築群的努力的一部分。消息。

由於哈馬斯代表團在開羅會見了埃及官員,討論繼續努力達成冷靜和囚犯交換協議的努力,這一決定引發了爭議。預計未來幾天,巴勒斯坦伊斯蘭聖戰組織(PIJ)運動的代表團也將訪問開羅。

據總部位於倫敦的阿拉伯媒體 al-Araby al-Jadeed 稱,據報導,哈馬斯代表團警告埃及,任何休戰協議都將取決於耶路撒冷、約旦河西岸和以色列監獄的局勢。代表團還警告說,由於在耶路撒冷和針對囚犯的“以色列持續侵犯和犯罪”以及繼續建造定居點,局勢可能會“爆炸”,就像它在 5 月份的圍牆守護者行動期間一樣,據薩法新聞。

爭議還發生在最近約旦河西岸和耶路撒冷的暴力事件升級之後,一周之後,八名巴勒斯坦人在約旦河西岸和加沙地帶被以色列槍殺,其中包括三名哈馬斯特工和三名 PIJ 特工。

在西岸最近的逮捕行動中,巴勒斯坦人和以色列安全部隊之間爆發了武裝衝突,兩名以色列國防軍士兵在針對西岸一個大型全副武裝的哈馬斯恐怖組織的逮捕行動中在衝突中受傷。

Palestinians outraged over court ruling allowing Jewish prayer on Temple Mount

Palestinian groups warned of an escalation after an Israeli court ruled in support of Jewish prayer on the Temple Mount.

By TZVI JOFFRE

OCTOBER 7, 2021 19:33

JEWISH MEN pray on the Temple Mount this week.

(photo credit: JEREMY SHARON)

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Palestinians expressed outrage and warned of an escalation on Thursday after a court ruling on Wednesday implied support for allowing quiet prayer by Jewish visitors on the Temple Mount, the first such official recognition of the practice which has gone relatively undisturbed for the past year and a half.

On Wednesday, the Jerusalem Magistrate’s Court heard the appeal of Aryeh Lipo, a Jewish visitor to the Temple Mount who had been removed and distanced from the complex for 15 days after a police officer ordered him to stop praying during a visit on Yom Kippur.

After watching a recording of the incident, Justice Bilha Yahalom ruled that the appellant’s behavior did not violate the law or police instructions on the Temple Mount, as he was praying without a crowd and quietly in a way that was not external or visible. The ruling stated as well that Israel Police did not dispute that Lipo, like many others, prays on a daily basis on the Temple Mount.

The justice additionally dismissed the notion that Lipo posed any danger or committed any violation with his quiet prayer, despite claims by police to the contrary.

While the High Court of Justice has ruled in the past that Jews do have the legal right to pray on the Temple Mount, police have cited security concerns to impose a blanket prohibition on Jewish prayer.

Jewish visitors to the site are informed upon entry that prayer and religious items such as prayer books or prayer shawls or forbidden in the complex, although, since late 2019, Jewish visitors have been able to pray quietly, in certain parts of the site, relatively undisturbed.

Shai Glick, CEO of the Betzalmo NGO, welcomed the ruling on Wednesday, calling it the first time that it was “explicitly stated” that Jews have the full right to pray on the Temple Mount. “I am sure that from now on Israel Police will understand and internalize this and the prayers will continue as normal,” said Glick.

Moshe Polsky, an attorney from the right-wing Honenu legal aid group who represented Lipo, also welcomed the decision on Wednesday, saying it legalized what has been already practiced on the Temple Mount for the past year and allows Jews to pray at the site.

“It is inconceivable that Jews in the Temple Mount area should not be allowed to mumble and pray even silently when Muslims on the mountain are allowed to do everything – pray, demand, play football, and riot while the police do not prevent this – and Jews should feel like strangers in the holy place,” said Polsky.

The court ruling has drawn outrage from Jordanians and Palestinians, with warnings that such moves could escalate the situation in the region.

Haitham Abu Alfoul, a spokesperson for Jordan’s Foreign Ministry called the decision “null,” saying it has no legal effect as international law does not recognize Israeli authority over east Jerusalem, according to Jordan’s Petra News Agency.

Alfoul added that the ruling is a “flagrant violation of international legitimacy,” and oversteps the status-quo at al-Aqsa Mosque. The spokesperson stressed that the Jordanian-run Waqf department is the sole body responsible for managing the affairs of the site.

The Hamas movement called the ruling a “clear declaration of war” and a “blatant aggression against the blessed al-Aqsa Mosque” on Thursday.

“The battle of the sword of Jerusalem was not and will not be the last chapter of the confrontation under the title of Jerusalem, and the resistance that was promised and fulfilled confirms that it is ready and prepared to repel aggression and defend rights,” warned Hamas.

The movement called on Palestinians and Arab-Israelis to intensify their presence at the mosque and to “form a bulwark against the occupation.” Hamas also called on Arab and Muslim countries to “assume their role in defending” the mosque, adding that the mosque and its squares are “waiting for the masses of the liberated conquerors, and they are not waiting for the masses of typographers who enter fearfully under the protection of the occupation.”

The Palestinian Islamic Jihad movement (PIJ) also expressed outrage against the decision, calling it “invalid and an attack on the sanctity of al-Aqsa Mosque and the pure right of Muslims to it.”

The PIJ warned Israel of the consequences of the decision, stressing that the Palestinians will “face any attempts to harm Al-Aqsa, with all strength, steadfastness and relentless determination.”

The Palestinian governor of Jerusalem, Adnan Ghaith, warned that the decision to allow quiet prayer set a dangerous precedent and claimed that the decision was part of an effort to divide the complex to prepare for the building of the Third Temple, according to the Palestinian Safa news.

The controversy over the decision came as a Hamas delegation met with Egyptian officials in Cairo to discuss continuing efforts to reach an agreement of calm and a prisoner swap deal. A delegation from the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) movement is also expected to visit Cairo in the coming days.

The Hamas delegation reportedly warned Egypt that any truce agreement would depend on the situation in Jerusalem, the West Bank, and Israeli prisons, according to al-Araby al-Jadeed, a London-based Arabic media outlet. The delegation also warned that the situation could “explode” as it did in May during Operation Guardian of the Walls, due to what it called “continuous Israeli violations and crimes” in Jerusalem and against prisoners, as well as the continuation of settlement building, according to Safa news.

The controversy also comes after a recent uptick in violence in the West Bank and Jerusalem and a week after eight Palestinians were killed by Israeli gunfire in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, including three Hamas operatives and three PIJ operatives.

During recent arrest operations in the West Bank, armed clashes have broken out between Palestinians and Israeli security forces, with two IDF soldiers wounded in clashes during an arrest operation targeting a large and heavily armed Hamas terrorist cell in the West Bank.

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