2021.10.21 國際新聞導讀-俄羅斯1020舉辦阿富汗國際會議試圖解決問題、聯合國特使呼籲以色列不要扣巴勒斯坦當局的稅款以免巴方財政崩潰、阿布達比王儲與敘利亞阿塞德通話改善關係、埃及加強對西奈北部之控制、以色列民眾對新政府外交政策之看法

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2021.10.21 國際新聞導讀-俄羅斯1020舉辦阿富汗國際會議試圖解決問題、聯合國特使呼籲以色列不要扣巴勒斯坦當局的稅款以免巴方財政崩潰、阿布達比王儲與敘利亞阿塞德通話改善關係、埃及加強對西奈北部之控制、以色列民眾對新政府外交政策之看法

俄羅斯敦促塔利班開放政府,呼籲阿富汗援助

“沒有人對整個國家完全癱瘓感興趣,”克里姆林宮發言人說,俄羅斯敦促國際社會支持阿富汗。

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2021 年 10 月 20 日 16:59

2021 年 10 月 20 日,塔利班代表團團長阿卜杜勒·薩拉姆·哈納菲 (Abdul Salam Hanafi) 出席在俄羅斯莫斯科舉行的阿富汗問題國際會談。

(圖片來源:ALEXANDER ZEMLIANICHENKO/POOL VIA REUTERS)

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俄羅斯週三加大了對塔利班的壓力,要求他們創建一個代表阿富汗社會廣泛範圍的包容性政府,這是他們自掌權以來首次在一個重要會議上主持他們的新政府。

巴基斯坦、中國、伊朗、印度和前蘇聯中亞國家在莫斯科會議上加入了塔利班官員的行列。美國以技術原因置之不理。

由於阿富汗面臨經濟崩潰和人道主義災難,莫斯科呼籲國際援助支持喀布爾,意識到任何溢出都可能威脅到地區穩定。

克里姆林宮發言人德米特里·佩斯科夫(Dmitry Peskov)說:“沒有人對整個國家完全癱瘓感興趣,該國家與獨聯體(獨聯體)接壤。”

在美國從阿富汗撤軍並且塔利班控制了該國之後,俄羅斯主辦會談的舉措是提高其在該地區影響力的努力的一部分。

外交部長謝爾蓋拉夫羅夫表示,他對美國缺席會談感到遺憾,這是自塔利班 8 月獲勝以來該地區最大的國際會議。

拉夫羅夫對塔利班政府採取了和解的態度,塔利班政府正在尋求國際外交合法性,以支持其解凍西方資產並讓援助流動的呼籲。

但莫斯科一直不願給予正式承認,呼籲保障人權並提高政府的包容性,由運動核心領導層的普什圖族人主導。

“正在進行一場重大的政治談判,”弗拉基米爾普京總統的阿富汗問題特別代表扎米爾卡布洛夫告訴記者。

他說必須滿足國際社會的期望,並補充說:“這意味著人權和包容性。”

塔利班表示,他們在開放政府和保障婦女權利方面已盡快採取行動,並且他們不會對任何其他國家構成威脅。

“孤立阿富汗不符合任何人的利益,”率領代表團的副總理阿卜杜勒·薩拉姆·哈納菲 (Abdul Salam Hanafi) 說。

不穩定風險

莫斯科主要擔心中亞不穩定的風險,以及可能有來自阿富汗的移民流動和伊斯蘭激進活動。

在伊斯蘭國的當地分支機構(以該地區的古老名稱命名為呼羅珊省的伊斯蘭國)對清真寺和其他目標發動了一系列襲擊後,這種擔憂加劇了,造成數百人死亡。

2020 年 6 月 12 日,阿富汗喀布爾,人們檢查清真寺內的爆炸現場。(圖片來源:REUTERS/MOHAMMAD ISMAIL)

拉夫羅夫敦促塔利班“防止將阿富汗領土用於針對第三國,即最重要的鄰國”。

俄羅斯在 1980 年代在阿富汗打了一場災難性的戰爭,並且與與阿富汗接壤的前蘇聯中亞國家有著密切的軍事和政治聯繫。

除了表示沒有激進組織能夠在阿富汗開展活動外,塔利班還表示他們將維護婦女和少數民族的權利。但許多婦女和女孩無法上班或上學,臨時內閣只包括男性。

Russia presses Taliban to open up government, calls for Afghan aid

"Nobody is interested in the complete paralysis of an entire state," said a Kremlin spokesman, a Russia urges international support for Afghanistan.

By REUTERS

OCTOBER 20, 2021 16:59

Head of the Taliban delegation Abdul Salam Hanafi attends international talks on Afghanistan in Moscow, Russia, October 20, 2021.

(photo credit: ALEXANDER ZEMLIANICHENKO/POOL VIA REUTERS)

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Russia increased pressure on the Taliban on Wednesday to create an inclusive government representing a broad spectrum of Afghan society, as it hosted their new administration at a major conference for the first time since they took power.

Pakistan, China, Iran, India and former Soviet Central Asian states joined Taliban officials at the Moscow meeting. The United States stayed away, citing technical reasons.

With Afghanistan facing economic collapse and a humanitarian catastrophe, Moscow called for international aid to support Kabul, conscious that any spillover could threaten regional stability.

"Nobody is interested in the complete paralysis of an entire state, which borders, among other things, the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States)," said Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov.

Russia's initiative in hosting the talks is part of an effort to boost its influence in the region after the United States withdrew its forces from Afghanistan and the Taliban took control of the country.

Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said he regretted the US absence from the talks, the biggest international meeting on the region since the Taliban victory in August.

Lavrov struck a conciliatory tone towards the Taliban government, which is seeking international diplomatic legitimacy that would bolster its calls to unfreeze assets held in the West and let aid flow.

But Moscow has been reluctant to accord formal recognition, calling for human rights to be guaranteed and more inclusivity in the government, dominated by ethnic Pashtuns from the core leadership of the movement.

"A big political bargaining is going on," President Vladimir Putin's special representative on Afghanistan, Zamir Kabulov, told reporters.

He said the expectations of the international community had to be met, adding: "This means both human rights and inclusivity."

The Taliban say they have moved as quickly as possible on opening up their government and guaranteeing rights to women, and that they do not represent a threat to any other country.

"Isolating Afghanistan is in no one's interests," said Abdul Salam Hanafi, the deputy prime minister who led the delegation.

INSTABILITY RISK

Moscow is mainly concerned about the risk of instability in Central Asia, and possible migrant flows and Islamist militant activity directed from Afghanistan.

The concerns have intensified after a series of attacks by the local affiliate of Islamic State - dubbed Islamic State in Khorasan Province after an ancient name for the region - on mosques and other targets that have killed hundreds of people.

Men inspect the site of a blast inside a mosque in Kabul, Afghanistan June 12, 2020. (credit: REUTERS/MOHAMMAD ISMAIL)

Lavrov urged the Taliban "to prevent the use of Afghanistan's territory against third countries, most important neighbors."

Russia fought its own disastrous war in Afghanistan in the 1980s and has close military and political ties with former Soviet Central Asian states that border Afghanistan.

As well as saying no militant groups will be able to operate from Afghanistan, the Taliban have said they will safeguard the rights of women and minorities. But many women and girls have been prevented from going to work or school and the interim cabinet includes only men.

潘多拉文件顯示英屬維爾京群島控制東耶路撒冷土地

管理東耶路撒冷房產的以色列定居者使用離岸賬戶,未能支付公司費用和稅款。

作者:ASAF SHALEV/JTA

2021 年 10 月 20 日 04:09

近年來,東耶路撒冷一些最有爭議的房地產已受到英屬維爾京群島的合法控制,因為管理這些房產的以色列定居者使用離岸賬戶並且未能支付公司費用和稅款。

這一發現出現在以色列調查新聞機構 Shomrim 的 Uri Blau 和 Daniel Dolev 最近的一系列報導中,此前離岸金融服務的秘密世界的記錄大量洩露。

洩密事件被稱為潘多拉文件,與 Shomrim 和全球其他約 150 家新聞媒體共享。參與該項目的大約 600 名記者一直在揭露政治家和其他公眾人物,他們在提供保密和稅收優惠的司法管轄區持有銀行賬戶、房地產和其他財產。

據 Shomrim 稱,在洩密事件中確定的人員中有 565 人是以色列公民,並指出使用離岸賬戶開展業務並不違法。離岸賬戶可以通過多種方式對其持有人有利,包括潛在地保護他們的身份、減少他們的納稅義務並使他們免受本國法律要求或後果的影響。

耶路撒冷市長訪問東耶路撒冷的一個村莊(圖片來源:JERUSALEM MUNICIPALITY)

在這些以色列人中,有 Matityahu Dan,他是以色列非營利組織 Ateret Cohanim 的負責人,該組織致力於通過控制巴勒斯坦社區的房屋來增加東耶路撒冷的猶太人口。

據 Shomrim 稱,Ateret Cohanim 使用在英屬維爾京群島註冊的公司。其中一家公司名為 Philinest,據報導,它控制著耶路撒冷老城穆斯林區的兩套公寓,租借給隸屬於猶太民族基金會的一個實體。

Shomrim 援引丹提供的法庭證詞報導稱,Ateret Cohanim 的財務主管負責支付 Philinest 的註冊續訂費,於 1998 年辭職,接替他的人未能繼續支付款項。

當 Shomrim 聯繫到 Dan 時,Dan 拒絕發表評論。

由於失效,英屬維爾京群島取消了該公司的註冊。根據當地法律,該公司的資產最終成為島嶼政府的財產。

據 Shomrim 稱,2010 年,Ateret Cohanim 向當地法院請求恢復 Philinest,並於 2019 年最終同意。

Ateret Cohanim 旗下的另一家英屬維爾京群島公司 Donhead 在 2010 年註冊失效時一直在巴勒斯坦 Silwan 附近租賃一塊土地。這家以色列非營利組織試圖恢復其索賠,但是否成功尚不清楚,Shomrim 報導。

根據 Shomrim 的說法,至少有少數其他以色列定居者非營利組織也使用英屬維爾京群島來管理東耶路撒冷的房地產——同樣,有幾家在未能支付費用後不得不試圖收回公司註冊。

該報告確定了 Humberstone Ventures SA 和另一家名為 Beit Hanina Properties 的公司,該公司控制著舊城聖墓教堂附近的一塊財產。

Pandora Papers show British Virgin Islands control east Jerusalem land

Israeli settlers who managed east Jerusalem properties used offshore accounts and failed to pay corporate fees and taxes.

By ASAF SHALEV/JTA

OCTOBER 20, 2021 04:09

Some of the most contested real estate in east Jerusalem has come under the legal control of the British Virgin Islands in recent years because the Israeli settlers who managed the properties used offshore accounts and failed to pay corporate fees and taxes.

This finding appeared in a series of recent reports by Uri Blau and Daniel Dolev of Shomrim, an Israeli investigative news organization, following a massive leak of records from the secretive world of offshore financial services.

The leak, known as the Pandora Papers, was shared with Shomrim and some 150 other news outlets around the world. The roughly 600 journalists involved in the project have been publishing exposés on politicians and other public figures who hold bank accounts, real estate, and other property in jurisdictions that offer secrecy and tax benefits.

Of the people identified in the leak, 565 are Israeli citizens, according to Shomrim, which noted that it is not illegal to do business using offshore accounts. Offshore accounts can be advantageous for their holders in several ways, including, potentially, shielding their identities, reducing their tax liability and insulating them from legal requirements or consequences in their own countries.

Jerusalem's Mayor visiting a village in east Jerusalem (credit: JERUSALEM MUNICIPALITY)

Among those Israelis is Matityahu Dan, the head of Ateret Cohanim, an Israeli nonprofit dedicated to boosting the Jewish population of east Jerusalem by gaining control of homes in Palestinian neighborhoods.

Ateret Cohanim uses companies registered in the British Virgin Islands, according to Shomrim. One of those companies is called Philinest, and it reportedly controls two apartments in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem on lease from an entity affiliated with the Jewish National Fund.

Ateret Cohanim’s treasurer, who was in charge of paying Philinest’s registration renewal fees, quit in 1998, and the person who replaced him failed to keep up the payments, Shomrim reported, citing a court deposition given by Dan.

When reached by Shomrim, Dan declined to comment.

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As a result of the lapse, the British Virgin Islands canceled the company’s registration. Per local laws, the company’s assets eventually became the property of the islands’ government.

In 2010, Ateret Cohanim petitioned a local court to reinstate Philinest and in 2019, the court finally agreed, according to Shomrim.

Donhead, another British Virgin Islands company owned by Ateret Cohanim, had been leasing a plot of land in the Palestinian neighborhood of Silwan when its registration lapsed in 2010. The Israeli nonprofit sought to revive its claims but whether it succeeded is unknown, Shomrim reported.

At least a handful of other Israeli settler nonprofits also use the British Virgin Islands to manage real estate in east Jerusalem — and, similarly, several have had to try to claw back company registrations after failing to pay fees, according to Shomrim.

The report identified Humberstone Ventures S.A, which controls a piece of property adjacent to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in the Old City, and another company called Beit Hanina Properties.

聯合國特使警告稱,巴勒斯坦金融危機處於“臨界點”

聯合國特使 Tor Wennesland:“估計表明,巴勒斯坦權力機構 2021 年的預算赤字約為 8 億美元。”

作者:托瓦·拉扎羅夫

2021 年 10 月 20 日 20:30

2021 年 9 月 8 日,在約旦河西岸拉馬拉,一名兒童揮舞著旗幟,示威者參加了聲援以色列監獄中的巴勒斯坦囚犯的抗議活動。

(圖片來源:穆罕默德·托羅克曼/路透社)

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聯合國中東和平進程特別協調員托爾溫內斯蘭告訴安理會,巴勒斯坦權力機構的金融危機正處於“崩潰點” ,他呼籲以色列停止懲罰巴勒斯坦權力機構支付的恐怖主義款項。

“捐助者的支持,包括直接預算支持,持續多年下降,”溫內斯蘭在其關於以巴衝突的月度會議上告訴這個由 15 名成員組成的機構。

“估計表明,巴勒斯坦權力機構 2021 年的預算赤字約為 8 億美元。這將使 2020 年的差距幾乎翻倍,”溫尼斯蘭說,並補充說“巴勒斯坦權力機構與銀行的借貸能力已經用盡。”

他對以色列懲罰巴勒斯坦權力機構的政策提出了具體問題,因為巴勒斯坦權力機構每月向殺害以色列人及其家人的恐怖分子提供津貼,以色列稱之為“殺戮的報酬”。” 以色列從它代表巴勒斯坦權力機構收取的稅費中扣留用於支付恐怖主義款項的款項,並轉給拉馬拉。

“除了導致金融危機的其他長期財政流失外,以色列繼續每月從清關收入轉移中扣除數百萬美元,以回應巴勒斯坦人向安全囚犯、他們的家人和遇難者家屬支付的款項。襲擊的背景,”溫尼斯蘭說。

聯合國中東和平進程特別協調員 Tor Wennesland。(信用:維基共享資源)

他承認,自 6 月上任以來,總理納夫塔利·貝內特 (Naftali Bennett) 批准了 5 億新謝克爾,繞過了以色列的扣除政策。以色列將收取的未來稅費支付貸款。

這筆貸款“至關重要”,Wennesland 告訴理事會,“但只是暫時推遲了迫在眉睫的危機,並沒有解決強加給巴勒斯坦經濟的結構性障礙。”

Wennesland 呼籲以色列人和巴勒斯坦人實施政策改革,以改善巴勒斯坦權力機構的財務狀況。他還呼籲由 15 名成員組成的特設聯絡委員會負責監督向巴勒斯坦權力機構提供的捐助資金,以便在 11 月在挪威舉行會議時解決這個問題。

他沒有提到歐盟每年約 1.4 億歐元資金的技術延遲對 PA 的影響。布魯塞爾的預算延遲意味著巴勒斯坦權力機構尚未收到任何直接的歐盟資金,並且可能要到明年才能看到這筆年度款項。

英國駐紐約聯合國大使芭芭拉伍德沃德表示,她擔心巴勒斯坦權力機構無法支付 11 月份的工資。

Palestinian financial crisis at 'breaking point,' UN envoy warns

UN envoy Tor Wennesland: "Estimates suggest that the PA will have a 2021 budget deficit of around $800 million."

By TOVAH LAZAROFF

OCTOBER 20, 2021 20:30

A child waves a flag as demonstrators take part in a protest in solidarity with Palestinian prisoners in Israeli jails, in Ramallah in the West Bank September 8, 2021.

(photo credit: MOHAMAD TOROKMAN/REUTERS)

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The Palestinian Authority’s financial crisis is at a “breaking point,” UN Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process Tor Wennesland told the Security Council, as he called on Israel to stop penalizing the PA for its terrorist payments.

“Donor support, including direct budget support, continues its multiyear decline,” Wennesland told the 15-member body at its monthly meeting on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

“Estimates suggest that the PA will have a 2021 budget deficit of around $800 million. This would nearly double the 2020 gap,” Wennesland said, adding that the “borrowing capacity of the PA with the banks has been exhausted.”

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He took specific issue with Israel’s policy of penalizing the PA for providing monthly stipends to terrorists responsible for killing Israelis as well as to their family members in what Israel has dubbed as “pay for slay.” Israel withholds the sum spent on terrorist payments from the tax fees it collects on the PA’s behalf and transfers to Ramallah.

“Along with other long-standing fiscal leakages that are contributing to the financial crisis, Israel continues to deduct millions of US dollars per month from clearance revenue transfers, in response to Palestinian payments to security prisoners, their families and the families of those killed in the context of attacks,” Wennesland said.

United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process Tor Wennesland. (credit: Wikimedia Commons)

He acknowledged that, since coming into office in June, Prime Minister Naftali Bennett had skirted Israel’s deduction policy by approving a NIS 500m. loan against future tax fee payments Israel would collect.

That loan was “critical,” Wennesland told the council, “but only delays temporarily the looming crisis and does not address the structural impediments imposed on the Palestinian economy.”

Wennesland called on both Israelis and Palestinians to implement policy reforms that would improve the PA’s financial situation. He also called on the 15-member Ad Hoc Liaison Committee which oversees donor funding to the PA to address the issue when it meets in Norway in November.

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He did not mention the impact on the PA of the technical delay in annual European Union funding of some €140m. Budget delays in Brussels have meant that the PA has yet to receive any direct EU funds, and may not see that annual sum until next year.

Britain’s Ambassador to the UN in New York Barbara Woodward said she is concerned that the PA would not be able to pay its salaries in November.

阿布扎比王儲與阿薩德討論敘利亞問題

華盛頓的主要地區盟友已加強與阿薩德的經濟和外交關係,在十多年前的血腥鎮壓後被迴避。

通過路透

2021 年 10 月 20 日 21:24

阿布扎比王儲謝赫穆罕默德·本·扎耶德·納哈揚於 2021 年 9 月 16 日抵達英國倫敦唐寧街。

(圖片來源:路透社/漢娜麥凱)

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據阿聯酋通訊社 (WAM) 報導,阿布扎比王儲謝赫穆罕默德·本·扎耶德·納哈揚是阿拉伯聯合酋長國的實際統治者,週三與敘利亞總統巴沙爾·阿薩德討論了敘利亞和中東的事態發展。

華盛頓的主要地區盟友加強了與阿薩德的經濟和外交關係,在十多年前因反對他的統治的和平抗議而遭到血腥鎮壓後,華盛頓的主要地區盟友已被迴避,後來演變成一場多邊戰爭,導致數十萬人死亡,數百萬人流離失所。

2018 年 12 月 27 日,在敘利亞大馬士革重新開放期間,一名男子正在處理阿拉伯聯合酋長國大使館標誌。(來源:REUTERS/OMAR SANADIKI)

阿聯酋於 2018 年底重新啟動了對大馬士革的訪問,以應對非阿拉伯國家的影響,例如伊朗和俄羅斯支持阿薩德,以及土耳其支持叛軍。WAM沒有提供更多會談細節。

約旦是美國的堅定盟友,於 9 月下旬全面重新開放其與敘利亞的主要過境點,以促進這些國家陷入困境的經濟,並加強阿拉伯國家重新整合敘利亞的努力。

約旦國王阿卜杜拉本月也與阿薩德進行了十年來的首次通話,而埃及和敘利亞外長上個月在紐約聯合國大會期間會面,埃及媒體稱這是該級別的首次會議大約十年。

Abu Dhabi crown prince discusses Syria with Assad

Washington's main regional allies have stepped up economic and diplomatic ties with Assad, shunned after a bloody crackdown over a decade ago.

By REUTERS

OCTOBER 20, 2021 21:24

Abu Dhabi's Crown Prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed al-Nahyan arrives at Downing Street, London, Britain, September 16, 2021.

(photo credit: REUTERS/HANNAH MCKAY)

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Abu Dhabi's Crown Prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed al-Nahyan, the United Arab Emirates' de facto ruler, discussed developments in Syria and the Middle East with Syria's President Bashar al-Assad on Wednesday, Emirates News Agency (WAM) reported.

Washington's main regional allies have stepped up economic and diplomatic ties with Assad, shunned after a bloody crackdown over a decade ago on peaceful protests against his rule that spiralled into a multi-sided war that killed hundreds of thousands and displaced millions.

A man works on the United Arab Emirates embassy emblem during its reopening in Damascus, Syria December 27, 2018. (credit: REUTERS/OMAR SANADIKI)

The UAE reopened its mission to Damascus in late 2018 in a bid to counter the influence of non-Arab actors such as Iran, which along with Russia backs Assad, and Turkey, which backs rebel forces. WAM gave no further details of the talks.

Jordan, a staunch US ally, fully reopened its main border crossing with Syria in late September, to boost the countries' struggling economies and reinforce the push by Arab states to reintegrate Syria.

Jordan's King Abdullah also spoke to Assad for the first time in a decade this month while the Egyptian and Syrian foreign ministers met last month on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly in New York, in what Egyptian media said was the first meeting at that level for about a decade.

埃及軍方鞏固對西奈半島北部的控制

埃及軍隊已經獲得了一側與巴勒斯坦控制的加沙和以色列接壤,另一側與蘇伊士運河接壤的戰略性土地的大部分地區。

通過路透

2021 年 10 月 20 日 17:47

埃及軍隊在西奈北部觀望。

(圖片來源:MOHAMED ABD EL GHANY/REUTERS)

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一連串瞭望塔、檢查站和軍隊哨所標誌著埃及西奈半島的北部邊緣,軍隊乘坐裝甲車沿著重新鋪設的道路巡邏。

支路被成堆的沙子封鎖,一些房屋被拆除,以剝奪激進分子在 Al Arish 和 Sheikh Zuweid 之間的掩護,Sheikh Zuweid 是過去十年埃及軍方和伊斯蘭叛亂分子之間戰爭的焦點。

這些措施反映了過去兩年安全局勢的重大轉變。

目擊者、安全消息人士和分析人士說,軍方已確保一側與巴勒斯坦控制的加沙和以色列接壤,另一側與蘇伊士運河接壤的戰略性土地的大片地區,並且不再退縮。

平民生活仍然受到嚴重限制,但隨著國家推進發展計劃,這個長期被忽視的地區正在發生變化。

2015 年 5 月 25 日,埃及西奈半島北部的高速公路上出現了一輛埃及軍車。(圖片來源:ASMAA WAGUIH / REUTERS)

許多武裝分子被殺、逃跑或投降。據三位埃及安全消息人士稱,目前只有 200 家仍然活躍,低於兩年前的 400 家和 2017 年的 800 家。

他們越來越依賴狙擊手、自製炸彈和迫擊砲,而不是大規模攻擊。

在北西奈半島主要城市 Al Arish 的郊區,靠近曾經被夷為平地的橄欖農場的地方,政府建造了新的公寓樓。

新用1698元單筒望遠鏡,幾公里外就看到StarLens 視達嵐贊助

一位居民說,人們只是尋求恢復正常。

“我們受夠了,”這位 50 多歲的男子說,他拒絕透露姓名。“我們想回到我們的房子,甚至是他們正在建造的新房子。我們想再次和平地生活。”

埃及當局沒有回應就北西奈半島局勢發表評論的請求。

叛亂

2011 年埃及反抗胡斯尼·穆巴拉克 (Hosni Mubarak)起義後,西奈半島北部發生動亂,兩年後,軍隊推翻了伊斯蘭主義者穆罕默德·穆爾西 (Mohamed Mursi) 總統,動亂升級。

2017 年 11 月,與伊斯蘭國有關聯的激進組織西奈省聲稱發生了埃及現代歷史上最致命的襲擊,在北西奈清真寺造成 300 多人死亡,以及在阿里什對國防部長和內政部長的暗殺企圖軍用機場。

軍方於 2018 年 2 月開始採取行動作為回應,現在似乎在北西奈半島(埃及唯一經常發生武裝活動的地區)處於最強地位至少十年。

受歡迎的旅遊目的地西奈半島南部的安全存在也得到了加強,一些國際旅行警告也有所減少。

在西奈半島東北部拉法和加沙邊界沿線,在清理過的土地上建立了一個緩衝區,由數十個埃及瞭望塔監控。

在最近關於北西奈半島的聲明中,埃及軍方表示,近幾個月來,有 89 名疑似武裝分子在不確定的時間內被殺,而埃及軍方則有 8 人傷亡。

安全分析師奧德·伯科維茨 (Oded Berkowitz) 表示,在過去三到四年中,攻擊次數“持續顯著下降”,今年迄今記錄的槍擊襲擊事件約為 17 起,炸彈襲擊事件為 39 起,而 2017 年分別為 166 起和 187 起。說過。

伯科維茨說,西奈省的能力也因供應線被壓縮和從加沙招募人員而受到侵蝕,部分原因是與那裡的巴勒斯坦派系的關係惡化,以及西奈居民的敵意。

他說,雖然估計激進分子的人數很難,但最近的死亡通知表明,那些仍然活躍的人主要是來自加沙的埃及人和巴勒斯坦人,而此前他們包括來自高加索和沙特阿拉伯的外國戰士。

儘管如此,暴力還沒有結束。

在 Bir al-Abd 附近,武裝分子在 2020 年夏天佔領了一群村莊數週,9 月 1 日,蒙面槍手衝進了塞勒姆·賽義德 (Salem al-Sayed) 正在看足球的一家咖啡館,綁架了他和其他七人,並指控他們與軍隊。

這位 35 歲的老人告訴路透社:“他們把我們關在一個封閉的地方,所以我們什麼也聽不見,甚至連風聲也聽不見。” 賽義德說,四天后,他們的雙手被捆綁並蒙上眼睛,他們在一次突襲中被軍方釋放。

有代價的發展?

總統阿卜杜勒·法塔赫·塞西 (Abdel Fattah al-Sisi) 於 2013 年作為陸軍參謀長罷免了穆爾西,他說開發西奈半島是當務之急。

他本月在一次紀念 1973 年與以色列在半島上的戰爭的活動上說:“在我們使西奈半島可以開發之前,我們不會留下任何可以開發的土地。”

上個月,塞西在西奈半島西北部開設了一座耗資 13 億美元的農業廢水處理廠,以幫助開墾耕地。

政府最近宣布了一項在西奈半島建設 17 個農業和住宅開發集群的計劃,其中 10 個在北部。它表示正在為流離失所者分配現代和傳統的房屋。

然而,准入和國際合作發展仍然有限。與軍事行動有關的拆除和其他限制引發了一些居民和權利團體的投訴。

總部位於倫敦的西奈人權基金會的艾哈邁德塞勒姆說,國家基礎設施項目和住房開發似乎超出了當地的需求和手段。

他說,西奈東北部的有效圍困限制了許多經濟活動。

“他們(雙方)摧毀了 Al Arish,這裡曾經是埃及最美麗的旅遊勝地之一。在其他任何地方都看不到這樣的沙灘,”一位中年居民說。

“我們不支持伊斯蘭國,但許多西奈居民,從拉法到阿爾阿里什,在沒有做錯任何事後都受到了不公正的對待,並付出了沉重的代價,”他說。

Egyptian military consolidates grip on northern Sinai

Egypt's military has secured large areas of the strategic stretch of land bordering Palestinian-run Gaza and Israel on one side and the Suez Canal on the other.

By REUTERS

OCTOBER 20, 2021 17:47

EGYPTIAN MILITARY forces look on in the northern Sinai.

(photo credit: MOHAMED ABD EL GHANY/REUTERS)

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A string of watchtowers, checkpoints and army posts mark the northern edge of Egypt's Sinai Peninsula and troops patrol in armored vehicles along repaved roads.

Branch roads have been blocked off with piles of sand and some houses demolished to deprive militants of cover between Al Arish and Sheikh Zuweid, a focal point of the war between the Egyptian military and Islamist insurgents over the past decade.

The measures reflect a significant shift in the security situation in the past two years.

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The military has secured large areas of the strategic stretch of land bordering Palestinian-run Gaza and Israel on one side and the Suez Canal on the other, and is no longer on the back foot, witnesses, security sources and analysts say.

Civilian life is still severely curtailed but the long-neglected region is changing as the state forges ahead with development schemes.

An Egyptian military vehicle is seen on the highway in northern Sinai, Egypt, May 25, 2015. (credit: ASMAA WAGUIH / REUTERS)

Many of the militants have been killed, fled or surrendered. As few as 200 are still active, down from 400 two years ago and 800 in 2017, according to three Egyptian security sources.

In place of big attacks, they increasingly depend on snipers, homemade bombs and mortars.

On the outskirts of North Sinai's main city Al Arish, near where razed olive farms once stood, the government has built new apartment blocks.

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A resident said people just sought a return to normality.

"We've had enough," said the man in his 50s, declining to be named. "We want to return to our houses or even the new ones they are building. We want to live in peace again."

Egyptian authorities did not respond to a request for comment on the situation in North Sinai.

INSURGENCY

Unrest roiled northern Sinai following the uprising in Egypt against Hosni Mubarak in 2011, escalating after the army overthrew President Mohamed Mursi, an Islamist, two years later.

In November 2017, the Islamic State-affiliated militant group Sinai Province claimed the most lethal attack in Egypt's modern history, which killed more than 300 people at a North Sinai mosque, as well as an assassination attempt against the defense and interior ministers at Al Arish military airport.

The military started an operation in response in February 2018 and now appears to be in its strongest position in North Sinai - the only area in Egypt where there is regular militant activity - for at least a decade.

The security presence in southern Sinai, a popular tourist destination, has also been reinforced and some international travel warnings scaled back.

At Sinai's northeastern point at Rafah and along the border with Gaza, a buffer zone has been created on cleared land, monitored by dozens of Egyptian watchtowers.

In its most recent statement on North Sinai, the Egyptian military said 89 suspected militants had been killed in an undefined period over recent months, against eight casualties from its own ranks.

There has been a "continuous and significant decline" in the number of attacks over the past three to four years, with approximately 17 recorded shooting attacks and 39 bomb attacks so far this year compared to 166 and 187 respectively in 2017, security analyst Oded Berkowitz said.

Sinai Province's capability has also been eroded by the squeezing of supply lines and recruitment from Gaza due in part to deteriorating relations with Palestinian factions there, and the hostility from Sinai residents, Berkowitz said.

Though estimating militant numbers is hard, recent death notices suggest those still active are mostly Egyptian and Palestinians from Gaza, while previously they included foreign fighters from the Caucuses and Saudi Arabia, he said.

Still, the violence is not over.

Near Bir al-Abd, where militants occupied a group of villages for weeks in the summer of 2020, masked gunmen stormed a café where Salem al-Sayed was watching football on Sept. 1, kidnapping him and seven others and accusing them of cooperating with the military.

"They put us in a closed place so we could not hear anything, not even the sound of the wind," the 35-year-old told Reuters. After four days with their hands bound and blindfolded, they were freed by the military in a raid, Sayed said.

DEVELOPMENT AT A PRICE?

President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, who as army chief ousted Mursi in 2013, says developing Sinai is a priority.

"We will not leave any land that can be developed in Sinai until we make it grow," he said this month at an event to mark the 1973 war with Israel on the peninsula.

Last month in northwestern Sinai, Sisi inaugurated a $1.3 billion agricultural wastewater plant to help reclaim land for farming.

The government recently announced a plan for 17 agricultural and residential development clusters across Sinai, 10 of them in the north. It says it is allocating modern and traditional homes for those displaced.

Access and international cooperation development remain limited, however. Demolitions and other restrictions linked to military operations have triggered complaints from some residents and rights groups.

State infrastructure projects and housing developments seem beyond local needs and means, said Ahmed Salem of the London-based Sinai Foundation for Human Rights.

The effective siege in north-eastern Sinai has restricted much economic activity, he said.

"They (both sides) destroyed Al Arish, which used to be one of the most beautiful tourist places in Egypt. Nowhere else you could see such sandy beaches," said one middle-aged resident.

"We don't support Islamic State, but many Sinai residents, from Rafah to Al Arish, were dealt with unjustly and paid a heavy price after doing nothing wrong," he said.

以色列人如何看待 Yair Lapid 的外交政策?一項新的民意調查給出了答案

在左傾智庫 Mitvim 研究所關於以色列外交政策的第九次年度民意調查中,發現在許多情況下,拉皮德的目標與公眾輿論之間存在重大差距。

作者:HERB KEINON

2021 年 10 月 20 日 21:24

外交部長亞伊爾·拉皮德(右)。2021 年 10 月 18 日。

(照片來源:JORGE NOVOMINSKI)

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6 月 14 日,新政府宣誓就職後的第二天,外交部長亞伊爾·拉皮德( Yair Lapid)在接替加比·阿什肯納茲 (Gabi Ashkenazi) 的外交部舉行的儀式上發表了他擔任新職務的首次演講。

他的講話基本上是一個大綱,說明他希望在他的任期內將以色列的外交政策和外交部置於何處。

週二,左傾智囊團米特維姆研究所發布了關於以色列外交政策的第九次年度民意調查。這項與 Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung 合作的民意調查於 9 月由拉菲史密斯研究所在以色列人口的代表性樣本(700 名男性和女性、猶太人和阿拉伯人)中進行,抽樣誤差為 3.5 %。它對公眾如何看待該國的外交政策提供了有益的視角。

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接下來是對拉皮德的一些假設和政策目標以及公眾認為的情況的看法。在許多情況下,出現的是兩者之間的重大差距。

國防部長本尼·甘茨、外交部長亞伊爾·拉皮德、總理納夫塔利·貝內特和司法部長吉迪恩·薩爾於 2021 年 10 月 4 日在以色列議會舉行的冬季會議開幕式上。(圖片來源:OLIVIER FITOUSSI/FLASH90)

以色列在世界上的地位

“近年來,以色列可恥地忽視了其外交服務[和]國際舞台,”拉皮德在外交部的那次演講中說。“然後它在早上醒來,驚訝地發現其國際地位受到了相當大的侵蝕。”

拉皮德的前提很簡單:以色列在世界舞台上的地位很低。但根據 Mitvim 的調查,公眾並不一定同意這一基本假設。

當被要求以 1 到 10 的等級對以色列在當今世界上的地位進行評分時,幾乎四分之三的國家給它打了 5 分或更高的分數,平均評分為 5.58。這並不表示一個國家認為其國際地位低迷。

更有趣的是,與拉皮德的前提背道而馳的是,這個數字——民意調查是在他堅定地坐在外交部長席位的情況下進行的——處於 2017 年以來的最低水平,民意調查顯示以色列的地位更好從 2018 年到 2020 年,當本傑明·內塔尼亞胡(Benjamin Netanyahu)擔任總理時。

民意調查還顯示,與今天的總理納夫塔利·貝內特和拉皮德相比,公眾對內塔尼亞胡領導下的政府在 2019 年和 2020 年對外交政策的處理更滿意。

至於拉皮德聲稱以色列忽視其外交服務,而民意調查發現絕大多數公眾希望看到外交部得到加強,當被問及公眾對外交部今天的地位有多滿意時,更多人在2019年感到滿意和 2020 年比 2021 年。這個結果表明,至少在公眾眼中,拉皮德還沒有成功提升該部的形象。

與美國的關係

拉皮德在這次演講中抨擊前政府“放棄”了主要的國際舞台。

例如,他說,對美國民主黨的政策“既可恥又危險”,在他看來,前政府對共和黨下了“壞的、危險的、草率的賭注”,放棄了兩黨合作的傳統立場。 .

那麼,在他任職四個月並努力與民主黨取得進展的情況下,公眾如何看待當前與美國的關係?在 1 到 10 的範圍內,公眾對以色列與美國的關係現狀給予 6.46 分,這是自 2016 年巴拉克·奧巴馬 (Barack Obama) 擔任總統以來的最低評分。在唐納德·特朗普總統執政的四年裡,這一評級從 2017 年的 6.88 低到 2020 年的 8.05 高不等。

拉皮德一再表示,內塔尼亞胡將重點放在共和黨人身上是錯誤的,但根據這項民意調查,公眾認為,在實行這一政策的年代,以色列與美國的關係更好。

儘管拜登政府迄今為止一直小心翼翼地不與耶路撒冷發生公開鬥爭,也不施加沉重的公眾壓力——就像奧巴馬時代的情況一樣——但仍有約 53% 的公眾和 58% 的猶太受訪者認為與前任政府相比,拜登政府“對以色列的好處更少”。這甚至是在伊朗問題和巴勒斯坦駐耶路撒冷領事館的開放完全公開之前。

與歐盟的關係

“歐盟國家的情況也不好,”拉皮德在 6 月份表示。“與太多政府的關係被忽視並變得敵對。大喊‘每個人都是反猶太主義者’既不是政策也不是行動計劃,即使有時感覺是對的。”

拉皮德當時表示,他已經與歐盟外交政策負責人何塞普博雷爾和法國總統埃馬紐埃爾馬克龍進行了交談,他們認為有必要深化以色列與歐洲之間的對話。他上任前四個月的特點是努力改善與布魯塞爾和某些西歐國家的關係,並使以色列與匈牙利和波蘭等“不自由”的歐盟國家保持距離。

然而,公眾在很大程度上確實將歐盟視為敵人。

當被問及歐盟現在是否更像是“以色列的朋友或對手”時,46% 的公眾和 51% 的猶太人表示“更像是一個對手”。

如果加入各種歐盟計劃的條件是定居點不包括在其中,則 47% 的人表示以色列不應加入,而 35% 的人表示應該——這一數字掩蓋了以色列人不關心政策的前提,例如Ben & Jerry 的抵制,“僅”針對那些生活在綠線以外的以色列人。

民意調查還顯示,隨著拉皮德引導以色列遠離匈牙利等國家,他反對 43% 的公眾所表達的立場,他們認為以色列“在建立外交關係時不應將政權類型作為一個因素”。然而,同樣比例的人(42%)表示應該“優先發展與民主國家的關係”。

以色列及該地區

拉皮德斷言以色列需要爭取與穆斯林國家達成更多協議,這在很大程度上符合全國共識。然而,有趣的是,31% 的受訪者認為以色列在中東的地位並未因亞伯拉罕協議而發生重大變化,儘管 34% 的受訪者確實發現了變化。

雖然本屆政府沒有採取任何公開行動來改善與雷傑普·塔伊普·埃爾多安 (Recep Tayyip Erdogan) 領導的土耳其的關係,該國已被證明對以色列充滿敵意,但約有 61% 的人口認為以色列應該嘗試這樣做。即使有了亞伯拉罕協議,在最初對訪問阿拉伯聯合酋長國和巴林充滿熱情之後,該國仍有約 48% 的人表示他們沒有興趣訪問該地區的阿拉伯國家,高於 41% 的人表示同樣的事情三幾年前。

引人注目的是,只有 2.7% 的公眾有興趣訪問約旦,低於 2018 年的 8%,這表明以色列人不太願意訪問他們不受歡迎的國家——即使是那些附近的國家。

以色列人和巴勒斯坦人

拉皮德在講話中表示,雖然與巴勒斯坦人的外交突破並非立竿見影,但以色列在改善巴勒斯坦人的生活條件和改善對話方面可以做很多事情。

然而,公眾並不認為這應該包括加強巴勒斯坦權力機構。當被問及,鑑於巴勒斯坦權力機構的政治和經濟危機,以色列是否應該努力加強它,只有 28% 的人表示這是明智的政策,而 38% 的人表示以色列不應干預。

就與巴勒斯坦權力機構的對話而言,儘管最近幾周國防部長本尼·甘茨和梅雷茨部長前往拉馬拉會見巴勒斯坦權力機構主席馬哈茂德·阿巴斯,但只有 32% 的人表示這是一個積極的發展,將有助於改善關係,而 46% 的人表示,這要么是不會影響以巴關係的象徵性舉動(29%),要么是實際上損害以色列利益的消極事態發展(17%)。

以色列對伊朗

拉皮德所說的與公眾對伊朗的看法之間存在很大一致性的一個領域是,他說在為美國可能重返核協議做準備時,以色列的指導原則需要是以任何方式阻止伊朗獲得核武器的可能性。

對此有廣泛的共識,儘管該國在是否應該通過軍事行動獨立行動的問題上存在分歧,無論是隱蔽的還是公開的(31%),還是通過與其他中東國家結成聯盟對抗伊朗(34%)。只有 17.5% 的人認為以色列應該支持更新和改進 2015 年核協議的國際努力。

What do Israelis think about Yair Lapid's foreign policy? A new poll has the answers

In left-leaning think tank Mitvim Institute's Ninth Annual Public Opinion Survey on Israeli Foreign Policy, found significant gaps in many instances between Lapid's goals and the public opinion.

By HERB KEINON

OCTOBER 20, 2021 21:24

Foreign Minister Yair Lapid (R). October 18, 2021.

(photo credit: JORGE NOVOMINSKI)

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On June 14, a day after the new government was sworn in, Foreign Minister Yair Lapid delivered his first speech in his new role at a ceremony in the Foreign Ministry where he took over from Gabi Ashkenazi.

His speech was essentially a broad outline of where he would like to take Israel’s foreign policy and the Foreign Ministry during his tenure.

On Tuesday, the Mitvim Institute, a left-leaning think tank, published its Ninth Annual Public Opinion Survey on Israeli Foreign Policy. The poll, in collaboration with the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, was taken in September and carried out by the Rafi Smith Institute among a representative sample of the Israeli population (700 men and women, Jews and Arabs), with a sampling error of 3.5%. It provides an instructive look at how the public views the country’s foreign policy.

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What do Israelis think about Yair Lapid's foreign policy? A new poll has the answers

What follows is a look at some of Lapid’s assumptions and policy goals, and what the public believes to be the case. In many instances what emerges are significant gaps between the two.

DEFENSE MINISTER Benny Gantz, Foreign Minister Yair Lapid, Prime Minister Naftali Bennett and Justice Minister Gideon Sa’ar at the opening of the winter session at the Knesset, on October 4, 2021.. (credit: OLIVIER FITOUSSI/FLASH90)

Israel’s standing in the world

“In recent years, Israel has disgracefully neglected its foreign service [and] the international arena,” Lapid said in that speech in the Foreign Ministry. “Then it woke up in the morning and was surprised to find that there was considerable erosion in its international standing.”

Lapid’s premise was simple: Israel’s stature in the world arena was low. But the public, according to the Mitvim survey, does not necessarily agree with that basic assumption.

Asked to rate, on a scale of 1 to 10, Israel’s standing in the world today, almost three-fourths of the country gave it a score of 5 or higher, with the average rating being 5.58. That does not indicate a country that believes its international standing is in the doldrums.

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What is even more interesting, and what flies in the face of Lapid’s premise, is that this figure – the poll was taken with him firmly in the foreign minister’s chair – is at its lowest since 2017, with the poll showing that Israel’s stature was better from 2018 to 2020, when Benjamin Netanyahu was premier.

The poll also showed that the public was more satisfied with the government’s handling of foreign policy in 2019 and 2020, under Netanyahu, than it is today under Prime Minister Naftali Bennett and Lapid.

As for Lapid’s claim that Israel has neglected its foreign service, while the poll finds that a vast majority of the public wants to see the Foreign Ministry strengthened, when asked how satisfied the public is with the Foreign Ministry’s status today, more were satisfied in 2019 and 2020 than they were in 2021. That result shows that at least in the eyes of the public, Lapid has not yet succeeded in bolstering the image of the ministry.

Relations with the US

Lapid blasted the former government in this speech for “abandoning” major international arenas.

For instance, he said, the policy toward the US Democratic Party “was both disgraceful and dangerous,” and in his estimation, the former government took a “bad, dangerous and hasty bet” on the Republicans, and abandoned its traditional position of bipartisanship.

So, four months into his tenure and his efforts at making inroads with the Democrats, how does the public view the current ties with the US? On a scale of 1 to 10, the public gave the current state of Israel-US relations a grade of 6.46, the lowest rating since 2016, when Barack Obama was president. Under the four years of president Donald Trump, this rating varied from a low of 6.88 in 2017 to a high of 8.05 in 2020.

Lapid has said repeatedly it was a mistake for Netanyahu to focus on the Republicans, but the public – according to this poll – believes that in the years when this was the policy, Israel’s ties with the US were better.

Even though the Biden administration has been careful up until now not to pick public fights with Jerusalem, or apply heavy public pressure – as was the case during the Obama years – some 53% of the public, and 58% of the Jewish respondents, believe the Biden administration is “less beneficial for Israel” than the previous administration. And this is even before disagreements over Iran and the opening of a Palestinian consulate in Jerusalem fully break out into the open.

Relations with the EU

“The situation with the countries of the EU is also not good,” Lapid said in June. “Relations with too many governments have been neglected and turned hostile. To shout that ‘everyone is antisemitic’ is neither a policy nor a plan of action, even if it sometimes feels right.”

Lapid said at the time that he had already spoken to EU foreign policy chief Josep Borrell and French President Emmanuel Macron, who believe there is a need to deepen the dialogue between Israel and Europe. His first four months in office have been marked by an effort to improve ties with Brussels and certain Western European countries, and to distance Israel from the “illiberal” EU countries such as Hungary and Poland.

The public, however, largely does view the EU as a foe.

Asked if the EU is now more a “friend or an opponent of Israel,” 46% of the general public, and 51% of Jews, said “more of an opponent.”

If a condition for joining various EU programs was that the settlements would not be included in them, 47% said Israel should not join, while 35% said they should – a figure that belies the premise that Israelis are unconcerned by policies, such as the Ben & Jerry’s boycott, that “only” target those Israelis living beyond the Green Line.

The polls also showed that as Lapid steers Israel away from countries like Hungary, he is going against a position articulated by 43% of the public, which believes that Israel “should not consider regime type as a factor when building its foreign relations.” However, an equal percentage of people (42%) said it should “give priority to developing ties with democratic countries.”

Israel and the region

Lapid’s assertion that Israel needs to strive for more agreements with Muslim nations is very much in the national consensus. Interestingly, however, 31% of the respondents did not feel that Israel’s position in the Middle East has changed significantly as a result of the Abraham Accords, though 34% did detect a change.

While this government has not made any public moves to improve ties with Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s Turkey, a country that has proven implacably hostile to Israel, some 61% of the population think Israel should try to do so. Even with the Abraham Accords, and following an initial enthusiasm in visiting the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain, some 48% of the country said they had no interest in visiting an Arab country in the region, up from 41% who said the same thing three years ago.

Tellingly, only 2.7% of the public has an interest in visiting Jordan, down from 8% in 2018 and a sign that Israelis have no great desire to visit countries – even those close by – where they do not feel welcome.

Israel and the Palestinians

Lapid, in his speech, said that while a diplomatic breakthrough with the Palestinians is not in the immediate offing, there is much Israel can do to improve the living conditions of the Palestinians and to improve the dialogue.

The public, however, does not feel that this should include strengthening the Palestinian Authority. Asked whether, in light of the political and economic crisis in the PA, Israel should work to strengthen it, only 28% said this would be the wise policy, while 38% said Israel should not intervene.

And as far as a dialogue with the PA is concerned, even as Defense Minister Benny Gantz and Meretz ministers traveled to Ramallah to meet PA President Mahmoud Abbas in recent weeks, only 32% said this was a positive development that will contribute to improving relations, while 46% said it was either a symbolic move that will not impact Israel-Palestinian relations (29%) or a negative development (17%) that actually harms Israeli interests.

Israel vs Iran

One area where there was much compatibility between what Lapid said and what the public believes is in regard to Iran, where he said that in preparing for the possibility that the US will return to the nuclear deal, Israel’s guiding principle needs to be that it will prevent in any way the possibility that Iran will get a nuclear weapon.

There is a wide consensus on this, though the country is split regarding whether it should do so independently through military action, be it covert or overt (31%) or through forming coalitions with other Mideast countries against Iran (34%). Only 17.5% thought that Israel should support the international efforts to renew and improve the 2015 nuclear deal.

向以色列議會介紹極端正統派的入伍法

新版法案規定的入伍目標比之前的文本要低得多。

作者:傑瑞米·沙龍

2021 年 10 月 20 日 18:46

哈雷迪抗議者譴責耶路撒冷的草案。

(照片來源:YONATAN SINDEL/FLASH 90)

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一項增加以色列國防軍極端正統派入伍人數的政府法案於週三提交給以色列議會,其入伍率比之前版本的法案低得多。

立法很可能只有在國家預算獲得通過後才能推進,這必須在 11 月 14 日之前發生。

該法案規定了從 2021 年開始每年招募的極端正統男性人數的年度目標,每年 18 歲的極端正統男性的入伍率增長非常緩慢。

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如果未達到入伍目標,該法案規定減少學校的國家預算,分配給認可的學校的資金用於向學生支付每月津貼。

2018 年 11 月 28 日,哈雷迪(極端正統派)抗議者在耶路撒冷抗議一項法案草案時被噴上臭鼬水(圖片來源:MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/THE JERUSALEM POST)

該法案還暫時將豁免年齡降至 21 歲,以鼓勵極端正統派男性進入勞動力市場,並在三年內將豁免年齡提高至 23 歲。

該法案最初由現任財政部長、時任國防部長阿維格多·利伯曼於 2018 年提出,當時該聯盟還包括極端正統黨派 United Torah Judaism 和 Shas,最初表示他們不會反對該立法,但最終反對。

然而,在最初的法案中,2018 年立法第一實施年的入伍目標是來自極端正統派的 3,996 人,其次是 4,317 人,並且從那時起穩步增加。

新版立法將 2021 年的入伍目標定為 2,123 人,2022 年為 2,293 人,並且從那時起到 2036 年的目標都非常緩慢地增加。

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目標數字大幅減少的一個原因可能是有關以色列國防軍官方入伍數據的醜聞,據透露,2019 年該數據被偽造為高於實際入伍人數。

由於實際應徵的極端正統派男性人數遠低於原先的預期,新立法似乎考慮到了這種變化的情況。

UTJ 在提交給以色列議會後,於週三發表了反對該立法的聲明。

該黨表示:“這是一項糟糕的法律,它確立了目標,並威脅要對猶太學校的學生實施制裁,這與以色列多年來的情況完全相反。”

“沒有也不會限制猶太學校學生的數量,任何想學習托拉的人都必須被允許在沒有配額和限制的情況下這樣做。

“以學習為職業的Yeshiva學生是托拉世界的精英,他們世代守護和保護猶太人。”

Enlistment law for ultra-Orthodox introduced to Knesset

The new version of the bill establishes drastically lower enlistment targets than the previous text.

By JEREMY SHARON

OCTOBER 20, 2021 18:46

HAREDI PROTESTERS decry the draft in Jerusalem.

(photo credit: YONATAN SINDEL/FLASH 90)

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A government bill to increase ultra-Orthodox enlistment to the IDF was submitted to the Knesset on Wednesday with drastically lower enlistment rates than a previous version of the bill.

The legislation is likely to be advanced only after the state budget is passed, which must happen before November 14.

The bill sets out annual targets for the number of ultra-Orthodox men to be enlisted per year beginning in 2021, with very slowly increasing rates of enlistment for the annual cohort of ultra-Orthodox men turning 18.

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Should enlistment targets not be met, the bill provides for a reduction in the state budget for yeshivas, money that is distributed to recognized yeshivas for the purposes of paying students a monthly stipend.

Haredi (ultra-Orthodox) protesters are sprayed with skunk water as they protest a draft bill in Jerusalem, November 28th, 2018 (credit: MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/THE JERUSALEM POST)

The bill also temporarily reduces the age of exemption to 21 in order to encourage ultra-Orthodox men to enter the workforce, and over the course of three years then raises the age of exemption up to 23.

The bill was originally introduced in 2018 by the current finance minister, then defense minister, Avigdor Liberman when the coalition also included ultra-Orthodox parties United Torah Judaism and Shas, which initially indicated they would not oppose the legislation but eventually came out against it.

In the original bill, however, the enlistment target for the first operative year of the legislation, 2018, was 3,996 men from the ultra-Orthodox sector, followed by 4,317, and steadily increasing from that point.

The new version of the legislation sets the enlistment target for 2021 at just 2,123, 2,293 for 2022, and very slowly increasing targets from then on up to 2036.

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One reason behind the severe reduction in the target figures could be the scandal over official IDF enlistment figures, which it was revealed in 2019 had been falsified to higher numbers than were enlisting in reality.

Since the real numbers of ultra-Orthodox men enlisting in practice were far lower than originally thought, the new legislation appears to be taking into account this changed circumstance.

UTJ issued a statement opposing the legislation on Wednesday after it was submitted to the Knesset.

“This is a bad law which establishes targets, and threatens sanctions against yeshiva students, in total opposition to what has been the case in Israel for years,” said the party.

“There is not and will not be any possibility of restricting the number of yeshiva students, and anyone who wants to learn Torah must be allowed to do so without quotas and restrictions.

“Yeshiva students who study as their profession are the elite of the Torah world who guard and protected the Jewish people for all generations.”

以色列研究表明第三次注射後抗體增加了 50 倍

在第二次注射八個月後接受加強注射的醫護人員中發現的中和抗體增加了 50 倍。

作者:瑪雅·賈夫·霍夫曼

2021 年 10 月 20 日 20:52

2021 年 8 月 1 日,一名以色列老人在耶路撒冷的 Clalit 診所接受了第三次 COVID-19 加強注射。

(圖片來源:MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/耶路撒冷郵報)

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一項新的研究表明,第三劑輝瑞冠狀病毒疫苗導致在第二劑疫苗八個月後接種疫苗的醫護人員中中和抗體增加了 50 倍。

該報告由特拉維夫 Sourasky 醫療中心信息和運營副主任 Esther Saiag 博士和她的同事 David Bomze 博士最近在 Lancet Microbe 上發表,研究了第三劑對 346 名健康醫院員工的影響。

“醫護人員非常獨特,”賽亞格告訴耶路撒冷郵報。

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她說,這些工人往往比普通公民更健康、更活躍,而且由於他們在大流行中發揮的作用,他們是最早接種疫苗的人之一。

這些工人中的大多數在第三次注射前八個月接受了第二次注射。以色列於 12 月 20 日開始了疫苗接種運動,醫務人員是第一批接種疫苗的人群。

特拉維夫 Sourasky 醫療中心信息運營副主任 Esther Saiag 博士。(圖片來源:MIRI SHIMONOVICH/外交部)

當該國在 8 月向老年人開放第三劑疫苗時,賽亞格詢問是否會在註射疫苗之前對任何年長的員工進行篩查以檢查他們的抗體水平。大約有 346 名年齡在 64 至 73 歲之間的人(215 名女性)遵守了規定。

測試發現,8 月份他們的抗體基線中值水平僅為 3.67。

雖然抗體並不能說明整個免疫故事,但由於細胞記憶也很重要,賽亞格說這個數字非常低。

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那些在註射前接受篩查的人在第三次注射後 10 天返回再次接受檢測。幾乎所有人 (95.7%) 的抗體激增超過 150。

柳葉刀的文章解釋說,抗刺突蛋白濃度是通過 ADVIA Centaur SARS-CoV-2 IgG 檢測確定的,該檢測提供的指數值高達 150。等於或大於 1 的指數被認為是反應性的。

Saiag 說:“在有足夠的人口獲得第三次助推器後,我們很快就看到了第四波消退。” “現在我們看到了幕後發生的事情。我們的抗體激增。也許我們都希望找到這一點,但現在我們有了數據來證明這一點。”

只有兩名受試者根本沒有反應,他們血液中的抗體水平仍然為陰性。儘管加強了劑量,但另外九名受試者的抗體水平僅適度增加。

現在計劃進行一項後續研究,以追踪這些受試者中缺乏反應或非最大反應的可能原因。

這是同類研究中規模最大的一項,旨在檢查加強劑量對醫護人員的影響。

Saiag 說,計劃將繼續跟踪這個群體,並在不同的時間間隔重新篩選他們,看看他們的抗體水平會發生什麼。他們還將與工作人員聯繫,看看他們中是否有人感染了 COVID,如果感染了,他們是否有症狀或無症狀病例。

她說,結果可以幫助包括以色列政府在內的各國政府決定是否需要第四劑。

Israeli research shows 50-fold jump in antibodies after third shot

50 times more neutralizing antibodies were found in healthcare workers who received their booster shot eight months after their second.

By MAAYAN JAFFE-HOFFMAN

OCTOBER 20, 2021 20:52

An elderly Israeli is seen receiving the third COVID-19 booster shot at a Clalit clinic in Jerusalem, on August 1, 2021.

(photo credit: MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/THE JERUSALEM POST)

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A third dose of the Pfizer coronavirus vaccine led to 50 times more neutralizing antibodies in healthcare workers who received the shot eight months after their second dose, a new study has shown.

The report, published recently in Lancet Microbe by Dr. Esther Saiag, deputy director for information and operations at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, and her colleague Dr. David Bomze, examined the effect of the third dose on 346 healthy hospital employees.

“Healthcare workers are very unique,” Saiag told The Jerusalem Post.

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She said that these workers tend to be healthier and more active than average citizens, and that because of the role they have played in the pandemic, they were among the first to take the vaccines.

Most of these workers received their second shot eight months before their third shot. Israel started its vaccination campaign on December 20, and medical personnel were among the first group to be vaccinated.

Dr. Esther Saiag, deputy director for Information Operation at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. (credit: MIRI SHIMONOVICH/FOREIGN MINISTRY)

When the country opened up third doses to elderly people in August, Saiag asked if any of the older staff would be screened to check their level of antibodies before getting the shot. Some 346 people between the ages of 64 and 73 (215 women) complied.

The test found that in August their median baseline level of antibodies was only 3.67.

While antibodies do not tell the whole immunity story, as cellular memory is also important, Saiag said this number was very low.

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Those who were screened before the shot returned 10 days after their third dose to get tested again. Almost all of them (95.7%) had a surge in antibodies more than 150.

Anti-spike protein concentrations were established with the ADVIA Centaur SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay, which provides an index value up to 150, the Lancet article explained. An index equal to or greater than one is considered reactive.

“We saw that very soon after having enough of the population getting the third booster that the fourth wave subsided,” Saiag said. “Now we see what was happening behind the scenes. We have this surge in antibodies. Maybe we all expected to find this, but now we have the data to prove it.”

Only two subjects did not respond at all and the level of antibodies in their blood remained negative. Nine additional subjects responded with only a moderate increase in the level of antibodies, despite the booster dose.

A follow-up study is now planned to trace possible causes for lack of response or non-maximal response among these subjects.

This is the largest study of its kind to examine the effect of the booster dose among healthcare workers.

Saiag said the plans are to continue to follow this group and re-screen them at various intervals to see what happens with their antibody levels. They will also check in with the staff to see if any of them contract COVID and, if so, if they have symptomatic or asymptomatic cases.

The results could help governments, including the Israeli government, make decisions about whether a fourth dose is needed, she said.

以色列部長在美國就中國關係施壓時發出警告:“我們正處於 5G 冷戰中”

“我們目前正處於一場新的、陌生的戰爭中——5G 冷戰,”通信部長 Yoaz Hendel 在紐約網絡技術會議上說。

通過LAHAV哈爾科夫

2021 年 10 月 20 日 21:32

工人在德克薩斯州西布魯克的 T-Mobile 塔上安裝 5G 電信設備。2020 年 5 月 6 日

(圖片來源:路透社/ADREES LATIF)

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以色列通信部長 Yoaz Hendel 週三在紐約網絡技術會議上表示,以色列致力於與受信任的通信基礎設施合作,以維護其國家安全。

亨德爾的講話是在華盛頓會晤後一天發表的,美國官員在會上向部長表達了對中國可能參與以色列 5G 網絡的擔憂。

亨德爾在網絡技術會議上說:“我們目前正處於一場新的、陌生的戰爭類型——5G 冷戰。” “在這場冷戰中,以色列致力於可信賴的網絡——首先是因為其自身的國家安全利益。”

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亨德爾警告說,“通信基礎設施很敏感,往往是網絡世界中的薄弱環節……這就是我來到以色列最好盟友美國的原因。”

一位知情人士稱,拜登政府與上屆政府相比,與以色列的合作更加緊密,以確保以色列 5G 互聯網網絡的核心不會是中國人。

通訊部長約阿茲·亨德爾在一次會議上發表講話。(信用:博阿斯佩雷爾斯坦由哈特曼研究所提供)

以色列的期望是,美國將幫助找到中國 5G 網絡的負擔得起的替代方案,其成本遠低於使用西方公司來構建網絡,以創建美國稱之為“清潔”網絡的網絡。

華盛頓擔心中國建造的 5G 網絡容易受到黑客攻擊並被用於間諜活動。

當國家安全顧問 Eyal Hulata 本月早些時候訪問華盛頓時,鑑於中國在這些領域的許多投標,美國官員呼籲總理納夫塔利·貝內特 (Naftali Bennett) 為外國投資在基本基礎設施和技術方面建立更強大的篩選系統。

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亨德爾會見了美國商務部副部長唐·格雷夫斯、聯邦通信委員會主席傑西卡·羅森沃塞爾、美國主管經濟增長、能源和環境的副部長何塞·費爾南德斯以及近東事務助理國務卿提名人芭芭拉·葉等。

他的許多對話者特別感興趣的另一個問題是亨德爾計劃調查社交媒體公司如何審查和推廣內容,並考慮讓他們對這些內容承擔法律責任。參議院通信、媒體和寬帶小組委員會主席參議員 Ben Ray Luján 與亨德爾討論了此事。

他還會見了谷歌、亞馬遜、推特、Netflix、Sysco、迪士尼等公司的高管,聽取他們對以色列監管環境的擔憂。

Israeli minister warns as US presses on China ties: 'We are in a 5G cold war'

'We are currently in a new, unfamiliar type of war – a 5G cold war,' Communications Minister Yoaz Hendel said at the Cybertech New York conference.

By LAHAV HARKOV

OCTOBER 20, 2021 21:32

Workers install 5G telecommunications equipment on a T-Mobile tower in Seabrook, Texas. May 6, 2020

(photo credit: REUTERS/ADREES LATIF)

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Israel is committed to working with trusted communication infrastructure for its own national security, Communications Minister Yoaz Hendel said at the Cybertech New York conference on Wednesday.

Hendel’s speech came a day after meetings in Washington in which US officials expressed concern to the minister about possible Chinese involvement in Israel’s 5G networks.

“We are currently in a new, unfamiliar type of war – a 5G cold war,” Hendel said at the cybertech conference. “In this cold war, Israel is committed to trusted networks – first of all, because of its own national security interests.”

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Hendel warned that “communication infrastructure is sensitive and tends to be the weak link in the cyber world…. That is why I am here in the US, Israel’s best ally.”

The Biden administration has been working more intensely with Israel than the previous administration to ensure that the core of Israel’s 5G Internet network will not be Chinese, a source with knowledge of the matter said.

Communications Minister Yoaz Hendel speaking at a conference. (credit: Boaz Perelstein Courtesy of the Hartman Institute)

Israel’s expectation is that the US will help find affordable alternatives to Chinese 5G networks, which cost much less than using Western companies to build the networks, in order to create “clean” networks, as the US calls them.

Washington is concerned that Chinese-built 5G networks will be vulnerable to hacking and used for espionage.

When National Security Adviser Eyal Hulata visited Washington earlier this month, US officials called on Prime Minister Naftali Bennett to establish a more robust screen system for foreign investments on essential infrastructure and technology, in light of China’s many bids in those areas.

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Hendel met with US Deputy Secretary of Commerce Don Graves, Federal Communications Commission chairwoman Jessica Rosenworcel, US Undersecretary for Economic Growth, Energy and the Environment Jose Fernandez, and Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs nominee Barbara Leaf, among others.

Another issue of particular interest to many of his interlocutors is Hendel’s plan to investigate how social media companies censor and boost content, and to consider holding them legally accountable for that content. Senate Subcommittee on Communications, Media and Broadband chairman Sen. Ben Ray Luján discussed the matter with Hendel.

He also met with senior executives at Google, Amazon, Twitter, Netflix, Sysco, Disney and others to hear their concerns about Israel’s regulatory environment.

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