Manage episode 328452592 series 2484421
Topic: 對現狀不滿拉美從傾右變傾左 Leftists Replacing Right-Wing Leaders Across Latin America
In the final weeks of 2021, Chile and Honduras voted decisively for leftist presidents to replace leaders on the right, extending a significant, multiyear shift across Latin America.
在2021年的最後幾周，智利和宏都拉斯果斷地投票支援 左翼總統取代右翼領導人，延續 了整個拉丁美洲長達數年的重大轉變。
This year, leftist politicians are the favorites to win presidential elections in Colombia and Brazil, taking over from right-wing incumbents, which would put the left and center-left in power in the six largest economies in the region, stretching from Tijuana to Tierra del Fuego.
Economic suffering, widening inequality, fervent anti-incumbent sentiment and mismanagement of COVID-19 have all fueled a pendulum swing away from the center-right and right-wing leaders who were dominant a few years ago.
The left has promised more equitable distribution of wealth, better public services and vastly expanded social safety nets. But the region’s new leaders face serious economic constraints and legislative opposition that could restrict their ambitions — and restive voters who have been willing to punish whoever fails to deliver.
The left’s gains could buoy China and undermine the United States as they compete for regional influence, analysts say, with a new crop of Latin American leaders who are desperate for economic development and more open to Beijing’s global strategy of offering loans and infrastructure investment. The change could also make it harder for the United States to continue isolating authoritarian leftist regimes in Venezuela, Nicaragua and Cuba.
分析人士說，左翼的收益可能會提振中國，削弱美國，因為他們在爭奪地區影響力時，新一批拉丁美洲領導人迫切希望經濟發展，並對北京的全球戰略持更開放的態度， 提供貸款和 基礎設施投資。這一變化還可能使美國更難繼續孤立委內瑞拉、尼加拉瓜和古巴的獨裁左翼政權。
With rising inflation and stagnant economies, Latin America’s new leaders will find it hard to deliver real change on profound problems, said Pedro Mendes Loureiro, a professor of Latin American studies at the University of Cambridge. To some extent, he said, voters are “electing the left simply because it is the opposition at the moment.”
隨著通貨膨脹率上升和經濟停滯，拉丁美洲的新領導人將發現很難在深刻的問題上實現真正的變革，劍橋大學拉丁美洲研究教授佩德羅·門德斯·洛雷羅（Pedro Mendes Loureiro）說。他說，在某種程度上，選民正在"選舉左翼，僅僅是因為它目前是反對派。"
Unlike the early 2000s, when leftists won critical presidencies in Latin America, the new officeholders are saddled by debt, lean budgets, scant access to credit and, in many cases, vociferous opposition.
與2000年代初不同，當時左翼分子在拉丁美洲贏得了關鍵的總統職位 ，而新的官員則背負著債務，預算緊張， 信貸匱乏以及在許多情況下大聲反對的負擔。
Eric Hershberg, director of the Center for Latin American and Latino Studies at American University, said the left’s winning streak is born out of widespread indignation.
美國大學拉丁美洲和拉丁裔研究中心主任埃裡克·赫什伯格（Eric Hershberg ）表示，左翼的連勝源於 廣泛的憤怒。
“This is really about lower-middle-class and working-class sectors saying, ‘Thirty years into democracy, and we still have to ride a decrepit bus for two hours to get to a bad health clinic,’”Hershberg said.
"這實際上是關於中下層階層和工人階層部門說，'民主三十年後，我們仍然必須乘坐破舊的公共汽車兩個小時才能到達一個糟糕的健康診所，'"赫什伯格說。Source article: https://udn.com/news/story/6904/6092284
Topic : Venezuela, Once an Oil Giant, Reaches the End of an Era
For the first time in a century, there are no rigs searching for oil in Venezuela.
Wells that once tapped the world’s largest crude reserves are abandoned or left to flare toxic gases that cast an orange glow over depressed oil towns.
Refineries that once processed oil for export are rusting hulks, leaking crude that blackens shorelines and coats the water in an oily sheen.
Fuel shortages have brought the country to a standstill. At gas stations, lines go on for miles.
Venezuela’s colossal oil sector, which shaped the country and the international energy market for a century, has come to a near halt, with production reduced to a trickle by years of gross mismanagement and U.S. sanctions. The collapse is leaving behind a destroyed economy and a devastated environment and, many analysts say, bringing to an end the era of Venezuela as an energy powerhouse.
The country that a decade ago was the largest producer in Latin America, earning about $90 billion a year from oil exports, is expected to net about $2.3 billion by this year’s end — less than the aggregate amount that Venezuelan migrants who fled the country’s economic devastation will send back home to support their families, according to Pilar Navarro, a Caracas, Venezuela-based economist.
Production is the lowest in nearly a century after sanctions forced most oil companies to stop drilling for or buying Venezuelan oil — and even that trickle could dry up soon, analysts warn.
The decline has diminished beyond recognition a country that just a decade ago rivaled the United States for regional influence. It is also unraveling a national culture defined by oil, a source of cash that once seemed endless; it financed monumental public works and pervasive graft, generous scholarships and flashy shopping trips to Miami.
Crippling gasoline shortages have led to an outbreak of dozens of daily protests across most Venezuelan states in recent weeks.
More than 5 million Venezuelans, or 1 in 6 residents, have fled the country since 2015, creating one of the world’s greatest refugee crises, according to the United Nations. The country now has the highest poverty rate in Latin America, overtaking Haiti this year, according to a recent study by Venezuela’s three leading universities.
Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/358363/web/