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回顧星期天LBS - 水源相關時事趣聞 All about water 2023

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Topic: Water-Stressed India Seeks a Tap for Every Home
The pipes are laid, the taps installed and the village tank is under construction — all promising signs that, come spring, Girja Ahriwar will get water at her doorstep and finally shed a lifelong burden.
管子鋪好,水龍頭裝好,村子的水槽正在建造。這些充滿希望的跡象顯示,春季來臨時,吉爾嘉.艾里瓦可以在家門口取到水,而且終於解除長期以來的負擔。
“I go out and put the jerrycans in the queue at around 5 a.m. and wait there with the children,” Ahriwar, a mother of three who lives in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, said about her routine of fetching from the village hand pump. “Sometimes it could take five or six hours. I have to stay there
because if I leave, someone else moves ahead.”
「我大約在清晨5時出門,把大水桶排進隊伍,然後和孩子們一起等待」,住在印度中部中央邦、三個孩子的媽艾里瓦說,她的例行公事就是從村子的手動泵浦取水,「有時候得花五或六個小時,我必須一直留在這裡,因為如果我離開了,其他人就會搶先往前」。
India, one of the world’s most water-stressed countries, is halfway through an ambitious drive to provide clean tap water by 2024 to all of the roughly 192 million households across its 600,000 villages. About 18,000 government engineers are overseeing the $50 billion undertaking, which includes hundreds of thousands of contractors and laborers who are laying more than 2.5 million miles of pipe.
印度是全世界用水最吃緊的國家之一,在2024年之前提供60萬個村落共約1億9200萬戶乾淨自來水,這項宏大的計畫已進行到一半。約1萬8000名政府工程師監督規模500億美元的工程,包括數十萬名包商和工人,鋪設超過250萬哩的水管。
The project has a powerful champion in Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who has slashed through India’s notorious red tape and pushed aside thorny political divisions to see it through. His success thus far helps explain his dominance over the country’s political landscape.
這項計畫有個有力的擁護者:總理莫迪,他打破印度惡名昭彰的官僚作風,把棘手的政治分歧暫放一邊,推動計畫。目前為止他的成功也顯示他在這個國家政治版圖的主導力。
Modi has remained popular despite a weak economy and a bungled initial response to the coronavirus that left hundreds of thousands dead. He has increasingly relied on communal politics, continuing to consolidate a Hindu nationalist base he has worked for decades to rally.
即使經濟疲弱,且一開始對新冠病毒的笨拙反應造成數十萬人死亡,莫迪仍舊廣得人心。他日漸依賴宗教團體式政治,持續鞏固印度教國族主義基本盤,他投注數十年整合這些勢力。
But the mission to deliver water to every household combines two of Modi’s political strengths: his grasp of the day-to-day problems of hundreds of millions of India’s poor and his penchant for ambitious solutions. Modi, who grew up in a poor village, has spoken emotionally about his own mother’s hardship in fetching water.
不過,將水送到所有家戶的任務,結合莫迪的兩個政治力量:他對印度數億貧窮人口日常問題的理解,以及喜好採取極具雄心的解決方案。在貧窮村莊長大的莫迪,曾充滿感情的談到母親以前取水的困難。
About one-sixth of India’s households had a clean water tap when the program, called Jal Jeevan Mission, began in 2019. Now, almost half have one.
當這個「水生活任務」2019年開始時,印度家戶有潔淨自來水者約六分之一。現在,幾乎一半。
“You rarely have this drive from the government, the head of state, and it is well funded. Behind the concept, there is budget,” said Nicolas Osbert, who leads the UNICEF water and sanitation unit in India. “All social sectors were impacted by COVID. Not this one. This one was preserved.”
「你很少能從政府或國家領袖獲得這種推動力,而且資金充裕。在這個概念後面,重點是預算」,聯合國兒童基金會印度分部水資源和衛生主管歐斯柏特說,「所有社福單位都遭遇新冠病毒衝擊,但這個沒有,這個計畫保留下來」。
The country’s water problem speaks to the mismatch between its global economic ambitions and the dire conditions of much of its 1.4 billion population, two-thirds of whom still live in rural areas.
這個國家的用水問題顯示,其全球經濟野心和14億人口中許多人的悲慘情況,頗不相配。印度人口三分之二住在鄉村地區。Source article: https://udn.com/news/story/6904/6034821
Next Article
Topic: Typhoonless year brings water shortage in fall/winter
Most years, Taiwan is hit by typhoons during the summer and fall, but we have yet to see a typhoon this year. This unusual situation has put pressure on water supply levels in reservoirs around Taiwan.
台灣每年夏、秋兩季颱風頻繁,但詭異的是,今年截至目前為止,竟無任何一個颱風登陸台灣,造成水庫缺水問題。
Due to global warming, the typhoons generated in the Pacific Ocean this year have all moved northward, bypassing Taiwan. Although successive fronts and afternoon showers have brought rainfall, it was only fragmented, covering limited areas and did little to replenish reservoirs. As a result, the reservoir storage this year is lower than in previous years.
這是因為全球暖化之影響,今年大平洋生成的颱風往北移,導致沒有任何一個颱風進來台灣,雖然陸續有鋒面及午後陣雨帶來雨量,但下雨範圍多為局部地區,導致水庫蓄水量較往年低。
According to the Water Resource Agency, as of 2pm yesterday, the Shihmen Reservoir’s water storage was 44 percent of capacity, the Feicuei Reservoir’s was 62.3 percent and the Zengwen Reservoir’s was 31.3 percent. Two of the three major water reservoirs have less than 50 percent of their water storage capacity.
水利署資料顯示,截至昨日下午二時為止,石門水庫蓄水量為百分之四十四,翡翠水庫蓄水量百分之六十二點三,曾文水庫蓄水率百分之三十一點三,三大水庫中有兩座儲水量低於五成。
In order to prepare for demand for water next year, the government has decided to implement three measures to control water usage. Firstly, starting from last
Wednesday, night water pressure in the Taoyuan, Hsinchu and Miaoli areas was to be lowered from 11pm through to 5am the following day. Secondly, the irrigation of some areas of Taoyuan, Hsinchu and Miaoli was to be suspended, and farmers affected by the measures will receive government compensation. Thirdly, the Ministry of Economic Affairs is setting up a central drought response center to better respond to the crisis and to distribute water resources according to needs. Taiwanese are advised to take water-saving measures.
為審慎因應明年用水需求,政府實施三項因應措施。第一,桃竹苗中自上週三起,每天晚上十一點至隔日清晨五點實施減壓供水;第二,桃竹苗部分地區的農田,將停止供灌,政府也會給予補償,維持農民生活;第三,經濟部將成立抗旱中央應變中心,拉高應變層級,做好調度節水,更請全民配合省水。Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/10/19/2003745390
Next Article
Topic: Gel-like ice is the lightest form of waterer ever discovered 迄今發現最輕盈的水形態,凝膠般的冰
The frosty cubes we pull from our freezers are just one of 17 possible types of ice, and an 18th type isn’t far from being made real.
我們從冰箱裡拿出來的冰塊,只是17種可能出現的冰類型之一,而第18種冰類型的出現,距離也不遠了。
Hexagonal ice, and the occasional cubic ice in our upper atmosphere, are the only two forms that occur naturally on Earth. Other ices might be found on exoplanets or in the atmospheres of the outer planets.
「六角形晶體結構冰」和偶爾出現的「立方體構冰」存在於我們的上層大氣,是唯二能在地球上自然形成的冰類型。其他類型的冰,則可見於系外行星或外行星的大氣層中。
Under atmospheric pressure or higher, water molecules get squeezed and freeze into a solid denser than normal ice. But when the pressure drops below this, water molecules become a less-dense, lightweight crystal that’s more air than molecule – like an icy candy floss. So far, we only know of two kinds of low-density ice: space fullerenes and zeolitic ices. But lighter ice structures hadn’t been spotted until now.
在一般大氣壓力或更高壓的情況下,被擠壓的水分子凝固成比正常水冰更密集的固體。不過,當大氣壓力降低,水分子會轉變成輕盈、密度較低的晶體,分子內含有更多空氣,就像是冰的棉花糖。目前,我們只知道兩種低密度的冰:「富勒烯冰」和「沸石冰」。更輕盈的冰結構,迄今仍未被辨識。
Masakazu Matsumoto at Okayama University in Japan and his team played molecular Jenga to find this new type of ice, removing and reconfiguring existing zeolitic ice structures to make them lighter. They found more than 300 different nanoscale structures through computer simulations.
日本岡山理科大學的松本正和研究團隊,透過分子疊疊樂,發現這款新類型的冰;他們移除並重新配置既存的「沸石冰」結構,使其更加輕盈。研究團隊透過電腦模擬,找出超過300種不同的奈米尺度結構。Source article: http://iservice.ltn.com.tw/Service/english/english.php?engno=1161164&day=2017-12-18

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Manage episode 418973147 series 2484421
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以下是此單集逐字稿 (播放器有不同字數限制,完整文稿可到官網)
-------------------------------
Topic: Water-Stressed India Seeks a Tap for Every Home
The pipes are laid, the taps installed and the village tank is under construction — all promising signs that, come spring, Girja Ahriwar will get water at her doorstep and finally shed a lifelong burden.
管子鋪好,水龍頭裝好,村子的水槽正在建造。這些充滿希望的跡象顯示,春季來臨時,吉爾嘉.艾里瓦可以在家門口取到水,而且終於解除長期以來的負擔。
“I go out and put the jerrycans in the queue at around 5 a.m. and wait there with the children,” Ahriwar, a mother of three who lives in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, said about her routine of fetching from the village hand pump. “Sometimes it could take five or six hours. I have to stay there
because if I leave, someone else moves ahead.”
「我大約在清晨5時出門,把大水桶排進隊伍,然後和孩子們一起等待」,住在印度中部中央邦、三個孩子的媽艾里瓦說,她的例行公事就是從村子的手動泵浦取水,「有時候得花五或六個小時,我必須一直留在這裡,因為如果我離開了,其他人就會搶先往前」。
India, one of the world’s most water-stressed countries, is halfway through an ambitious drive to provide clean tap water by 2024 to all of the roughly 192 million households across its 600,000 villages. About 18,000 government engineers are overseeing the $50 billion undertaking, which includes hundreds of thousands of contractors and laborers who are laying more than 2.5 million miles of pipe.
印度是全世界用水最吃緊的國家之一,在2024年之前提供60萬個村落共約1億9200萬戶乾淨自來水,這項宏大的計畫已進行到一半。約1萬8000名政府工程師監督規模500億美元的工程,包括數十萬名包商和工人,鋪設超過250萬哩的水管。
The project has a powerful champion in Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who has slashed through India’s notorious red tape and pushed aside thorny political divisions to see it through. His success thus far helps explain his dominance over the country’s political landscape.
這項計畫有個有力的擁護者:總理莫迪,他打破印度惡名昭彰的官僚作風,把棘手的政治分歧暫放一邊,推動計畫。目前為止他的成功也顯示他在這個國家政治版圖的主導力。
Modi has remained popular despite a weak economy and a bungled initial response to the coronavirus that left hundreds of thousands dead. He has increasingly relied on communal politics, continuing to consolidate a Hindu nationalist base he has worked for decades to rally.
即使經濟疲弱,且一開始對新冠病毒的笨拙反應造成數十萬人死亡,莫迪仍舊廣得人心。他日漸依賴宗教團體式政治,持續鞏固印度教國族主義基本盤,他投注數十年整合這些勢力。
But the mission to deliver water to every household combines two of Modi’s political strengths: his grasp of the day-to-day problems of hundreds of millions of India’s poor and his penchant for ambitious solutions. Modi, who grew up in a poor village, has spoken emotionally about his own mother’s hardship in fetching water.
不過,將水送到所有家戶的任務,結合莫迪的兩個政治力量:他對印度數億貧窮人口日常問題的理解,以及喜好採取極具雄心的解決方案。在貧窮村莊長大的莫迪,曾充滿感情的談到母親以前取水的困難。
About one-sixth of India’s households had a clean water tap when the program, called Jal Jeevan Mission, began in 2019. Now, almost half have one.
當這個「水生活任務」2019年開始時,印度家戶有潔淨自來水者約六分之一。現在,幾乎一半。
“You rarely have this drive from the government, the head of state, and it is well funded. Behind the concept, there is budget,” said Nicolas Osbert, who leads the UNICEF water and sanitation unit in India. “All social sectors were impacted by COVID. Not this one. This one was preserved.”
「你很少能從政府或國家領袖獲得這種推動力,而且資金充裕。在這個概念後面,重點是預算」,聯合國兒童基金會印度分部水資源和衛生主管歐斯柏特說,「所有社福單位都遭遇新冠病毒衝擊,但這個沒有,這個計畫保留下來」。
The country’s water problem speaks to the mismatch between its global economic ambitions and the dire conditions of much of its 1.4 billion population, two-thirds of whom still live in rural areas.
這個國家的用水問題顯示,其全球經濟野心和14億人口中許多人的悲慘情況,頗不相配。印度人口三分之二住在鄉村地區。Source article: https://udn.com/news/story/6904/6034821
Next Article
Topic: Typhoonless year brings water shortage in fall/winter
Most years, Taiwan is hit by typhoons during the summer and fall, but we have yet to see a typhoon this year. This unusual situation has put pressure on water supply levels in reservoirs around Taiwan.
台灣每年夏、秋兩季颱風頻繁,但詭異的是,今年截至目前為止,竟無任何一個颱風登陸台灣,造成水庫缺水問題。
Due to global warming, the typhoons generated in the Pacific Ocean this year have all moved northward, bypassing Taiwan. Although successive fronts and afternoon showers have brought rainfall, it was only fragmented, covering limited areas and did little to replenish reservoirs. As a result, the reservoir storage this year is lower than in previous years.
這是因為全球暖化之影響,今年大平洋生成的颱風往北移,導致沒有任何一個颱風進來台灣,雖然陸續有鋒面及午後陣雨帶來雨量,但下雨範圍多為局部地區,導致水庫蓄水量較往年低。
According to the Water Resource Agency, as of 2pm yesterday, the Shihmen Reservoir’s water storage was 44 percent of capacity, the Feicuei Reservoir’s was 62.3 percent and the Zengwen Reservoir’s was 31.3 percent. Two of the three major water reservoirs have less than 50 percent of their water storage capacity.
水利署資料顯示,截至昨日下午二時為止,石門水庫蓄水量為百分之四十四,翡翠水庫蓄水量百分之六十二點三,曾文水庫蓄水率百分之三十一點三,三大水庫中有兩座儲水量低於五成。
In order to prepare for demand for water next year, the government has decided to implement three measures to control water usage. Firstly, starting from last
Wednesday, night water pressure in the Taoyuan, Hsinchu and Miaoli areas was to be lowered from 11pm through to 5am the following day. Secondly, the irrigation of some areas of Taoyuan, Hsinchu and Miaoli was to be suspended, and farmers affected by the measures will receive government compensation. Thirdly, the Ministry of Economic Affairs is setting up a central drought response center to better respond to the crisis and to distribute water resources according to needs. Taiwanese are advised to take water-saving measures.
為審慎因應明年用水需求,政府實施三項因應措施。第一,桃竹苗中自上週三起,每天晚上十一點至隔日清晨五點實施減壓供水;第二,桃竹苗部分地區的農田,將停止供灌,政府也會給予補償,維持農民生活;第三,經濟部將成立抗旱中央應變中心,拉高應變層級,做好調度節水,更請全民配合省水。Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/10/19/2003745390
Next Article
Topic: Gel-like ice is the lightest form of waterer ever discovered 迄今發現最輕盈的水形態,凝膠般的冰
The frosty cubes we pull from our freezers are just one of 17 possible types of ice, and an 18th type isn’t far from being made real.
我們從冰箱裡拿出來的冰塊,只是17種可能出現的冰類型之一,而第18種冰類型的出現,距離也不遠了。
Hexagonal ice, and the occasional cubic ice in our upper atmosphere, are the only two forms that occur naturally on Earth. Other ices might be found on exoplanets or in the atmospheres of the outer planets.
「六角形晶體結構冰」和偶爾出現的「立方體構冰」存在於我們的上層大氣,是唯二能在地球上自然形成的冰類型。其他類型的冰,則可見於系外行星或外行星的大氣層中。
Under atmospheric pressure or higher, water molecules get squeezed and freeze into a solid denser than normal ice. But when the pressure drops below this, water molecules become a less-dense, lightweight crystal that’s more air than molecule – like an icy candy floss. So far, we only know of two kinds of low-density ice: space fullerenes and zeolitic ices. But lighter ice structures hadn’t been spotted until now.
在一般大氣壓力或更高壓的情況下,被擠壓的水分子凝固成比正常水冰更密集的固體。不過,當大氣壓力降低,水分子會轉變成輕盈、密度較低的晶體,分子內含有更多空氣,就像是冰的棉花糖。目前,我們只知道兩種低密度的冰:「富勒烯冰」和「沸石冰」。更輕盈的冰結構,迄今仍未被辨識。
Masakazu Matsumoto at Okayama University in Japan and his team played molecular Jenga to find this new type of ice, removing and reconfiguring existing zeolitic ice structures to make them lighter. They found more than 300 different nanoscale structures through computer simulations.
日本岡山理科大學的松本正和研究團隊,透過分子疊疊樂,發現這款新類型的冰;他們移除並重新配置既存的「沸石冰」結構,使其更加輕盈。研究團隊透過電腦模擬,找出超過300種不同的奈米尺度結構。Source article: http://iservice.ltn.com.tw/Service/english/english.php?engno=1161164&day=2017-12-18

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