133. Case Report: Ventricular Arrhythmias & Heart Failure – A Shocking Diagnosis – University of Chicago


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CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder), join cardiology fellows from the University of Chicago, (Dr. Mark Belkin, Dr. Ian Hackett, and Dr. Shirlene Obuobi) for an important discussion about case of a woman presenting with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) discharges found to be in ventricular tachycardia (VT) storm and work through the differential of ventricular arrhythmias, etiologies of heart failure, and indications for permanent pacemaker and ICD placement. Advanced imaging modalities that aid in the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis, manifestations and management of cardiac sarcoidosis are also discussed. Dr. Nitasha Sarswat and Dr. Amit Patel provide the E-CPR for this episode. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Leticia Helms. Claim free CME just for enjoying this episode! Disclosures: Dr. Amit Patel disclosed ownership of small stocks in GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences. Jump to: Case media - Case schematic & teaching - References CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media Click to Enlarge Episode Teaching Pearls The etiology of wide-complex tachycardias (WCT) of ventricular origin can be broken down by structurally normal versus structurally abnormal hearts. WCT in structurally normal hearts can be further broken down into idiopathic or primary arrhythmia syndromes. WCT in structurally abnormal hearts can be broken down into ischemic and non-ischemic etiologies.In patients with an unexplained non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, conduction abnormalities and/or ventricular arrhythmias should raise suspicion for cardiac sarcoidosis. Additional manifestations include atrial arrhythmias and pulmonary hypertension.Accurate diagnosis and treatment of cardiac sarcoidosis often requires multimodality cardiovascular imaging. Check out these terrific videos from Cardiac Imaging Agora: 1) PET for inflammation/sarcoidosis and 2) Echo and CMR for sarcoidosis.While a pathological tissue diagnosis is the gold-standard, endomyocardial biopsy has a low sensitivity, weven when paired with image guidance. Remember to consider extra-cardiac sites for biopsy.Decisions regarding ablation of ventricular arrhythmia or ICD placement should be done individually with careful assessment of active inflammation secondary to cardiac sarcoidosis and possible response to immunosuppressive medications.Management of cardiac sarcoidosis has two basic principles: 1) Treat the underlying process with immunosuppression and 2) Treat the cardiac sequelae: heart failure, conduction abnormalities, ventricular arrhythmias, atrial arrhythmias, and pulmonary hypertension. Notes 1. The patient in this case was found to be in VT storm. Taking a step back, when we suspect a wide complex tachycardia (WCT) is VT, what are some etiologies we should keep in mind? Differentiating between a supraventricular vs. ventricular origin of a WCT will be a topic for a future episode! But after you have determined that the origin of WCT is ventricular, considerations for the underlying etiology should include ischemia-related, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy-associated, primary arrhythmia syndromes and idiopathic (in addition to common considerations such as medications and electrolyte abnormalities)Chronic ischemia-related WCT is typically scar-mediated, a result of re-entrant mechanism and more commonly presenting as monomorphic VT. WCT in the setting of acute ischemia is likely a result of combination increased automaticity and re-entry, typically manifesting as polymorphic VT. In fact, acute ischemia is the most common cause of polymorphic VT, not Torsades de Pointes, and should be our first consideration. Torsades de Pointes specifically occurs due to an early afterdepolarization in a patient with an acqui...